La presse écrite camerounaise à l'épreuve de la convergence numérique
par Ingrid Ngounou
Université de Yaoundé II - Ecole supérieure des sciences et techniques de l'information et de la communication 2004
Dans la categorie: Communication et Journalisme
HIGHER school of sciences and technology of information and the communication
The Cameronian newspaper industry the numerical convergence proof.
Case of Cameroon platform and Changes »
Memory presented and supported publicly for obtaining the diploma of sciences and technology of information and communication (DSTIC)
By INGRID ALICE NGOUNOU
Under the direction of Olivier Chick Nzepa PhD.
«The university of Yaounde II- Soa, does not intend to give any approval nor improbation to the opinions stated in this memory; these opinions must be regarded as clean with their author».
« Technologies information and communication, founded on the convergence of data processing, telecommunications and the traditional media, are crucial for the economy of the future which rests on the accumulation of the knowledge. The fast progress of technologies and the progressive reduction their costs make it possible to Africa new to accelerate its growth and its economic development1(*) ».
Extract of the text founder of Nepad
With fire Mr. Séraphin Welako, my large dad cherished for all his affection and which showed the dream me to become journalist.
That all those which helped us in the drafting of this memory find here the expression of our deep gratitude.
§ Dr. Olivier Nzepa Chick, our director of memory. In spite of its innumerable occupations, it showed a not very ordinary availability in our connection.
§ Pr. Joseph Marc Omgba, director of Esstic, for his benevolence.
§ Pr. Ferdinand Chindji Kouleu, for his pragmatic councils.
§ Pr. Laurent Charles Boyomo Assala for his methodological directives.
§ Pr. Michel Tjade Eoné, for his convenient suggestions.
§ Pr. Emmanuel Tonye, whose expertise was beneficial for me.
§ Dr. Mabou for his criticisms constructive.
§ Samuel Ngué and Jean Essisima Baptist, webmasters of Changes and Cameroon platform. For the immense intellectual contribution and the documentary contribution.
§ Jean Paul Mbia, for his the rigorous solicitude and spirit that it inculcated to us.
§ Mr. Augustin Ngomsseu, autodidact of whom we hold our broadmindedness.
§ Mrs. Pauline Ngomsseu, my mother, for the sacrifices in favor of my education.
§ Mrs. Brigitte Kamga, my young grandmother for the indéfectible, permanent support.
§ The families Fongang, Gantchia, Ngankam, Monkam, Kepseu, George Tchokoua, Martine Tiencheu, Pauline Manikeu, Therese Siewe, Beatrice Edima, Melanie Belenie, Armand Ngollo, Jean Paul Tchoula and Merline Fomedom for the councils and the material support.
§ Alain Oyono and Brice Bateguem, my big brothers dear for the material support.
§ Roger Alain Taakam, Emmanuel Gustave Samnick, Alain Blaise Batongue, Anselme Ndopata, Barbara Etoa, Babadjo Taïwé and Fidel Tchinda for the framing.
§ Romuald Ntchuisseu, Joseph Sipiwale, Ibrahim Lindou, Thierry Ndong, Lucien Bidima, Armelle Nya, Asta, Rosine Nono, Christian Lang, Achilles Bella and Idris and my friends.
§ The abbot Felix Amougou, Emmanuel Poutougnigni, Njoya, Jeanne Yossa and Lydie Moluh.
§ My little brothers Bibiane, Solange, Yann, Franck, Alex, Ricki, Russel, Kevin, Ornella, Adrienne, Sandra, Dorine, Floriane, Eric, Guilaine and Stephan for the support fratenel.
§ The whole of the teaching, administrative body and personnel of support of Esstic.
§ All those which supported me in some form that it is, in impossibility of quoting them by name, that they find here, the expression of my deep gratitude.
LIST TABLES AND GRAPHS
LIST INITIALS AND ABBREVIATIONS
§ ARPA : Advanced research program for armament
§ CA : Board of directors
§ CAMNET : Cameroon network
§ CAMTEL : Cameroon telecommunications
§ CENADI : Center national data-processing development
§ CRTV : Cameroon radio and television
§ CT : Cameroon platform
§ DAB : Audio DIGITAL broadcasting
§ DEA : Diploma of thorough studies
§ DP : Director of (it) publication
§ DSTIC : Diploma of sciences and technology of information and the communication
§ Email : Electronic mall
§ ENSP : Polytechnic École Nationale Supérieure
§ ESSTIC : Higher school of sciences and technology of information and the communication
§ FAI : Supplier of access Internet
§ Ftp : File Transfer Protocol
§ GCNET : Total communication network
§ Go : Gigaoctet
§ HTML : hyper text markup language
§ HTTP : Hyper text tranfer protocol
§ ICCNET : International computer centers network
§ INTELCAM : International telecommunications off Cameroon
§ Kbps : Kilobits a second
§ MINCOM : Ministry for the communication
§ N°: Number
§ NEWTECH : New technology incorporation centers network
§ NSF : The National Science Foundation
§ ORSTOM : Office of scientific research in the territories overseas
§ OAU : Organization of African Unity
§ P : Page
§ PPP : Not to not protocol
§ STN : Commutated telephone network
§ SCP : Cameronian company of press
§ SLIPWAY : Serial line Internet Protocol
§ SOPECAM : Company of press and edition of Cameroun
§ SPM : Services of the Prime Minister
§ TCP- IP : Transmission Control Protocol- Internet Protocol
§ TIC : Communication and information technologies
§ TVHD : Television high definition
§ UNECA : United nations economic commission for Africa
§ URL : Uniform resource locator
§ Webcam : Web camera
§ WWW : World Wide Web
§ Tree structure : hierarchical structure of data.
