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Analyzing the contribution of higher learning institutions on rural development in Rwanda: case of the study SPREAD-NUR and Abahuzamugambi Coffee Cooperative Maraba


par Jean Baptiste HABYARIMANA
National University of Rwanda - Bachelor's Degree 2010
Dans la categorie: Enseignement
   
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NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA

FACULTY OF ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT

DEPARTMENT OF APPLIED STATISTICS

ANALYZING THE CONTRIBUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA: Case of the Study SPREAD-NUR and ABAHUZAMUGAMBI COFFEE COOPERATIVE MARABA

By

HABYARIMANA Jean Baptiste

Huye, October 2010

Declaration

I, HABYARIMANA Jean Baptiste, hereby declare that, the work presented in this dissertation entitled «ANALYZING THE CONTRIBUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA: Case of The Study SPREAD-NUR and ABAHUZAMUGAMBI COFFEE COOPERATIVE MARABA» is my original work and has never been presented elsewhere for any academic award.

All consulted references have been systematically presented in references.

Signature: .........................

HABYARIMANA jean Baptiste

Date: .................................

Dedication

I dedicate this Dissertation to :

God,

My family,

And

Friends.

Acknowledgement

The success of this research work cannot be solely be attributed to the effort of one person. In fact, there must be combined efforts to make such exercise a success. It is therefore on this ground that other people deserve my sincere thanks and gratitude.

Thanks to my family, relatives, and friends for their help either materially or morally.

I would like to address my special thanks to anyone who directly or indirectly contributes to the success of my study.

Table of contents

Declaration i

Dedication ii

Acknowledgement iii

Table of contents iv

List of Tables v

List of Figures vi

List of abbreviations vii

Abstract viii

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 9

1.1. General introduction 9

1.2. Background 3

1.3. Statement of the problem 4

1.4. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 5

1.4.1. General objective 5

1.4.2. Specific objectives 5

1.5. Research Hypothesis 5

1.6. Research Questions 5

1.7. Significance 5

1.8. Scope of the Study 6

1.9. Limitations 6

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW 6

2.1. Introduction 6

2.2. Introduction to Higher Education for Rural Development 6

2.3. Rural development, Sustainable Rural development and Rural Public works projects 7

2.3.1. Rural development 7

2.3.2. Sustainable 8

2.3.3. Rural Public works projects 8

2.4. Rural Banks, Credit Cooperatives, and development of rural markets 8

2.5. Development actions 9

2.6. Mission, Vision, Commitment Of Higher Learning Institutions 10

2.7. Challenges Faced By Institutions In Meeting Their Missions 11

2.8. Education's Role in Development 15

2.9. Three dimensions of inclusive rural development 15

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY 16

3.1 Introduction 16

3.2. Research Design 17

3.3. Conceptual Framework and Methods Of Data Gathering 17

3.4. Sampling Method and Sampling Size 18

3.6. Data Collection 18

3.6.1. Primary Data 18

3.6.2. Secondary data 19

3.7. Data Analysis 19

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION 20

4.1. Level of Empowerment and Status of Development 21

4.2. Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents 21

4.2.1. Distribution by Age and Sex 21

4.2.2. Distribution by marital status 22

4.2.3. Occupation and Education Level characteristics of respondents Household size 23

4.3. Coffee production and Quality of production 25

4.3.1. Coffee Plantation and production 25

4.3.2. Washing System 26

4.3.3. Use of Fertilizer, Pesticides, and Pest control 26

4.3.4. Channels of produced quantity 27

4.4. Perception toward Income generating which increases earnings 28

4.5. Perception toward Food Security 29

4.6. Perception toward Basic health and HIV and AIDS 32

4.7. Perception toward Environment 34

4.8. Perception toward Rural Development 36

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 38

5.1. Conclusion 38

5.2. Recommendations 40

REFERENCE 41

Appendices

List of Tables

Table 1. Marital status 22

Table 2. Occupation by Respondents 23

Table 3. Household size 24

Table 4. Coffee trees 24

Table 5. Coffee production in Kgs 24

Table 6. Income from coffee 25

Table 7. Washing System 25

Table 8. Bank Account 27

Table 9. Income Generating activities 28

Table 10. Food condition 29

Table 11. Improvement in food served 30

Table 12. Environmental threats and problems 33

Table 13. Main Sources of lighting energy 35

Table 14. Empowerment 36

Table 16. Inclusive Rural Development 36

List of Figures

Figure 1. Three dimensions of inclusive rural development 15

Figure 2. Sex distribution 21

Figure 3.Distribution of respondents by Age and sex 21

Figure 4. Marital Status of Respondents 22

Figure 5. Occupation of Respondents 23

Figure 6. Education level of respondents 23

Figure 7. Distribution of Coffee production 24

Figure 8. Coffee washing system 25

Figure 9. Use of Inorganic fertilizer and Pesticides 26

Figure 10. Contribution of SPRAED-NUR on Coffee production 26

Figure 11. Main Channel of coffee production 27

Figure 12. Income generating activities 28

Figure 13. Main source of income to start income generating projects 28

Figure 14. Food condition 29

Figure 15. Meals in take per day 29

Figure 16. Food control 30

Figure 17. Food improvement 30

Figure 18. Main source of information on basic health and HIV/AIDS 31

Figure 19. Health activities 32

Figure 20. Health situation 32

Figure 21. Environmental threat and problems 33

Figure 22. SPREAD-NUR and natural resource protection 34

Figure 23. Means of getting information 34

Figure 24. Main sources of lighting energy 35

List of abbreviations

EFA Education for All

KIE Kigali Institute of Education

KIST Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management

ERP Education for rural people

FAO Food and Agriculture Organization

HESORD Higher Education System on Rural Development'

IIEP International Institute for Educational Planning

MDGs Millennium Development Goals

NGOs Non Government Organizations

NUR National University of Rwanda

SPREAD Sustainable Partnership to Enhance Rural Enterprises and Agribusiness Development

UCO University of Cordoba

UNESCO United Nations Education, Science, and Cultural Organization

Abstract

Rural areas are facing major challenges today which arise mainly from globalisation, demographic change and the rural migration of young, well-trained people. Policies for rural areas aim to contribute to recognising and making use of strengths and opportunities.

The rationale of this study is to describe how higher learning institutions is contributing to rural development in Rwanda, this target has been reached by studying empowerment approach tackles composed of six components vulnerable to the poor like basic health/HIV and AIDS, Rural Development, income generation, food security, environment, and education. These elements are assessed concerning the World Bank's four indicators: access to information, inclusion and participation, accountability, and local organizational capacity. Another insight is to disclose the opinion of the people toward the development status of rural area before and after SPREAD-NUR's assistance. Although the finding in this research showed that all six aspects are improving in terms of development, the people are not empowered in all six. Exceptions are in basic health, and environment. The common misconduct is accountability from concerned parties.

Overall, the people appreciate on SPREAD-NUR's services and perceive that the community is developing in positive direction. To improve the gaps above, it is recommended to strengthen on National University's implication in Rural Development enforcement and policy intervention. Selection of region of interest should be considered carefully while public services should be improved and standardized. The community common interest should be prioritized as well. Finally the next leaps of development should be studied and further investigated. This dissertation is a contribution of the SPREAD-NUR's knowledge on community development by empowerment approach in rural development of Rwanda.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1. General introduction

Rural areas are facing major challenges today which arise mainly from globalisation, demographic change and the rural migration of young, well-trained people. Policies for rural areas aim to contribute to recognising and making use of strengths and opportunities. (Taylor P and J Fransman, 2004).

