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How stakeholders influence football clubs' strategy?

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par Eric Bailly
Staffordshire University (UK) - M.Sc. in European Management Strategy 2003
  

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

This research aimed at defining who the most important stakeholders considered by football clubs are and to know how they affect their strategy. Emphasis is also made on how football clubs communicate and manage their stakeholders. To answer these objectives, a case study approach was used. Interviews were conducted with top managers of four professional football clubs: Liverpool F.C., Stoke City F.C. (for England), R.C. Lens and Amiens S.C. (for France). The data gathered also allowed the author to test stakeholding models: Polonsky (1995), Archer (1995) and Mendelow's ones (1991). This dissertation gives a detailed analysis of thirteen stakeholders' categories and especially of fans, shareholders and media, which are the most important stakeholders for football clubs. Tools and organizations developed by these four clubs to communicate with stakeholders are also part of this research. The last part analyses the differences between French and British football clubs; and discuss ways to compensate them.

How stakeholders influence football clubs' strategy ? September 2003

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author takes the opportunity of this dissertation to thank the football clubs' managers who were interviewed for this study: Mr Weathley (Liverpool F.C.), Mr Fuller (Stoke City F.C.), Mr Bigeard (R.C. Lens) and Mr Buquet (Amiens S.C.). The author is also grateful to Charlotte Rayner who helped him to define its subject and Wyndham Jenkins who supervised this piece of work.

LIST OF CONTENTS

Executive Summary p.1 Acknowledgement p.2 List of contents p.3 Lits of tables and figures p.5

1. Introduction........................................................................................................p.6

1.1. The current context p.6

1.2. Objectives of the research p.8

1 Research outline p.8

2 Literature review...............................................................................................p.9

2.1. Stakeholder concept p.9

2.2. Stakeholder theory p.9

2.3. Stakeholder mapping p.10

2.3.1. Mendelow's model p.10

2.3.2. Archer's model p.11

2.4. Stakeholders' management - Polonsky's model p.13

1 Objectives of the research p.15

2 Research methodology.......................................................................................p.17

3.1. Information required for the research p.17

3.2. Research approach p.17

3.2.1. Inductive or deductive approach? p.17

3.2.2. Research philosophy p.18

3.2.3. A case study approach p.19

3.3. Data collection p.19

3.3.1. Secondary data p.19

3.3.2. Primary data p.20

3.3.3. Sample selection p.20

3.3.4. Interview preparation p.21

3.4. Method for analysis p.22

3.5. Methodology review p.22

3.5.1. Research protocol p.23

3.5.2. Reliability of the data p.24

3.5.3. Limits of the methodology p.24

How stakeholders influence football clubs' strategy ? September 2003

4. Results and analysis...........................................................................................p.26

4.1. Overview of the results p.26

4.2. Stakeholders' expectations and influence p.28

4.2.1. Fans p.28

4.2.2. Shareholders p.30

4.2.3. Employees p.32

4.2.4. Players and coaches p.32

4.2.5. Media p.33

4.2.6. Institutions p.35

4.2.7. Organizations p.36

4.2.8. Sponsors p.37

4.2.9. Players' agents p.38

4.2.10. Other clubs p.39

4.2.11. Interests groups p.39

4.2.12. Government p.40

4.2.13. Banks p.41

4.2.14. Football clubs' stakeholders mapping p.41

4.3. How football clubs manage and communicate with their stakeholders p.42

4.3.1. Fans p.42

4.3.2. Shareholders p.43

4.3.3. Employees p.44

4.3.4. Players and coaches p.44

4.3.5. Media p.45

4.3.6. Institutions p.46

4.3.7. Organizations p.46

4.3.8. Sponsors p.47

4.3.9. Players' agents p.47

4.3.10. Other clubs p.48

4.3.11. Interests groups p.48

4.3.12. Government p.49

4.3.13. Banks p.49

4.3.14. Adaptation of Polonsky's model p.50

4.4. Comparisons p.51

4.4.1. Important clubs vs. les important ones p.51

4.4.2. English cubs vs. French ones p.52

1 Recommendations p.53

2 Conclusion..........................................................................................................p.54

References...............................................................................................................p.55

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