§ Mark out : element not posted being used for the formatting of documents HTML. It is always placed between two rafters (< and >).
§ Base data : together of software allowing the management of information of any nature, their memorizing, their modification, their treatment or their suppression.
§ Bit : (binary digit). Smaller quantity of representable information on a computer. This figure can take the value of 1 or 0.
§ Bps : (bit a second). Measuring unit of the flow a transmission channel or speed of the modem.
§ Cookie : informer. It is a tool of individualization and identification of the Net surfers which records the data transmitted by a user on a given computer and which can restore them later on.
§ Dial- up : method to reach services on line by using an ordinary telephone connection.
§ Hit : term which indicates the number of visitors of a Web page.
§ Icon : image or pictogram allowing to visually represent information or instructions on the screen of a computer.
§ Bond : logical relationship between several documents not necessarily located at the same place.
§ Modem : equipment transforming the numerical signals into analogical signals and conversely ; used to convert the electric signals of the computers into transportable electromagnetic waves by the telephone network.
§ Provider: Internet service provider or supplier of access Internet (FAI). Person receiving benefits equipped with waiters and modems which gets an access to Internet with the users with the help of a subscription.
§ Site, gate : virtual place of a whole of digitized information (texts, images, sounds, software, etc) stored on a computer connected to Internet network, also called waiter.
§ Remote loading : (downloading) ; operation consisting in recording data coming from Internet on a support.
§ URL : uniform resource locator. Address on Internet. Manner standardized to indicate and indicate a file on Internet.
§ Webmaster : Webmaster, Master of the fabric. Nobody responsible for the management of a Web site.
§ Webzine : name given to a magazine only published on the Web, without printed version.
In a context marked by the popularization of the data-processing tools, the company of the knowledge is essential. Upsetting of this fact the thought and working methods. Journalism belongs to the trades that the multi-media one will restructure and presses it on line is one of the traditional supports which will open in this new world.
It is strong of this principle that this work proposed to evaluate the Cameronian press the numerical convergence proof.
It is then a question of examining this integration on the infrastructurel level and human. We did it on the basis of analysis of the technical device and the elements which return in the construction of the speech. These elements are the titraille, the headings, the illustrations and the bonds hypertexts.
On the plan of the technical device, the infrastructurelles marks exist.
On the plan of human competences, the efforts are made but the drafting on line is limited to the webmaster charged to manage the form of the site. It is what explains the identical contents between these newspapers on line and the printed versions. On the strict plan of the offer on line, the report pushes to believe that the Cameronian newspaper industry engaged on the way of the reorganization necessary for a better integration of convergence.
With the great advancement in new information and communication technologies, the educated elites are taking year upper hand in the society.
This situation is fast influencing work and others aspects off life. Multi-media Journalism is one off the professions that the will cuts to restructures, while the online close is one off the traditional media which is coming to file light.
It is one this premise that this work attempted to evaluate the Cameroon near in relation to the numeric convergence.
It therefore demanded year evaluation off this integration both one the infrastructural and human aspects. We did this one the basis off analyzing the technical dispositives and elements include: The headline, slots, illustrations and hypertext.
One the dispositives aspects off technical, infrastructural shortages were found. Talking butt human competence, though efforts are being made, the online close is still limited to the webmaster, with the to lath controlling the form off the site. Content This is what explains the identical between the online close and the newspaper.
Butt what they cuts to offer, the online close makes one believe that the Cameroon newspaper is heading for necessary reorganization for has better integration off both.
1. Object of the study
Our subject relates to the Cameronian newspaper industry the numerical convergence proof: Case of Cameroon platform and Changes. It is a question of showing how the Cameronian press tries to answer the dynamics of the convergence increasingly felt like an essential and existential requirement for the media.
When in September 1993, Al Gore, then candidate with the vice-presidency of the United States- used the concept of « highways of information », few people transfer there the vertiginous growth and the developments which were going to mark the data processing industry. It is during this year that the press makes its entry in space Internet with San Jose Mercury News, a daily newspaper of California of North. It is the first newspaper to have a version on line. Four years will have been enough to show with the African newspapers, the advantages which Internet offers. Thus, 1997 mark the installation of the first Cameronian newspapers on the fabric. Since this date, they are increasingly numerous on the Net.
We have two types of newspapers on Internet: the webzines which appear only on the Web and the newspapers in line which have a printed version and an electronic version. This last type is that in which we are interested. It is all in all a question of seeing how the printed media integrate convergence. To exist on Internet for a newspaper, it is to fill of other specific technical conditions, to address themselves to a potentially different and geographically sparse public and especially to respect the standards related on the trade and the journalistic style: Internet is media with whole share. Changes and Cameroon platform, two daily newspapers appearing in Cameroun will be used to us as a basis with this analysis which relates to the evolution of the Cameronian newspapers per hour of numerical convergence.
2. Interests of the subject
Internet is a passion, a discovery. It is difficult to occur some nowadays because it has many advantages. The future of the journalist will be related to the multi-media one. The journalist saw each day this revolution in his trade. Revolution which is accompanied by new means of informing and to communicate. The multi-media journalist does not have to make any more with «readers» but with «users» able to not only read but especially to interact with the contents of the Web site. The evolutions which printing works knew made disappear with the passing of years certain trades and renovated others. He is thus of Internet. He upsets and transforms the tasks related to journalism. Moreover, it intervenes on all the levels of the chain of production of information: collect, treatment and diffusion. It is what justifies that one speaks about cyberjournalism and cyberécriture.