Rural Planning in Rwanda aims to assist local stakeholders to use information for managing their natural resources by providing methods, tools, documented examples, and principles (or insights) that would help bring about successful planning, monitoring, and evaluation. Land-use administrations, institutions, and stakeholder groups can use planning, monitoring, and evaluation as mechanisms for rural development. Scientists and information providers can use them as entry points into development.

More than 79.8% of Rwanda's population are to be found in rural areas where hunger, literacy and low school achievement are common. Education for a large number of people in rural areas is crucial for achieving sustainable development in rural areas of Rwanda. Poverty education strategies are now placing emphasis on rural development that encompasses all those who live in rural areas (World Bank, 2008).

Rapidly changing technologies and increasing globalization also suggest that better education and training have become essential for sustainable livelihoods and rural economy competitiveness (FAO/UNESCO Seminar, 5-7 November 2002)

In 1997, the Kigali Institute of Science, Technology and Management (KIST) was formed in Rwanda to address the serious loss of professional manpower. In 2005 it was awarded the Ashden Award for sustainable Energy for the large scale innovative implementation and use of Biogas System within the Rwandan Prisons ( http://ivorhartmsnn.blogspot.com/2007/12/human-biogas-solution-whose-time-has.html accessed on 19 September 2010).

Kigali Institute of Education (KIE) is promoting Distance Learning, and the Ministry of Education believes that the promotion of Distance Leaning Policy Statement on teacher training and Management will set a clear road map for professionalizing the teaching profession in Rwanda and help to raise the status of teachers both economically and socially. The Ministry also believes that efforts to improve teachers' capabilities to inculcate the right kind of values attitudes and skills that will enable the children to become productive citizens, will translate into real investment in the national development context (Republic of Rwanda, Ministry of Education, 2007).

Nowadays, the approach followed by policy-makers and education specialists in developing Countries is to focus on practical and occupational agriculture skill training provided mainly at the secondary and tertiary levels. Yet, in an environment increasingly shaped by non-farming activities linked to farming activities, and in policy context dominated by the poverty reduction agenda through the development of commercial farming or cash-crops; education for rural development requires a holistic approach going beyond the narrow boundaries of the traditional agricultural education and training concept (Faustine K.Bee, 2001)

It is in this case that SPREAD in collaboration with National University of Rwanda has created a partnership to monitor ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative of MARABA coffee producer; The main objectives are to promote MARABA Coffee on international level by providing methods, tools, documented examples, and principles (or insights) to the producer of MARABA coffee that would help bring about successful planning, monitoring, and evaluation while improving the value added of MARABA coffee, promoting social wellbeing of MARABA coffee producer and targeting rural development.

1.2. Background

In order for the producer of MARABA Coffee to take advantage of opportunities for growth presented by coffee production and other sectors, and to overcome supply side constraints, farmers and entrepreneurs of MABARA Coffee are being supported through technical assistance and investment in infrastructure and institutions by SPREAD and National University of Rwanda.

Recognizing the limitations faced by the farmers of MARABA Coffee to individually access on credit buyers, and low production with critical quality SPREAD-NUR is working closely with ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative to develop a range of coffee production, marketing and credit services for these farmers with significant outcomes. And as targeted by SPREAD-NUR, the value-adding activities of supporting the development of central pulpery processing, credit access, improved marketing and the development of new business models for Coffee translate into higher revenues, more income and improved social wellbeing for the rural poor therefore rural development.

Rural development refers to the actions and initiatives taken to improve the standards of living in non urban neighbourhoods, countryside, and remote villages. These communities can exemplify with a low ratio of inhabitant to open space.

World rural population are estimated to 57% in 1990 and 50.5% in 2006, with 30% of land is covered by forests in 2005, with also permanent cropland 1.1% in 2005, arable land 11% (World Bank, 2008).

The programs of rural development are not concerned only with the developing world; also the developed countries have very active rural development programs. The main aim of the rural government policy is to develop the underdeveloped villages.

Rwanda known as a land of the thousand hills is a small country in central Africa and one of the most densely populated nations. Rwanda has experienced a series of civil and ethnics conflicts since the late 1950s. In 1994 one million Rwandan people dead and displacing half of the country's population

2008, 79.8% of Rwandans live in rural areas, with an average growth rate of 0.6% on the land area of 24.7 thousand km2 (in 2007), with a permanent cropland of 11.1% of land area in 2005, arable land 48,6% in 2005 (World Development Indicators, 2008).

Since this difficult period, and taking into account of the percentage of the rural population, the government of Rwanda has sought to rebuild the country by improving its governance. Rwanda poverty reduction strategy paper focuses on poverty reduction, and the country's sustainable economic development.

1.3. Statement of the problem

Rwanda is a densely populated country in which a large majority of the population depends on agriculture for subsistence. Major axes of this sector are food security, sustainable use of soil and water protection and good management of the forests, as well as biodiversity conservation and environment promotion.

Rural development actions mostly aim at the social and economic development of the areas. This program is usually top down from the local or regional authorities, regional development agencies, NGOs, National government or international development organizations.

However rural development actions in Rwanda are still in its emerging stages, this is why the sustained rural development is still doubtful in Rwanda. Therefore this study will analyze the contribution of higher learning institutions in rural development of Rwanda.

1.4. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4.1. General objective

The general objective of this study is to analyze the contribution of higher learning institution on rural development in Rwanda.

1.4.2. Specific objectives

The study aimed at achieving the following specific objectives:

· To identify the role played by National University of Rwanda in rural development of Rwanda.

· To understand the community's perception to SPREAD-NUR's contributions.

· To recommend measures and model of empowerment to enhance the effectiveness of SPREAD-NUR in promoting rural development in Rwanda.

1.5. Research Hypothesis

Higher learning institutions contribute to the process of Rural Development in Rwanda.

1.6. Research Questions

· Do higher learning institutions in Rwanda have an impact on rural development in Rwanda?

· Is NUR contributing in rural development in Rwanda especially in HUYE district where it is located?

· Is SPREAD-NUR's partnership significantly influencing rural development basing on ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative members?

1.7. Significance

The research will provide insights into important partnership issues between SPREAD-NUR and rural community. It will try to measure levels of empowerment from various aspects of SPREAD-NUR's contributions.

The study will attempt to develop empowerment models, strategies and tools for developing rural communities. The study will also looks into the roles of SPREAD and NUR in rural development. All in all, it unlocks and makes way for effective poverty reduction strategies based on current perspectives which can be applied widely to handle MDGs and harmonize cooperation among the key actors: civil society, the governments, and people.

1.8. Scope of the Study

This study will be conducted in HUYE District, using the selected Higher learning Institution National University of Rwanda in collaboration with SPREAD to understand how they are influencing rural development. And will only select the empowerment approach because it is the focus of the project and is a new mechanism evolving in the development program in Rwanda. There are many aspects to concentrate on but the study tends to program effectiveness from the viewpoint of degree of satisfaction, objective attainment, and perception and well being of coffee farmers grouped in ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative.

1.9. Limitations

A limitation identifies potential weakness in the research. One of the weaknesses in this research is that the researcher could not get some of required data because of the respondents. Also because of limited time and resources, this study was only limited to some of the aspects of Rural development.

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1. Introduction

This part gives an overall review of existing literature it covers theoretical framework definitions of key concepts and different theories about them. The overall purpose of this review is to know about the result of studies related to topics under study.

2.2. Introduction to Higher Education for Rural Development

Education for rural people is crucial to achieving both the Education for All (EFA) goals, and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, ensuring universal primary education by 2015, promoting gender equity and ensuring environmental sustainability. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado; 2005).

In 1996, the World Food Summit in Rome stressed increased access to education for the poor and members of disadvantaged groups, including rural people, as a key to achieving poverty eradication, food security, durable peace and sustainable development. The 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, held in Johannesburg, also emphasized the role of education.

As the majority of the world's poor, illiterate and undernourished live in rural areas, it is a major challenge to ensure their access to quality education. The lack of learning opportunities is both a cause and an effect of rural poverty. Hence, education and training strategies need to be integrated within all aspects of sustainable rural development, through plans of action that are multisectoral and interdisciplinary. This means creating new partnerships between people working in agriculture and rural development, and people working in education. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado; 2005).

To address this challenge, the Directors-General of FAO and UNESCO jointly launched the flagship programme on Education for rural people (ERP) in September 2002 (http://www.fao.org/sd/erp/), during the World Summit on Sustainable Development.

This initiative involves an inter-agency approach to facilitate targeted and co-ordinated actions for education in rural areas. It is within this framework, and to provide inspiration for the flagship initiative, that the FAO's Extension, Education and Communication Service and UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) have jointly launched a series of publications. This series is co-ordinated and edited by David Atchoarena (IIEP) and Lavinia Gasperini (FAO). (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado; 2005).

2.3. Rural development, Sustainable Rural development and Rural Public works projects

2.3.1. Rural development

Rural development in general is used to denote the actions and initiatives taken to improve the standard of living in non-Urban neighbourhoods, countryside, and remote villages. These communities can be exemplified with a low ratio of inhabitants to open space. Agricultural activities may be prominent in this case whereas economic activities would relate to the primary sector, production of foodstuffs and raw materials.( www.wikipedia.org)

Rural development is also multi-dimensional and much broader than poverty alleviation through social programmes and transfers; it places emphasis on changing environments to enable poor people to earn more, invest in themselves and their communities and contribute toward maintenance of key infrastructure; a successful strategy will make people less poor, rather then more comfortable in their poverty (Cheam Phan Viriya, 2009)

2.3.2. Sustainable

sustainability is derived from increased local growth, and were rural people care about success and are able to access resources to keep the strategy going (Calestous Juma, 2000) and there are some aspirational statements on this theme, the most commonly quoted being Brundtland's: «development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs» (in Custance & Hillier, 1998).

2.3.3. Rural Public works projects

Rural Public works projects is the creation of rural infrastructure through the mobilization of rural labour has long been the dream of economic planners in developing world. The idea is simple one. In the end of agricultural season, labour in the rural sectors of developing nations is unemployed or underemployed. Therefore the opportunities cost of using that labour on rural public works projects is zero or near zero ( although food consumption may go up for people doing heavy construction work) (Malcolm Gills, et al.; 1987).

2.4. Rural Banks, Credit Cooperatives, and development of rural markets

A second approach to the problem of providing rural areas with sufficient capital for development is to establish rural banks or credit cooperatives that will lend to farmers. In traditional agriculture a farmer has only two sources of credit: members of this family and the local moneylender. Because their location, urban banks lack the knowledge and skills necessary to operate effectively in rural areas.

On the other hand, local moneylenders know the reliability of the people to whom they are lending and the quality of land put up as collateral. Individuals without land, of course, have difficulty getting money even from local moneylenders. (Malcolm Gills, et al. ; 1987).

Credit cooperatives set up by the small farmers are one potential solution to this problem. The idea is that each farmer is capable of saving a small sum, and if these sums are pooled, one or two farmers can borrow a substantial sum to buy a new thresher or pump.

The next year it will be another farmer's turn and son on. In the meantime those who put their money in the cooperative will draw interest, thus encouraging them to save more. But this approach has flaws.

Farmers' savings tend to be small, and hence the cooperative tend to be financially weak. More seriously, farmers in developing nations have little experience relevant to the effective operation and management of cooperatives. In addition, economic, social, and political conflicts within the village may make it possible to decide something as simple as who get the next loan. (Malcolm Gills, et al.; 1987)

There are virtually no areas of the world today where substance farming in its purest form still exists. Economic of development is usually accompanied by the increasing size and sophistication of this rural marketing network, and in turn that improved net work has an important impact on productivity in agriculture. The key to an increasing role for the market is specialization, and specialization depends on economies of scale, low - cost transport, and acceptable risk. (Malcolm Gills, et al.; 1987)

2.5. Development actions

Rural development actions mostly aim at the social and economic development of the areas. These programs are usually top-down from the local or regional authorities, regional development agencies, NGOs, national governments or international development organizations. But then, local populations can also bring about endogenous initiatives for development. The term is not limited to the issues for developing countries. In fact many of the developed countries have very active rural development programs. ( www.wikipedia.org)

2.6. Mission, Vision, Commitment Of Higher Learning Institutions

Universities were originally set up as a response to certain needs of society which no other institution or group could meet. However, this role, which clearly differentiated the functions and activities of universities, has become blurred. With the passage of time, other institutions have begun to concern themselves with research and teaching, sharing these functions with universities or on occasion even surpassing or substituting them.

For these reasons, universities today must rethink their social function. In order to do so, they must explain questions such as their `mission', the `vision' of this mission and their institutional `commitment' towards society. Something which was considered obvious for a long time must now be reformulated and may be the cause of comparative and competitive advantages between universities, since, for the first time in their history; these institutions face a profound questioning of the principles which have governed them up to now. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado; 2005).

The `mission' of the university is linked to intellectual excellence developed through the three essential components of university life: research, teaching and influence (Marcovitch, 2002). This mission must adapt to the process of change of the society in which we live, although not all universities are capable of achieving this to an equal degree. The tendency to fall back on themselves and the need to do so in order to solve budgetary problems often explains the difficulty of university institutions in responding to new demands.

However, at the present time, this mission must be capable of going beyond the most local or localist approaches so as to respond to the needs that arise from the greater interaction between sectors and territories, which is a part of globalization. In the process of formulation of the mission, which can be explicit or implicit, different components are involved, among which the search for an independent model and the vision of the future role of the university stand out. In this process, teachers play, as they must, a fundamental part, together with the other groups which make up the university community. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado; 2005).

The `commitment' of the university means its active participation in the development process of society. This role involves on occasion the expansion and the improvement of the relationship of the institution with society, but at other times it requires a profound revision of the mission of the university so that its lost role can be recovered. In order to ensure that the part the university plays is as active as possible, it must be directed towards teaching skills (the function which many universities have been fulfilling almost exclusively for over a century), providing an education in values, and building the capacity to reflect on the future (functions which have been eroded with the passage of time). Therefore, the university's commitment represents a kind of `contract' between the university and its surroundings, which is one of the best ways for the university to establish and carry out its real `social role'. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado; 2005).

The `vision' of the university is the consequence of both its mission and commitment since this can refer to the way society perceives the role of the university, or the way the university intends to do what it does and how this is understood. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado; 2005).

2.7. Challenges Faced By Institutions In Meeting Their Missions

Formulating and developing correctly the university's mission and commitment means a series of challenges that particularly affect higher education, which is facing the most radical transformation and renovation in its history. This is mainly due to the following reasons:

1. Knowledge not only changes within each discipline but also in its overall coherence and complexity. It is not possible to treat the complexity and the dimension of scientific findings if knowledge remains confined to the traditional disciplines. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado; 2005).