Following law 90/052 of December 19, 1990 on the social communication in Cameroun and of the decree of application of April 3, 2000, the Cameronian media landscape was reconfigured. These lawful texts caused the increase of the number of titles in the field of the newspaper industry. In the same way, when intervenes in 1997, the creation of Changes on line, the Cameronian newspapers regard the setting on line as a gold rush. Thus on many publications decide to have an electronic version. Today, this frenzy without a future seems to have been transformed into adventure for the majority of these titles. With the observation, the majority are not brought up to date. Some resemble abandoned cemeteries. It is what justifies our starting question: The adoption of a version on line by certain Cameronian newspapers proceeds- T it of the effect of mode or a requirement of modernity ?
In a few years, the TIC caused upheavals which authorize with speaking today about Company of information ; this new civilization based on the knowledge and information. In this context, information from now on is recognized like a world stake and a food product of first need. The journalists are challenged with the first chief by this revolution which upsets their trade on the one hand and requires a great direction of responsibility to them on the other hand.
It acts for us, in the strict plan of the printed press, to question us on the state of the Cameronian newspaper industry in the context of emergence of the press on line.
The technological saga of the conquest of space another great account succeeded : the conquest of « cyberfrontière ». The conquest of space gave the planetary stereotype village and the conquest of « cyberfrontière » already name generated « Total company of Information ». It is already established that the TIC are structuring itself in base for a new company whose principal resource will be knowledge. These TIC2(*) indicate the whole of the electronic machines, the networks and the programs likely to be interfaced to recognize, convey and treat numerical data. These technologies propose a pallet of tools resulting from data processing and networks of telephony whose technical purpose is to offer the possibility or the potentiality to create, publish, store and forward documents provided that those respect the necessary standards and codes.
Kofi Annan, Secretary General of the United Nations, at the time of the 58ème General meeting of the United Nations declared : « The enormous potential of these technologies defies our imagination. But as of today, we can measure the immense utility of it ». The rapids and formidable innovations which one recognizes with the TIC place the world in front of new stakes. Indeed, these new technologies3(*) create under our eyes a new citizenship, modify the relations basically controlling/controlled, reorganize the reports/ratios of production, release the individual initiatives and draw new spaces of economic and cultural creativity and production.
To include/understand this new paradigm is a requirement and a challenge. To define well the concept of Company of Information will reveal the numerical fracture. According to Melanie Blanchard and Bruno Salgues,
« the company of information can be defined like an economy of knowledge with economic and social components ; normative and analytical prospects which bring public knowledge4(*) ".
It is about a world where knowledge will influence the whole of the economy and will modify the role and the position of the State and controlling.
More than five centuries separate Gutenberg from the Internet. Appearance of printing works and the emergence of «mother of all networks» constitute the two major technological revolutions of the history of the press in the world. The first was based on the paper medium to develop ; the second gives up it with the profit of digitalization. The new «numerical» papyrus, which is registered already like the principal support of the third millenium, not only will save hectares of forest on all planet but especially to have impressive consequences - even unsuspected- on the future of the newspaper industry and the exercise of the trade of journalist. Internet does not only make it possible to be freed from the rotary printing-presses and of the pulp paper, it offers in more one infrastructure of diffusion without precedent in the history of Humanity. Because force is to note that this «world cobweb» constitutes already mass media universal almost timeless. Never no other instrument - that it is the newspaper industry, the radio or television had not been able to make it possible, until now, to inform also quickly and simultaneously a potential public of tens of million individuals in all the countries of the world. This «mondiovision» of the newspaper industry, which exceeds by far that of the televised retransmissions of some international events, returns in the past the recurring problem of the distribution of the newspapers printed to each reader. With Internet, the distribution becomes «diffusion» and the reader becomes «user», which will not be satisfied any more «to divide into sheets» his newspaper but «to sail» through the sites of information. The press starts to start this deep change of which considerable editors are unaware of the result. Only one thing is sure: Internet inserts the editors of the printed press of lime pit foot in the universalization of the information which characterizes our post-industrial company.
After the its treatment and collection of information, the publication intervenes. This last phase of the chain of production is the finality of work, the raison d'être of the journalists : to inform. Internet revolutionized the world of the communication, by modifying the traditional techniques of diffusion. Currently, in addition to the printed version of the newspapers, there is an electronic alternative : The online publication.
The integration of the WWW by the newspapers is a prefiguration of the convergence of telecommunications, information media and technologies induced by Internet. On this subject, Charles de written Laubier :
« Internet is the first concretization of this convergence on which the European Commission started to concentrate while publishing in December 1997, a green book which is devoted to him. This economic and social phenomenon will touch the full most traditional whip of the data carriers which are the printed newspaper 5(*)».