2. Access to knowledge is changing; it can be reached from all directions and at any moment, but its abundance does not mean that it is always validated, organized, and structured. The problem for education today is not where to find information but how to offer access to it without exclusion and, in turn, to teach/learn how to select it, assess it, interpret it, classify it and use it. This conception profoundly modifies teaching and the traditional role of the teacher. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado; 2005).

3. Technological tools free the university from limitations of time and space. The traditional class consists of placing a group of students and a teacher in the same place at the same time. Today it is possible to organize class activities in different places and at different times. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado, 2005).

4. The role of the teacher is no longer the same, and society's expectations in this respect are increasingly numerous and complex. The teacher is the main agent of the transformation of the educational system; he/she must train the citizens of tomorrow and make them acquire scientific knowledge. In the present context of change, a new concept of society is emerging which some call the `learning society' due to the central role played by knowledge in the productive process; others prefer to refer to it as the `information society'. Independently of which terminology is used, it is evident that global changes are forcing a change in the traditional role of teaching and are redefining the part played by universities. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado, 2005).

As a consequence of the above reasons, the most important challenges faced by higher education today are:

1. The change from an industrial society to an information society The future of countries and their positioning in the international context will largely depend on the solidity of their systems for training human resources and their technological and scientific research systems. In order to face these challenges, universities must widen the space for the production of knowledge and adopt new approaches which permit greater connection between the training that students receive and the new demands of society.

2. Going from simply demonstrating knowledge by the issuing of certificates to training students in self-learning and fostering the integral development of their human capacities. Contemporary society and globalization impose a vocation for change which obliges the university to incorporate imagination and creativity, and which incites it to no longer be only at the service of a narrow professionalization, as has unfortunately been the case up to now. Future graduates must be accustomed to work in inter-disciplinary teams, have a satisfactory understanding of world problems and speak at least one foreign language. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado, 2005).

3. Complementing knowledge based on the acquisition of information with self-learning. The new teaching methodologies must encourage students to learn to work, do research, invent, create, and not limit them to continue memorizing theories and facts. In other words, the students must participate in the educational process. In order for them to do this, they must prepare themselves for `self-training', `self-education' and `self-assessment', that is, they must assume the responsibility for orientating themselves and taking control of their own training.

The important thing is that it is really the students who acquire the learning skills and that these become a genuine means for development of the individual or of society, in such a way that the students can acquire useful knowledge, capacity for reasoning, aptitudes and values (UNESCO, 1990). This new conception implies that educators become facilitators and also that they work as part of a team with their students so as to identify and select problems. Students must learn not only to memorize but learn to use all means of information available to them, whether this is through libraries, national and international databases, the radio, the cinema, television or Internet. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado, 2005).

4. Training students so that they consider life-long learning and rotating periods of work with periods of training to be natural. Life-long learning means having at one's disposal the intellectual tools that are necessary for adapting to the constant changes and the varying requirements of the job market and for protecting oneself against the obsolescence of knowledge, which is occurring at an increasingly rapid rate.

Students now need to be trained for an unstable work environment and probable rotation, not only between jobs but sometimes even between types of occupation or economic sectors. In order for this to be possible, not only are more skills needed but frequently new and different ones, which place new and different demands on educational and professional training systems.

Higher education will play a fundamental part in encouraging the capacity for innovation and creativity. A suitable balance between general and specialized training is indispensable, together with emphasis on learning processes rather than on instruction or teaching processes. The new `curricula' must include general training cycles, basic training cycles and specialized training cycles; (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado, 2005).

5. New tools and skills. New jobs are bound to require flexibility, creativity, autonomy, innovation, speed of adaptation to change, life-long study and team work. These demands imply continuous adaptation to challenges such as handling new situations, responsibility, participation, pluralism or changing values. The university must prepare students physically, intellectually and emotionally so that they can meet these demands when they graduate.

The new context is characterized by uncertainty and by the speed at which changes occur. Therefore, educational systems must be capable of educating for change and uncertainty. The acceptance of change as an inherent characteristic of higher education institutions implies accepting flexibility as a work norm. Universities and higher education institutions in general must become «life-long education centres for everyone» (UNESCO, 1998).

Accepting this challenge involves a series of transformations in academic organization and work methods. Educators must essentially be designers of learning methods and contexts, capable of working as a team together with the students. In this way, educators, as they train, are training themselves, and they learn at the same time as they teach (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado, 2005).

The establishment of closer and fruitful collaboration between universities and the productive sector also makes it possible to diversify ways to finance higher education, thus achieving growing participation of the private sector in the overall financing of higher education, whether public or private(Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado, 2005).

.

The experience of introducing a `Higher Education System on Rural Development' (HESORD) into the University of Cordoba (UCO) represents an effort to adapt to all the challenges and trends described. In fact, HESORD was not initially designed as a comprehensive system, but as a single higher education initiative. It has been, however, the continuously increasing demand for new products that has encouraged the launching of a wider educational offer. This programme of studies is undergoing a complex process which concerns three strategic aspects of the current university: mission, commitment and vision. Furthermore, as explained below, this process is intended to be as faithful as possible to modern trends in higher education, and to the role that agriculture and the rural world will play in society in the twenty-first century. (Eduardo Ramos and María Del Mar Delgado, 2005).

2.8. Education's Role in Development

Education is different things to different people. Besides the economic benefits already mentioned, education up to a certain level has often seen thought of as an inherent right. Education has also been promoted because it can socialize people. Through a common schooling experience, it has often been thought; people from different national, social, ethnic, religious, and linguistic backgrounds can be encouraged to adopt a common outlook on the world. (Malcolm Gills, et al., 1987). finally education is also thought to confer civic benefits and can be used to promote economic development for example well trained workers, and who live in the villages and work closely with the farmers when new techniques are being introduced. (Everett E. Hagen, 1968)

Expenditure to produce physical equipment for future production is termed investment. Even though one accepts the judgment that education can contribute greatly to productivity, one must be cautious in assuming that the level and types of education provided in technically advanced countries will increase productivity in less advanced countries. To take the extreme example, skill in the use of high - speed computers would be useful to extremely few individuals working in ,say, Ceylon and to none in Rwanda - urundi (Everett E. Hagen, 1968)

2.9. Three dimensions of inclusive rural development

Figure 1. Three dimensions of inclusive rural development

Figure 2.1. Three dimensions of inclusive rural development (Fernando, 2008)

This figure illustrates the elements necessary for empowerment programmes which engage in growth, capacity enhancement, competency improvement, and opportunities. It also distinguishes approaches from the developing world to promote rural development (Cheam Phan Viriya, October 2009)

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Introduction

This chapter presents the methodological approach, the data collection techniques and the entire process that was used to conduct the study. It shows the methods that the researcher will use to collect and analyze the data, the selection of the respondents, and it further spells out how the information was obtained from respondents, analyzed and interpreted to enable the researcher to draw logical conclusions.

Kenneth D Bailey (1978: 83) defines the methodology as the set of methods and principles that are used when studying a particular kind of work. A method composes all intellectual process an orderly system or arrangements that enable a researcher to reach an aspect of knowledge by using various techniques.

3.2. Research Design

Christensen (1991: 269); defines research design as an outline, a plan or a strategy specifying the procedures to be used in investigating the research problem. It is simply the framework or plan a study used as a guide in collecting and analyzing data. For the purpose of the current study the survey method was adopted.