Convergence is the tendency to find itself on several supports at the same time. The evolution of the modes and supports of communication supports this new possibility. The newspaper industry is not satisfied any more a its printed version. It is beyond seeking the new public ones through the mother of all networks. The writing seeks the electronic medium consequently. Neil Postman affirms on this subject :
« The electronic media provide to the press a second breath. They make it possible the writing to really fit in a dynamics of modernity and especially to use with its project, the force of the images and sound ». 6(*)
The arrival of the newspaper industry on the fabric confers a new image of modernity to him because it becomes possible to associate with the writing, it to make, the sound and the images gravitational, more reactive. Thanks to its arborescent facet, the version on line makes acquire with information a new depth. It is to say the advantages which Internet offers to the press. It is undoubtedly in this field of the media that the African countries are illustrated more. The setting on line of information dates from the beginning of the Nineties with the United States of America. A few years later, one can click to read information in line of certain African media. In Cameroun, the first setting on line goes back to July 1997 with the creation of the Web site of Changes7(*). Several publications followed this example and today, one counts many newspapers8(*) which have a version on line. Michel Beaud describes the problems like « the unit built around a principal question, assumptions of research and lines of analyzes which will make it possible to cover the selected subject ».9(*) According to this definition, we will state the elements of our problems.
4. GENERAL question of research
The Cameronian newspapers decided to have an electronic version, i.e. to integrate the principles of the convergence which want that media seek new supports. How do they manage this attempt at convergence? In other words, they assimilated the technical standards and adopted the new requirements (infrastructurelles and human) related to Internet heard here like support of communication ?
1. With which logic this turn obeys ? This is an effect of mode or the response to specific needs ?
2. Which is the contribution of the electronic version to printed newspaper the as well in the plan of the speech of the actors as of the offer ?
3. Which is the degree of relevance of these newspapers on line ?
5. General assumption
According to Raymond Quivy and Luc Van Campendhoudt, the assumption of research is « a provisional answer to the starting question 10(*)». From this definition, we make the following proposals: The migration towards the electronic version imposes on the newspapers the appropriation technical standards and specific writing rules. The versions of the Cameronian newspapers on line let appear deficiencies on two levels because of technological insufficiency on the one hand and other shares of the absence of training of the journalists to cyberécriture.
1. The Cameronian newspapers seem to have followed a movement to appear modern rather than to have adapted Internet to make it relevant and financially profitable.
2. The printed newspaper remains the referent.
3. The degree of relevance of these newspapers on line is to be shown.
6. Theoretical approach
The pioneers of research on the communication of mass based their analyzes on a linear model of communication stated in the question- programs : « Who says what, with which, by which channel and with which effect ? ». Harold Lasswell developed this prototype in 1948 and set up it in paradigm. The model is summarized such as it follows :
Ø « who » is put for the transmitting source of information.
Ø « known as what » returns to the message.
Ø « With which » is the receiver of information.
Ø « By which channel » the system represents.
Ø « With which effect » translated the influence, the impact.
In reference to this nomenclature, our study answers « known as what » and « by which channel », i.e. it will be a question for us of treating message. However, we will be useful ourselves of the question « by which channel » to probe the constraints of the electronic medium. With this intention, we will initially carry out discussions with the principal persons in charge for the electronic newspapers (administrators of sites). We go in the second time to analyze the offer suggested by these actors i.e. the electronic versions of the newspapers.
According to Madeleine Grawitz, « the method is the whole of the rules or the processes to achieve under the best conditions a goal11(*) ". The rules return to the manner of explaining a fact and the processes are the techniques and means used to achieve the goal.
Our technique of analysis of contents of Internet sites of the newspapers rests on the method of analysis of contents of Madeleine Grawitz. According to Berelson, the analysis of contents is « a technique of research for the objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content communications, having for goal to interpret them » .Les12(*) tools for analysis will rise from the indicators of follow-up proposed by Annelise Touboul13(*) to know the structural components of the speech (titrailles, illustrations and logos) and the bonds hypertexts.
We used three techniques of data-gathering :
§ The information retrieval, primarily based on the consultation of the works. This exercise was done in the resource center of Esstic, the French arts center and on Internet. This last tool enabled us to download works, articles and memories coming from various horizons.
§ Observation of the facts which interest us. This second technique consisted in for us consulting during all August, the sites of the Cameronian newspapers, particularly those which return in our corpus. It is about www.cameroon-tribune.cm and. We attended with the setting on line of information and the actualization of the sites.
§ Talks and interviews : the actors expressed themselves and their speeches reinforced our analysis of the stating.
8. REVIEW of the literature
Internet is a new source of inspiration which was the subject of several work.
In 1997, the European Commission, conscious of the stakes of convergence for a company which wants to be modern and moving, published a work entitled green Livre on the convergence of the sectors of telecommunications, the media and information technologies and the implications for the regulation: towards an approach for the Company of Information. The work is interested in the practical aspects, the legal framework and the theoretical approach of this concept. This work provides the foundations of the convergence declined under several aspects : Convergence of technologies, the networks, the contents and the standards.
The research task of Annelise Touboul of the university Lumière (Lyon 2) for obtaining the DEA is entitled electronic Presse : speech and offers French press of general information on Internet network. The contents are a framework of expression of the actors of this sector to knowing the webmasters and the newspaper editors. It provides the foundations of an analysis of contents of a site of newspaper and informs on the situation of the French newspaper industry as for the applications of Internet in the media.
Pascal Lapointe, in 1999, publishes journalism per hour of the Net. This practical work explains the principal characteristics of Internet like media with whole share. Because of its multi-media character and existence of the hypertexts, it is not possible any more to write as for a printed newspaper. It is those which think that Internet brought a revolution to journalism.
During this year 1999, the Panos Institute of Paris publishes Internet to the use of the African journalists. It is an invaluable working tool which gives some councils on the manner of surfer and to make good use of the services which Internet offers. Obviously, within the framework of the production of information. It proposes also a reflection on the future of the Internet in Africa. One finds some data necessary there to determine the problem of this support in our continent.