The research Design of this study was an ex-post facto case study; hence there was need of using comparative data of pre-SPREAD-NUR and post-SPREAD-NUR project implementation. Thus, this study paid special attention to the comparison between how the status of rural area prior to the entry of SPREAD-NUR was and the situation after SPREAD-NUR's emergence, and the perception of the people towards each element of the project regarding level of Rural Development.

To gather the needed data, fieldwork was conducted in the rural Area, ABAHUZAMUGAMBI COFFEE COOPERATIVE of MARABA, using triangulation data collection technique. A Questionnaire was used to get perceptions and development status. Observations were conducted in order to double check the validity and confidence of the collected data. Interviews focusing on project implementation and the assessment of development were also employed. Ultimately, the data was analyzed as an empowerment assessment and presented in comparative format.

This study involved both qualitative and quantitative data. The qualitative data collection technique was subjective in nature since it involved examining and reflecting on financial recordkeeping in business. Numerical data analysis and statistical tests were objective in nature and dealt with measuring phenomena. For this study, computation of percentages, frequencies and hypotheses testing was used.

3.3. Conceptual Framework and Methods Of Data Gathering

The following figure shows the directional conception of this study intended to answer the research questions, as well as achieve the objectives of the study (Cheam Phan Viriya, October 2009)

NGO and higher learning institutions Approach

1. Health

2. Environment

3. Community development

4. Food security

5. Income generation

6. Education

Empowerment

1. Access to information

2. Inclusion and participation

3. Accountability

4. Local organizational capacity

Government

Higher Learning Institutions

NGOs

Partnership

Figure 3.1. Conceptual framework of the study

3.4. Sampling Method and Sampling Size

ABAHUZAMUGAMBI COFFEE COOPERATIVE MARABA has 2000 members, among them 66 respondent was select during this research. Therefore, the researcher l completed a questionnaire survey of 66 member of ABAHUZAMUGAMBI COFFEE COOPERATIVE living in Rural Areas basing on systematic random sampling where by in every 30 persons one was questioned.

Several reasons guided the selection of respondents. First in order to know about the development status of the areas, respondents in Rural Areas were needed. Second, by approaching the households and simple families, perceptions of the people could be measured. Finally, it was considered important to observe the actual living standard of people in the whole area compared to the former living standard. This provided a better understanding of the reality rather than relying on reports of the project's staff.

3.6. Data Collection

The research needed both primary and secondary data. The primary data were obtained using questionnaire, interview, and field observation from the people living in Rural Areas and being members of ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative. Secondary data were sourced from historical archives, annual reports, monitoring and planning documents of SPREAD-NUR about the statistical characteristics and baseline data of the project's site.

3.6.1. Primary Data

Triangulation data collection was used as a qualitative technique to get primary data for the research. It comprises three angles: Survey questionnaire, in-depth interview and field observation.

Questionnaire was created to measure project components and empowerment indicators. It was designed to compare the past and present condition of the community and implementation of the project operation. It was designed to learn the perceptions of the people, how they view LWF, and their satisfaction and decision-making.

Questionnaires included three parts with 50 questions. The first part obtained general and basic information about respondents. The second part included six components of Rural Development in terms of access to information, participation, accountability, and organization capacity. The final part aimed to direct the respondent's perceptions about their overall view of SPREAD-NUR's project.

The interview gave awareness of how project carriers and facilitators view themselves in the roles of helping to better the lives of poor people and their own future vision of the project results when SPREAD-NUR withdraws.

Field observation by this the researcher was able to double check the accuracy and validity of information about living conditions and development. This helped to validate and ensure that the data was gathered correctly and effectively. During the field survey, the researcher observed the way people lived and shared information and experiences so that answers from questionnaires and interview could be verified.

Field observations were used to assess the accuracy and reliability of data obtained from

people about their ideas of sharing, their awareness of rights, level of expression, education level, infrastructure inside each commune, health services, public services, economic conditions, capacity building, and community organizations.

3.6.2. Secondary data

Secondary data were considered necessary in backing up the primary data.

Available studies and information included different reports on Rural Development, the current monitoring report and implementation progress reports.

3.7. Data Analysis

After data collection, the following proper tools and techniques were used for the classification and analyses of data. SPSS and Microsoft Excel were used for the purpose of data analysis.

Tools of classification of data were frequency distribution and charts (charts are graphical representation of data). Along this study the following Charts were used: Pie Charts, Bar Charts, Stacked Bar Charts, and Histograms.

After this a comparative study of living conditions was developed in order to measure how the social wellbeing has been improved among the producer of MARABA coffee due to the SPREAD-NUR intervention in this Field (Coffee Production). This analysis lied on the analysis of Mode of Coffee production, Income, Properties, Housing type, Medical insurance, Education, Information and Communication.

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION

This chapter presents results drawn from collected data. The target population was the members of ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative, whose main activity is to grow coffee known as MARABA Coffee.

Maraba coffee is grown in the MARABA area in southern province of Rwanda MARABA's coffee plants are the Bourdon variety of the coffee Arabica Species and are grown on fertile volcanic soil or on high altitude hills. The fruit is handpicked mostly during the rain season between March and May and brought to a washing station in MARABA, where the coffee beans are extracted and dried. At several stages, the beans are stored according to quality. Farmers receive credit based on the quantity of beans they provide.

In 1999 ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative was created with about 200 members. From since the Cooperative has been supported by the National University of Rwanda and SPREAD, and working hand by hand the Cooperative has improved the Coffee quality and penetrated on international market.

4.1. Level of Empowerment and Status of Development

The level of empowerment is going to be discussed according to the SPREAD-NUR's components based on empowerment indicators using collected data. This is to measure the perception of people toward SPREAD-NUR's contributions. Also the comparison between pre-SPREAD-NUR and post-SPREAD-NUR existence will be discussed as well in order to reflect the people's perception on the SPREAD-NUR and their community.

4.2. Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents

4.2.1. Distribution by Age and Sex

Figure 2. Sex distribution

This figure 2 shows the distribution of the 66 samples by sex, and shows that 55% of total respondents were Males and 45% were Females. To analyze age and sex all respondents were into 4 age groups. The largest group is 35-42 years old ranking 23 with 36% of the total respondents, this means that the majority of samples is more than 35 years old and is likely to be heads of families. 25% of respondents are under 35 years old and the oldest age of all respondents is 54 years old.

Table 1. Age Group by Sex

Age Group * Sex Cross tabulation

Distribution of Respondents by Age and Sex

 

Male

Female

Total

28-35 Years Old

11

5

16

35-42 Years Old

14

9

23

42-49 Years Old

5

10

15

49-56 Years Old

6

3

9

 

36

27

63

Source: Primary Data

Figure 3.Distribution of respondents by Age and sex

4.2.2. Distribution by marital status

The below figure shows that the majority of the respondents are married . They account for about 52% of the total sample. About 41% are widows and the rest are single (8%).

In brief the main demographical profile of respondents is married and mature more than 35 years old.

Table 1. Marital status

Marital Status

 

Frequency

Percent

Single

5

8

Married

34

52

Widow (er)

27

41

Total

66

100

Source: Primary Data

Figure 4. Marital Status of Respondents

4.2.3. Occupation and Education Level characteristics of respondents Household size

The following figure shows that the majority of respondents are Farmers with 47% of the total sample; 6% represents self-employed respondents, 15% represents traders, 18% represents Local government employed, 9% represents Labor seller, while 5% represents Breeding. The main factor that they are concentrated in farms is because the total sample was composed of the member of ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative and that the main activity of this cooperative is oriented in coffee plantation.

Table 2. Occupation by Respondents

Occupation of Respondents

 

Frequency

Percent

Farmer

31

47

Self-employed

4

6

Trading

10

15

Local government employed

12

18

Labor seller

6

9

Farming and Breeding

3

5

Total

66

100

Source: Primary Data

Figure 5. Occupation of Respondents

Respondent's education level shows that the majority of them are concentrated in those who have completed primary 39%, those who have completed Secondary school are represented by 29% of all respondents, those who have Non-formal education are represented by 20% of all respondents, and those who have Vocation and Artist level are represented by 12% of all respondents.

Figure 6. Education level of respondents

The below table shows that the household size s' pattern of respondents is more represented by the household within 4-5 persons that is why the on average each household counts 5 persons.

Table 3. Household size

Household size

Minimum

Maximum

Mean

2

9

5.3

Source: Primary data

4.3. Coffee production and Quality of production

4.3.1. Coffee Plantation and production

Coffee as cash crop and that plays an important role in improving social welfare in rural area has kwon a large development in MARABA Sector, and many households are engaged in growing coffee. Basing on collected data, all respondents reported to have about 16958 of coffee trees which are on the stage of producing, and on average each households counts about 308 coffee trees.

Table 4. Coffee trees

Coffee Trees

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Mean

50

1000

16958

308.3273

Source: Primary data

Table 5. Coffee production in Kgs

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Mean

100

2000

33916

616.65

 

Source: Primary data

The total production of those 16958 trees is evaluated on 33916Kg per season, and on average each households is likely to produce 617kg of coffee per season.

Figure 7. Distribution of Coffee production

The income from coffee plantation is important and is contributing in the amelioration of social wellbeing of those household, and with the intervention of SPREAD-NUR the coffee production has been evaluated on good scale, whereby, now all respondent are likely to receive 5,087,400 Rwf per season or 92,498Rwf each household on average per season. This amount is so important, is used in many things such providing good health care, food security in sampled members of ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative.

Table 6. Income from coffee

Income from Coffee Production

Minimum

Maximum

Sum

Mean

15000

300000

5087400

92498.18

Source: Primary data

4.3.2. Washing System

Table 7. Washing System

 

Frequency

Percent

Traditional Washing System

2

3

Modern Washing System

64

97

Source: Primary data

Figure 8. Coffee washing system

The above figure shows that the large part of respondents use Modern washing system (97%), and the remaining part of 3% use Traditional System. These figures explain the quality of coffees produced in this area, because are well managed from the beginning step to the step of selling. Due to the modern washing system, MARABA coffee has reached a high sound, because it is sounding not only in Rwanda but also at the international level, means that MARABA Coffee has a non-negligible Marketing around the world.

4.3.3. Use of Fertilizer, Pesticides, and Pest control

Respondents know the role of using inorganic fertilizer in coffee plantation, because 91% of total respondents agreed to use inorganic while only 9% of them disagreed.

Figure 9. Use of Inorganic fertilizer and Pesticides

In order to protect and to increase the quantity of coffee from plantations, 89% of respondents agree to use pesticides and 11% of them disagree. Those figures show that pests which can reduce quantity in plantation are controlled. And only 6% of respondent claims their Coffee plantation face pest and/ or other problems which can reduce production. The logic behind is that as the use of fertilizer and pesticides increases the quantity produced increases with good quality.

The below figure shows that due to the intervention of SPREAD-NUR pest and other problems which may reduce coffee production have been reduced. 94% of respondents agree this assertion while 6% disagree but by stating that regardless this, they have experienced an amelioration in their plantation due to the assistance of SPREAD-NUR.

Figure 10. Contribution of SPRAED-NUR on Coffee production

4.3.4. Channels of produced quantity

The below table shows that the main channel of coffee produced by respondents is Cooperative 94%, and local market is less used 6%, the use of cooperative as the main channel of their production help them to market their production with the assistance of SPREAD-NUR, where by quantity bought by cooperative is well kept and managed, with a consolidated ameliorations to reach international markets.

Figure 11. Main Channel of coffee production

4.4. Perception toward Income generating which increases earnings

Table 8. Bank Account

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Yes

62

93.9

93.9

93.9

No

4

6.1

6.1

100.0

Total

66

100.0

100.0

 
 

Source: Primary data

As illustrated in the above table , 94% of all respondents has a bank account, and as illustrated in the below figure 62% of all respondents is engaged in farming, 14% in raising animals ,6% in labor sale, 9% in Trading, and 9% in Farming and Raise livestock as alternative activities to generate income a part from coffee plantation. But the main income generating activity is based on agriculture of coffee.

Due to the contribution of SPREAD-NUR in agriculture of coffee, respondent are away of receiving enough income which allow them to put aside a portion for saving and business.

Table 9. Income Generating activities

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Farming

41

62.1

62.1

Raise livestock

9

13.6

75.8

Labor sale

4

6.1

81.8

Trading

6

9.1

90.9

Farming and Raise livestock

6

9.1

100.0

Total

66

100.0

 
 

Source: primary data

Figure 12. Income generating activities

The below figure shows that 60% of total respondents agreed that Income from coffee has an important contribution in starting the above mentioned income generating activities or projects, 19% of total respondents agreed that Loans from ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative have contributed in starting the above income generating activities, while 10% agreed to use income from other activities.

Figure 13. Main source of income to start income generating projects

4.5. Perception toward Food Security

Table 10. Food condition

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Sufficient

36

60.0

60.0

Insufficient

24

40.0

100.0

 

Source: Primary data

Figure 14. Food condition

From the above table and figure, among the member of ABAHUZAMUGAMBI surveyed, 60% of them rates food condition Sufficient, while 40% of them see that food condition in their respective households is Insufficient. This insufficient in food taken per day was supported by the number of meals that they take per day, as the below figure demonstrates the majority of respondents take meals Two times per day (67%), while the remaining part of respondents reported that it takes meals Three time per day (33%), and among respondents there is no case of persons who take meal once per day. Even though the majority of respondent agrees that their meals in take have been increased and ameliorated due to the intervention of SPREAD-NUR in the plantation of coffee in their area.

Figure 15. Meals in take per day

Figure 16. Food control

In order to control food quality and quantity in their households when food is not enough, most of respondents reported that they take orientation in farming (50%), 43% of them takes orientation in labor sale, 4% Raises livestock, and 4% in trading.

As the members of ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative are working with SPREAD NUR they agree that there has been an improvement in food in take, this means that the intervention of SPREAD-NUR in rural area is developing the way of living of rural people. It is also understandable that with the improvement of food many diseases from unbalanced food are eliminated, and therefore population are away of concentrating on improving their social wellbeing toward Development. 68% of total respondents reported that food served in their household has been improved while only 32% disagreed this assertion, as shown in the following table and figure.

Table 11. Improvement in food served

 

Frequency

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Yes

41

68.3

68.3

No

19

31.7

100.0

Total

60

100.0

 
 

Source: Primary data

Figure 17. Food improvement

4.6. Perception toward Basic health and HIV and AIDS

According to respondents' views, the awareness, which measures access to information, was highly accepted among respondents regarding health. Almost all of respondents said that they could get access to health information and participate in the campaigns. In this regard, many activities and group education about health have been undertaken to share information, it also plays important role changing from the use of traditional treatment like superstitious ways to scientifically medical treatment. Regarding health campaign organizers, the respondents ranked SPREAD-NUR as the leading provider of information, accounting 47% of all respondents for campaigning followed Health center/Health post with 32% of all respondents, Village health volunteer with 12%, and TV/Radio with 9% of all respondents. This suggests that SPREAD-NUR is actively involved in and helps advocate health sector for a better health environment.