In Esstic, several memories had like principal axis the press per hour of Internet. One can of this fact of quoting the report of Osvalde Geraldine Lewat entitled : Cyberpress in Cameroun : Analysis criticizes contents of Cameroun Actualité. It examines the structure and the data processing in Cameroun Actualité, cyberjournal produces by the supplier of Iccnet access. It arrives at the conclusion that although being webzine, the contents of this newspaper return to a traditional newspaper.
Nathaly Frieda Francoise Njoki Youmba studied in 2000 the organization and the operation of the cyberpress in Cameroun : the case of Afrik' Net near. It thus explains the process of realization and setting in consumption of the webzine and reconsiders the conditions of access to Internet in Cameroun. Its work reveals failures in the application of the règes of cyberécriture.
The work of Severin Alega Mbele in 2002 concerns the writing in a newspaper on line : The case of the political heading of Cameroon Information Net. This work emphasizes specificities of Internet like media distinct from the radio, television and the newspaper industry. It explains thanks to the example of the newspaper Cameroon Info Net, how the cyberécriture is assimilated.
9. DEFINITION of the operational concepts
The concepts used in this research task are polysemous. Thus, it is important for us to specify the semantics used for a better appreciation.
§ Highways of information : telecommunications networks which make it possible to transmit any message (voice, video, given...) with double direction with great flows and at more or less long distances. The concept of highways of information belongs from now on to the history of the networks and information technologies. A history certainly recent, but whose characteristic is to have known an evolution so fast that it quickly exceeded the strategic visions at the origin of its development in 1992. Those rested on two key concepts : the convergence and highways of information. While the concept of convergence made it possible to summarize the assets of the digitalization and the generalization of protocol IP (at the origin of Internet) as well as the meeting of the audio-visual media and telecommunication, data processing industries, the highways of information represented the goal of a planetary policy of restoration of the infrastructures on which would put back the company of information, guaranteeing the access of the greatest number to a multiplicity of services, data and contents.
§ Convergence : the European Commission, in its green Book on convergence in the company of information, tried a first definition of this concept, identified like the capacity of various platforms to transport primarily similar services, that is to say, the regrouping of the equipment general public like the telephone, television and the micro-computers. Convergence, according to this approach, is initially a convergence of the networks and infrastructures of access to information : where, in the analogical universe, the networks were conceived and configured in their infrastructure to give access to a certain type of information, convergence would mean that in the future the networks have vocation to become general-purpose. Thus speaking about the newspaper industry, the printed paper form does not constitute any more the only means of diffusion. Internet opens new possibilities thanks to the diffusion on line. Convergence in this context can then be defined as the search for new supports by the written publications.
§ Cyber : comes from the Greek kubernân, i.e. to control. This word is a prefix employed to indicate all that milked with the use of Internet. But the term will know an explosion in its use since 1984 when the American novelist of science fiction William Gibson uses cybermonde in his Neuromancer book. Net surfers - or cybernauts, connected the ones to the others thanks to the inter-connected networks of communication, are supposed to build a new world, having its own rules of organization and operation, its language and its values which belong only to him. Thus one speaks about cyberécriture to indicate the writing on Internet or about cyberjournalism to speak about the journalism whose rules are related to specificities of Internet.
§ Hypertext: the hypertext link makes it possible to reach the various occurrences of one word inside a given text. It also makes it possible to pass from a site to another thanks to a simple click of mouse. The textual data gathered are not organized according to a traditional sequential order, but they are connected between them by a system of semantic bonds which makes it possible to traverse the texts with the liking of the ideas which emerge in the course of reading. This system rests on the use of software which must manage several functions like the Hypertext Mark-up Language (HTML).
§ Multi-media: indicate combining contents, thanks to numerical coding, of the elements of different nature : texts, sounds, fixed and animated images, etc
§ Numerical: adjective which qualifies the processes of transmission, treatment and information storage using of the signals made up of a succession of figures represented in binary mode (0 ; 1).
§ Screen page- : space occupied on the screen of a computer without the run being actuated.
§ The company of information : this concept indicates a new socio-economic era, postindustrielle, which transformed the social relations because of generalized diffusion of communication and information technologies (TIC).
10. DELIMITATION of the subject
Our work examines the case of the two newspapers : Cameroon platform and Changes. The choice comes owing to the fact that these newspapers, of share their statute of daily newspaper, are held to make to an update day laborer. The time of observation is one month i.e. August 2004 is 22 editions of each version.
11. LIMITS and difficulties
The difficulties of completing a first research task as ours are numerous. The reading on a screen because of the brightness and the posture which the reading requires is the first difficulty. This is why, we proposed to print these versions on line before analyzing them. We have on this level met of the technical difficulties: slow remote loading of the pages recommended, incidents related to the software of navigation, complex procedure of impression to obtain all accurately that constitutes the document without counting the gropings dependant on our average control of the data-processing tool.
The information retrieval was a difficulty. Although more and more of authors their books devote to Internet, the access to these works is not easy. We had many sorrows to find the documents which pose the bases of the analysis of Internet sites.
The last handicap, and not of least is financial. The information retrieval, the analysis of the corpus, the comparison with other sites require financial outlays which exerted more pressure on our thin means.
This work is divided into two parts.
The contextual recalls which constitute the first part recall us to chapter 1 the origin of Internet and the services which it proposes. The second chapter entitled the electronic press reconsiders the origin of the press on line and introduced the concepts of cyberécriture and cyberjournalism. The final chapter of this part relates to the technical device declined here in the presentation of the newspapers and their access.
The second part of our work is évaluative.
Which are the applications of convergence in the traditional supports ? It is the principal concern which the chapter first tent to answer. Chapter 2 of this bets is summarized with the analysis of our corpus and chapter 3 evaluates the relevance of the sites subjected to our study.
Chapter 1 : INTERNET AND ITS COMPONENTS
Chapter 2 : THE ELECTRONIC PRESS
Chapter 3 : THE TECHNICAL DEVICE
INTERNET AND ITS COMPONENTS
« Internet, it is the new communication, more interactive than the computer, richer than the telephone, more participative than television, more economic than the fax and more rich person that the mail. It is a new mean of communication which binds to the newspapers to create a new dimension of information ».
Scott Mc Neally, person in charge for Sun14(*)
The Internet was born with setting-up from protocols TCP - IP15(*) invented by Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn in 1974. The technique allows « the setting in networks16(*) » according to the expression of the economist Elie Noam. It is important to make a short historical background and to present the various services of Internet. In more it seems necessary to us to underline which are the conditions of access to Internet in Cameroun. It is the objective of this chapter.
Section 1 Internet : History and services
I. Definition and origin
Internet is a total network with high flow of data-processing network. In other words, Internet is composed of many computers called waiters which lodg files of information. These files theirs are sent by computers customers connected by means of modems, cables or waves. Internet is a particular case of computer network for two reasons according to Peter Kent : « It is about the world network vastest and he is opened with all by the means of a subscription whose price does not cease being re-examined with the fall17(*) ». Each connected network is autonomous, with its own rules, its users, its customers, its services : The Internet is decentralized.
In 1960, the government of the United States makes a request with the Rand Corporation. It is a question of creating an infallible communication system between all the American bases disseminated in the world. This system will have to ensure the transmission of information even in the event of nuclear attack. The basic idea of the design of this system was to divide information into several packages. Each package then which can borrow a personal route (telephone Line, radio-relay systems or satellites). Carrying a number and an address, the packages would be reconstituted on arrival to compose the message of origin. The computers communicate using a common language, the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Interconnection protocol). The TCP places these packages in protected envelopes and the Internet Protocol adds the address of the computer recipient. The first tests are conclusive and in 1969, the ARPANet network is created. In 1972, one counts 37 nodes (4 at the beginning). In addition to the soldiers, scientists and researchers start to connect themselves to the network ; ARPANet facilitates the exchange of the theses and relationship between fellow-members. The transport is, consequently, the first use between networks. The system of list making it possible to send the same message to a number of users concerned with the same subject was born at the same time. At the beginning of the Eighties, ARPANet adopts the protocol of communication TCP- IP which makes it possible all the existing computers on the market to profit from a single communication system, simple and reliable. ARPANet is divided into two creating the network Milnet strictly reserved for the military use and ARPANet from now on opened with the structures independent of the military authorities. In 1990, the ARPANet network considered too expensive in maintenance and without significant development east dissolves and its users join the Nsfnet network. The number of users multiplies18(*) in the world at a vertiginous speed.
At the end of the Eighties, one counts thousands of users throughout the world. This thanks to the various services which Internet proposes.
To reach the various types of services, one must use the particular shape of address called URL, the address of unified resource. It gives access the Web pages. HTTP : // www.cameroon-tribune.cm is the URL of Cameroon platform. It includes/understands three parts which are
§ Name of the protocol used : HTTP
§ Name of the field : name of the waiter on which the file is to which you please reach. Cm is the domain name of Cameroun.
§ The access path : it is the name of the file which interests the customer.
Diagram of a URL19(*)
II. Services of Internet
The Web is the service more used and it besides will popularize Internet. The Web and Internet are two quite different things. The first is a software which is carried out on the second. One reaches it via a software of navigation such as Netscape Navigator, Netscape communicator, Microsoft Internet Explorer or Opera. The possibilities are immense, which the journalists included/understood well. It is developed since 1989 by Timothy berners- Lee, data processing specialist of the European Center of nuclear research (CERN) based in Geneva. Thanks to this system, it becomes possible to very easily create pages of information respecting a standard. The language to be used is Hyper text markup language (HTML). When at the software making it possible to sail, the first is developed by the student Illinois Marc Andreessen. It is about the software « Mosaïc » which will be distributed free. In April 1994, Jim Klark leaves the presidency of Silicon graphics and with Marc Andreessen, it creates an advanced version of Mosaïc which will be baptized Netscape Navigator.
a) The electronic mall (electronic mail)
It is the service more used. The electronic messaging is connected with the traditional mail with the only difference which it is not possible to send the material objects. It is the fastest service and the least expensive.
b) The newsgroup (newsgroups)
Usenet is the name of the computer network which takes part in drilled. The users disseminated in the world can read all the messages written by other subscribers and answer them collectively either, or by the means of their personal electronic boxes. They gather people being interested more or less in the same subjects. Contrary to the mailing lists, it is not necessary to subscribe and the Net surfer must make the essential step to consult them (to open the windows).
c) The mailing lists (mailing list)
They are presentations different from the newsgroups. In this case, the messages forward by your box with letters and the newsgroup are on the Web sites. The messages are read and sent starting from your navigator. Contrary to the newsgroup, they function with single direction : Transmitter-receiver.
d) The File Transfer Protocol (protocol of transfer of the data)
It is the whole of the standards agreed upon, applicable to the exchange of files through various communication networks using protocol TCP- IP. Sites ftp « anonymities » allow to download files without using the password. The protocol of transfer of the files is average a rapid of sending or reception of numerical data between two distant computers.
e) The push
Tool for automation of the Web. It is enough automatically to activate it with the starting of the computer. The data coming from the selected sites are automatically read and sent on your computer. As information arrives on your desk without your intervention, it is said that it is thorough from where the term «push ».
f) The Internet Relay Chat (discussion on line)
This service makes it possible to discuss in real time with other Net surfers.