Figure 18. Main source of information on basic health and HIV/AIDS

Inclusion and Participation in health training and services is another measurement of awareness. The below Figure 9 shows respondents use to participated in HIV/AIDS training and awareness. Impressively 100% of respondents participated in health activities. They were well aware of the issue and willing to participate for their own good and their community. Figure 9 and 10 reveal how the people participated in HIV/AIDS education and who provided the information.

Dramas and Dances and education Group to houses, were initiated by ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative under SPREAD-NUR. They stand for the largest networking groups in disseminating training and health education. The majority of respondents participated in them 62% in Education Group and 38% in Dramas and dances. It is a good learning by direct involvement in the activities at sites so people benefit comprehensively.

Figure 19. Health activities

As illustrated in the below Figure 20, 68% of the respondents complained that they are satisfied with the health condition in their homes. They also mentioned about the lack of resources and training for health. Only some 26% said it is bad. However, after SPREAD-NUR began its activities, 68% and 6% of the sample viewed that health conditions has been improved and now they rate it to be good and very good respectively in their respective households. This finding suggests that 74% (68%+6%) of respondents is satisfied with SPREAD-NUR's heath care activities and that health component of projects undertaken by SPRAED-NUR are adequate for Rural Development.

Figure 20. Health situation

4.7. Perception toward Environment

Table 12. Environmental threats and problems

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Water pollution

42

77.8

77.8

Air pollution

8

14.8

92.6

Forest fire

4

7.4

100.0

Total

54

100.0

 
 

Source: Primary data

The above table shows the major current environmental threat and problems faced by environment in the interested region. As illustrated, the area is facing Water pollution, Air pollution, and Forest fire of the total respondents. The MABARA area is also one of the arable areas in Rwanda with high quantity of coffee production with good quality, therefore it needs a protection from human-made threats. The below figure 21 shows the threats and problems currently in the area. As displayed, there are three main threats and problems perceived by the respondents: Illegal Water pollution (78%), Air Pollution (15%), and forest fire (7%).

Figure 21. Environmental threat and problems

The below figure 22 shows that 100% of respondents agreed on the contribution of SPREAD-NUR in Natural resource protection.

Figure 22. SPREAD-NUR and natural resource protection

The following figure shows that, regarding status and updates on natural resources, 36% of respondents received information regularly through Radio, 24% through Radio and Cell-phone, 21% through radio, television, and cell-phone, and 19 through radio and television. This means that the level of access to information regarding environment, Health and other mean of development is good, because the majority of respondents have many way of receiving important environmental and health updates information which goes with rural development. This resulted in responsible environment authority for the environment and health as the measures of welfare.

Figure 23. Means of getting information

Table 14 and figure 24 show the level of awareness established by SPREAD-NUR's efforts such as how its contribution has ameliorated the type of lighting in the area, 37% of respondents reported that their type of righting has been improved because now days they are using electricity as the major source of lighting energy. According to the figure 24, the level of using different means of lighting has dramatically changed. The key aspect here is SPREAD-NUR awareness because its role is to manage, organize, and support the members of ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative, according to their needs.

Table 13. Main Sources of lighting energy

 

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

Petroleum

41

62.1

62.1

Electricity

25

37.9

100.0

Total

66

100.0

 
 

Source: primary data

Figure 24. Main sources of lighting energy

4.8. Perception toward Rural Development

Basing on results from collected data and how respondents used to evaluate the pertnership of SPREAD-NUR in coffee production and Rural Development ; Access to information, Inclusion and participation, Accountability, and Local organizational capacity have been improved when SPREAD-NUR start to work with ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative and now are highly rated among the members of ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative as shown in the table 15 of empowerments.

Those empowerments have increasingly integrated to Rural Development are highly rated as the main keys to inclusive Rural Development among respondents. Respondents rate those empowerment between 64.7% and 94.2% to be the major factors towards Rural development as the target of SPREAD-NUR (Table 16).

Table 14. Empowerment

Empowerment

Initial

Extraction

Percentage

Access to information (1)

1.000

.725

83.1%

 

.937

 

1.000

.932

93.2%

 

.932

 

1.000

.846

89.15%

 

.937

 

1.000

.975

96.2%

 

.949

 

Source: Primary data

Table 15. Inclusive Rural Development

Component

1

2

3

4

Extraction(%)

1

.942

.315

-.068

-.095

94.2%

2

-.153

.669

-.030

.727

66.9%

3

.142

-.152

.955

.210

95.5%

4

.264

-.656

-.286

.647

64.7%

 

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization Source: Primary data

This means that joined people has experienced the active participation of SPREAD-NUR in this aspect of rural development. The above paragraphs support our hypothesis; therefore Higher learning institutions contribute to the process of Rural Development in Rwanda.

Access to information

Inclusion and participation

Accountability

Local organizational capacity

SPREAD-NUR

83.1% 93.2% Empowerment 89.2% 96.2%

Inclusive Rural Development

94.2% 66.9% 95.5% 64.7%

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1. Conclusion

In fighting poverty, which is rural phenomena and to promote sustainable development high emphasis is placed on education both nationally and internationally. Studies indicates that productivity is affected by level of education and quality for as well

The first objective was to identify the role played by National University of Rwanda in rural development of Rwanda. The findings described the role played by National University of Rwanda in collaboration with SPREAD in Chapter 4 and later on viewed the perceptions of the people. The data showed that people are vastly empowered in the coffee production.

The second objective described the understanding on community's perception to SPREAD-NUR's contributions in development status of rural area. The results are summarized as follows: 74% of the respondents complained that they are satisfied with the quality of basic health that they are enjoying. They also mentioned that their coffee plantations have been ameliorated and that they expect high quantity and good quality in their production. However, after SPREAD-NUR became involved in MARABA coffee production, 97% of the sample viewed that the washing system has been improved. In the same way, basic health and HIV/AIDS awareness have been improved.

The third objective was to recommend measures and model of empowerment to enhance the effectiveness of SPREAD-NUR in promoting rural development in Rwanda. To fulfill this objective, the role of partners such as SPREAD-NUR and targeted local population is in Chapter 4. The level of their participation in rural development is high and active in regards to both financing and coordinating projects toward rural development. Some operations of SPREAD-NUR in MARABA also overlap with Local Government's operations but they have prevented conflicts and/or transformed them into cooperation and technical assistance for each other. They also came up with solutions for exchanging opinions to facilitate and fill gaps in rural development in order to serve the community together synergically.

To conclude the study, this research discovers that SPREAD-NUR is promoting Rural Development to an extent which covers six modules. SPREAD-NUR has helped the community by empowering them to a degree of satisfactory development perceived by the people. Overall, the people think that SPREAD-NUR plays a very important role in enhancing their livelihood and social welfare through its contribution in ameliorating coffee plantation and production of ABAUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative Members, if compared to the past. MARABA Coffee Producers are being organized and decentralized, food is secure due to the income from coffee which permit them to provide with other kind of good and when food is not enough in their households income from coffee is used, more jobs and income are being generated, natural resources are preserved, education is improved, health conditions and services are strengthened, and the people are better prepared for selfe-sufficient.

Next, local authorities also play vital roles as catalysts in cooperation and facilitation in SPREAD-NUR's operation in this rural area. Last but not least, empowerment has well promoted rural development by adequate responds in terms of empowerment's indicators: access to information, inclusion and participation in activities, accountability, and local organizational capacity in the project's elements.

5.2. Recommendations

In the context of the SPREAD-NUR, even though the approach is promoting Rural Development, there are some gaps within SPREAD-NUR's coverage. They are at the level of the participation of targeted population in activities towards rural development lanced by SPREAD-NUR, and of updates to information and accountability from actors in the development sector. Taking into consideration findings of this research and to cope with gaps revealed following the survey, these recommendations are offered in order to concentrate the SPREAD-NUR's policies for Rural development:

· Education and training need to be placed at the forefront of the rural development agenda in order to fight the evident extreme poverty and hunger in rural areas; to break the poverty induced poverty result cycle of rural life; to ensure sustainable agriculture, and to build the human capacity needed for development.

· National University of Rwanda should enact and apply strict valuable interest for rural development, and encourage Rural people to cooperate friendly in programs for development.

· SPREAD-NUR should show its caring interest in the poor by providing helpful project to the poor as soon as they require it.

· The ABAHUZAMUGAMBI Cooperative Member should work closely with SPREAD-NUR for periodic surveys on perception towards rural development.

After that they have been developed, the researcher is confident that these practices will be useful for NUR through its implication in rural development and for rural communities inside and outside where NUR operates. Before putting these kinds of policies into practice, unique and potential aspects of local communities will always need to be studied in-depth to fit with their environmental and needs in the future. Also, SPREAD-NUR's project and management capacity are crucial to carrying out such an approach. Consequently the most important experience from SPREAD-NUR's partnership is that rural people should have both the commitment and will to promote a self-sustaining community through the principles of self-help, self-control, and self-organization.

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Appendices

QUESTIONNAIRE

My name is GASHEMA Vincent and I am an undergraduate student at National University of Rwanda, in the Faculty of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, Option of Money and Banking. I am doing a research entitled «ANALYZING THE CONTRIBUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING INSTITUTIONS ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN RWANDA: Case of The Study SPREAD-NUR and ABAHUZAMUGAMBI COFFEE COOPERATIVE MARABA» and I would like to carrying out this survey in order to get data for the completion of my Bachelor's degree in Economics. I would like to ensure to all respondents completing this survey questionnaire that all of your answer will be kept in confidentiality for academic purpose use only. Thank you for your cooperation.

A. Identification

Q1. Sex: Male Female

Q2. Age: How old are you?

Q3. Marital status: Single Married Widow(er) Divorced

Q4. Occupation: What was your Occupation before the implementation of SPREAD-NUR?

Farmer Self-employed Seller Local government employed Labor seller Breeding

Q5. Apart from coffee farmer what is your other occupation?

Farmer Self-employed Seller Local government employed Labor seller Breeding

Q6. Education: Before SPREAD-NUR arrived what was you education level?

Non-formal education Primary school Secondary school High school Vocation and Artist

Q7. To day what is you education level?

Non-formal education Primary school Secondary school

High school Vocation and Artist

Q8. How many persons were they in your family before SPREAD-NUR arrived?

Q9. How many persons are they in your family to day?

B. Coffee production and Quality

Q10. Before the SPREAD-NUR arrived, had you coffee plantations? Yes No

a) If yes, how many trees of coffee had you?

b) On which area( are) c) with which production per season (Kgs)

Q11. To day and after SPREAD-NUR arrived, how many trees of coffee do you have?

a) On which area (are)? c) with which production (Kgs)?

Q12. Which washing system for coffee did you use before SPREAD-NUR arrived?

Traditional Washing System Modern Washing System

Q13. Which washing system for coffee are you using after SPREAD-NUR arrived?

Traditional Washing System Modern Washing System

Q14. Did you add inorganic fertilizer in your coffee plantations before SPREAD-NUR arrived?

Yes No

Q14a. If yes, which quantity in Kgs

Q15. To day, do you add inorganic fertilizer in your coffee plantations?

Yes No

Q15a. If yes, which quantity? Kgs

Q16. Did you use pesticides before SPREAD-NUR arrived in your plantations?

Yes No

Q16a. If yes, which quantity in Kgs

Q17. Do you use pesticides in your plantations?

Yes No

Q17a. If yes, with which quantity in Kgs

Q18. Did your coffee plantations face pest problem and/or other problems which may reduce production before SPREAD-NUR arrived? Yes No

Q19. Do your coffee plantations face pest problem and/or other problems which may reduce production to day? Yes No

Q20. Do you think that pest and other problems which may reduce coffee production in your plantation have been reduced after SPREAD-NUR arrived? Yes No

Q21. Where did you use to sell your production (Coffee) before SPREAD-NUR arrived?

Local Market Cooperative

Q22. Where do you use to sell your production (Coffee) after SPREAD-NUR arrived?

Local Market Cooperative

C. Rural Development Status

Income generation

Q23. Had you a bank account before SPREAD-NUR arrived? Yes No

Q24. Do you have a bank account to day? Yes No

Q25. What kinds of jobs/ income generating activities did you engaged in before the coming of SPREAD-NUR?

Farming ? Raise livestock Labor sale Trading

Q26. What kinds of jobs/income generating activities are you engage in after the coming of SPREAD-NUR?

Farming Raise livestock Labor sale Trading

Q27. If you have chosen at least one among the above projects, how did you begin?

Using the income from the production of coffee

Using the income from other activities you have

Loan from Cooperative ABAHUZAMUGAMBI

Food Security

Q28. How did you rate your family food condition before SPREAD-NUR came?

Sufficient Insufficient

Q29. How many times did you use to eat per day before SPREAD-COME came?

Q30. To day, how do you rate your food condition after SPREAD came?

Sufficient Insufficient

Q31. How many times do you use to eat per day after SPREAD-COME came?

Q32. Had any member of your family experienced under nutrition problem before SPREAD-NUR came? Yes No

Q33. Had any member of your family experienced under nutrition after SPREAD-NUR came? Yes No

Q34. If food for your family is not enough, what do you do?

Raise livestock Farming Trading Labor sale

Q35. Do you think that the quality of food that served in your household has been improved? Yes No

Health

Q36. How did you rate health services at that time before SPREAD-NUR?

Very poor Poor Good Very good

Q37. How do you rate health services at this time after SPREAD-NUR came?

Very poor Poor Good Very good

Q38. Had all members of your family medical insurance before SPREAD-NUR come? Yes No

Q39. Do all member of your family have medical insurance? Yes No

Q40. Do you participate in HIV/AIDS education? Yes No

Q40a. If yes, how specifically do you participate?

Dramas and dances Education group

Q41. From whom do you learn about basic health and HIV/AIDS education (indicate your special choice)

Village health volunteer SPREAD-NUR meeting

Health center/health post TV/Radio

Environment

Q42. What is the major current environmental threat and problem faced by environment in your region?

Water pollution Air pollution Forest fire Wildlife hunt

Q43. Do you think activities undertaken by SPREAD-NUR are performed in the way protecting natural resources? Yes No

If no, what else should be done?

Q44. What type of lighting did you use before SPREAD-NUR came ?

Candle Petroleum Electricity Salar energy

Q45. What type of lighting do you use ?

Candle Petroleum Electricity Salar energy

Q46. How did you use to get information before SPREAD-NUR came ?

Radio Television Cell-phone

Q47. How do you use to get information after SPREAD-NUR came ?

Radio Television Cell-phone

Q48. How do you evaluate the pertnership of SPREAD_NUR in coffee production............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................