Thanks to this service and by the interface of Messenger, the messages which you type are transmitted at once to your or your correspondent (S). One or more people can answer you instantaneously. It is very well adapted to the control of the interview.
The videoconference makes it possible to speak with interlocutors on Internet by seeing the images in real time. The computers of the participants must be equipped with a miniature camera (Web Camwood), of a microphone, a chart - its, loudspeakers, of a software allowing the reading of video and of an application of videoconference. It is important to have a good connection (very fast) and a powerful computer. The applications are very numerous and evolve/move with the daily newspaper because of the cost which becomes accessible.
This service makes it possible to enter in vocal communication with correspondents by the means of Internet whatever their localization geographical. It is enough to install a chart its and a microphone on the computer and to get the suitable software. It is this service which indicates them « netphones » that one proposes at lower cost in Cameroun.
h) The radio on Internet
It is one of the recent services which Internet offers ; There has existed indeed for four years. The software like audio real and streamwork makes it possible today to listen to the sounds and to transfer from the audio files. To use this application, one needs a modem which has a high speed of transfer. Since the appearance of this software which compresses the sound and makes it possible to decompress it in real time, of the stations of radio operator diffusing on Internet their sites opened.
i) Television on Internet
Internet gives also access to video applications. The treatment of the video on Internet followed the same evolution as the sound. Technology Quick Time of APPLE was one of the first to allow the integration of the vidéos on Internet. The video extract appears within a framework and in bottom of this one, there are the necessary orders which are similar to those of a video tape recorder. Today, thanks to real player, you read the images as they appear on the screen without awaiting the complete loading of the extract as that was done front. To have this functionality, it is recommended a modem a speed of transfer of at least 28,8 kbs. In addition to real player, progressive firm Network, There is Vdolive which makes it possible to look at the television news on Internet.
j) The telnet
It is a protocol of communication which makes it possible a user since his computer to be connected on a distant computer and to use the potentialities of them. It is possible to exploit the data and programs which are on this computer by typing the order text.
It makes it possible to consult for example the catalog of the libraries of the network. It is practiced on the platforms with interface textual like Unix.
It is about a software developped at the point by the university of Minnesota making it possible to the users of Internet to reach documents stored in computers connected which constitute Gopher space. This service really any more does not have of future because the Web made its appearance and was adopted by the users. The Gopher proposes the access to information only in text mode whereas the Web makes it possible to post pages with the multiple and complex graphic elements ; without speaking about the famous bonds hypertexts which made the success of the Web.
Section 2 : Internet in Cameroun
In 1992, a project of creation of national network for research and education connected to the Internet are set up : the intertropical Network of computers (RIO) launched by the French Institute for the research and the development and the Office of scientific research in the territories overseas- (ORSTOM). This network gives access to the electronic mail and to the transfer of the files During this year 92, Satellife of Cambridge connected Cameroun to its world network intended for the personnel of health: Healthnet. In 1994, the Camfido node is established in Yaounde. Its goal is to provide the possibility of exchanging information using inexpensive connections Internet. The transmissions are done via London (network greenwet)) for the faxes and the data, while the malls are transmitted by usual telephone lines twice a day. In 1995, Ensp and Orstom sign an agreement which authorizes Ensp to be dealt with the maintenance of the network. This network functions 12 H per day and 5 days per week with 5 connections via Montpellier. From 1995 to 1997, the academics of Yaounde and the polytechnicians manage, on the data-processing level, the field of Cameroun. In 1996, the University Agency of Francophonie (AUF) creates a Syfed center in Yaounde and some Syfed points in the other provinces. March 1997, the first node of access is installed in Yaounde by Intelcam21(*). It is the principal node of access. A second node of access will be brought into service to Douala. As of the experimentation of these nodes, many suppliers of access open their doors, thus proposing services such as the virtual consultations, the construction of the sites and the networks or connection Internet. Other services relate to fields such as vocal telematics, the software genius or of the trainings.
II. Models and conditions of access
The subscription with Internet also underwent the blow of popularization to him. Today, it is obvious, for a private individual, to subscribe to a subscription Internet because the prices drop regularly. The principal cause is the multiplication of the providers. They serve as « footbridge » towards Internet. They have powerful computers which are connected directly by permanent connections to broad band-width22(*). Although it is today difficult to give it complete listing, we can enumerate the principal ones.
Table N° 1 : Principal the providers of the town of Yaounde
Source : Data brought up to date by the author on the basis of the work of Michel Tjade Eone. Op.cit. P.87.
Cameroon Télécommunications proposes two types of connection Internet to Cameroun23(*).
§ The direct connection used by the large companies, the universities which have important computer sites with terminals and a permanent connection with Internet network (telephone line specialized at high speed, optical fibers, satellite connections). It gives access to the totality of the services of Internet without it being necessary to be connected to each use. The computer belongs to Internet network. This connection requires a permanent direct connection between the routers (distant Cases allowing two or several networks to exchange data) with each end.
§ Remote connection (Dial- up) reserved to the private individuals or the small companies which do not have the means of investing in the expensive specialized connections. It consists in being connected to the request on a distant site in order to connect itself to Internet. They use the services of a provider to connect itself simultaneously to Internet. But the performances are less than those of the direct connections, they depend in particular on the speed of the modem and quality of the telephone line. It gives access to the totality of services Internet but not in a permanent way. Each access requires a procedure of connection. The computer belongs to the network, but since one is connected only to the request, the messages must be stored in the waiter of the supplier of access.
Once the subscription subscribes, it is necessary to lay out :
§ Of a fast modem of 28800 bps, 33600bps, 56000bps.
§ Of a software of connection PPP (not- to- not protocol) or SLIPWAY (serial line Internet Protocol).
These two protocols make it possible to be connected to the provider. They allow a specific connection which connects and integrates the customers into Internet network.
Connection occurs in two times : Telephone number system and connection to the provider. It is then necessary to seize the login and the password. The supplier of access recognizes these two data and starts protocol PPP, the purchaser is from now on an element of Internet network.
Cameroun proposes a subscription Internet with two types of access :
§ The access by commutated telephone network.
§ The access by specialized connections.
The cost depends on the type of access. It is enough to fill a request of subscription. It is in this context that many Cameronian newspapers could acquire some machines, to connect itself and to even have versions on line.
At the end of this chapter, we realize well that the Web is not the only service that Internet offers. But the Web, thanks to its graphic interface supported the popularization of the Net. In addition, Cameroun made considerable projections in the field of connection. In 1997, when the first node of access was installed in Yaounde, only Intelcam provided access Internet to Cameroun. Nowadays one counts more than one ten providers in the only town of Yaounde. Moreover, on the technological level, the quality of connection increased and is increasingly fast. This fast connection is an element essential to the management of the newspapers on Internet.
THE ELECTRONIC PRESS
« The printed paper form will not disappear, but it will be probably eccentric on the digitized document [...] Obviously, the printed text will not be any more the support impossible to circumvent of very written, but will correspond rather to certain ways of reading, studious reading 24(*)».
Jean Claude Guédon
The electronic press is the publication of the newspapers on Internet. Cameroun followed the engaged step to the United States- and today, of many Cameronian publications exist on the fabric. Which are particularisms of this new type of diffusion of information and which changes that implies on the level of the trade of journalist ? In addition to elucidating these concerns, this chapter recalls the history of the press on line.
Section 1 : beginnings of the press on line
Many authors consider that the rise of the electronic press rises from the introduction of the computer into the production process of the newspaper.
The American newspaper The New York Times was the first to make studies on the subject between 1968 and 197225(*). The electronic Journal expression will evolve/move and today, this term indicates the newspapers which are diffused on Internet and not those which use the data-processing tools.
I. Origin of the press on line
The beginnings of the press on line go back to year 1992 in the United States. The first experiment of setting on line was made by Chicago Tribune by the means of the American waiter one line. But the first newspaper to benefit from Internet is the daily newspaper San Jose Mercury news. The site set up by the knight group- to wrinkle has as a name Mercury news. This newspaper proposes since May 1993, an electronic version of Mercury news and it offers also many additional information 26(*): Documents of news service, articles not published in the printed edition, complete texts of conferences, stock exchange data, complete programs of the chains of television and small advertisements. If the operational limits are not negligible, the possibilities of these new media encouraged many groups of press to launch out in the adventure. Although the United States is pioneers on the matter, the press on line develops quickly and conquers other continents like Africa and of the countries like Cameroun.
II. The press on line in Cameroun
Certain Cameronian newspapers become aware of the advantages which propose the Net and in their turn, create their Internet sites. They consequently start to seek an assistantship different from that of their version paper. Emmanuel Gustave Samnick27(*), speaking about this public affirms : « We are very happy to receive calls of Honolulu or Washington, calls of readers of changes on line ». Among the services which these newspapers propose, one with the reading of the articles, the consultation of the files and the possibility of reacting or of contacting the authors of the articles. These services are free but to reach some like the invitations to tender, Cameroon platform requires to be subscribed with the transport cameroon-tribune.cm. Thanks to the hyperlinks, one can have information on the company or Cameroun. Here the list of the Cameronian newspapers which have or which had a version on line.
Table N° 2 : List Cameronian newspapers on Internet
Source : Internet
Section 2 : Cyberéciture and cyberjournalism
Since the author of science fiction William Gibson invented the cyberspace term, the prefix cyber is used abundantly. According to Gibson, this term indicates
« The information which circulates on the data-processing networks equipping all that forwards there of a worrying form of quasi- life as if the networks were the support of a new virtual universe in the process of becoming autonomous compared to the real world 28(*)» ;
I.e. the cyberspace is on the way to become an independent world compared to the real world.
The basic difference between the modes of writing of the newspapers printed and electronic, it is that information (texts, sounds and images) while being automated thanks to digitalization can be restructured by the user. Information can thus be recombined in a data-processing way according to the choices of the reader. However, the essence of the trade of journalist does not change with Internet although the cyberécriture has some characteristics because of structure of a newspaper on line.
1. Characteristics of the newspaper on line
The interactivity between the journalist and his reader was not born with Internet since, since the invention of the transmitter, letters to the Editor and receiver dialog. But Internet gives a new broadth to the interactivity, transforms the relationship between the journalist and his reader. Thanks to the electronic mail, the reader can react on an article, request precise details from his author. On Internet, the reader, through the malls, drilled them or the newsgroup, can react instantaneously in an article and thanks to the cat, it can discuss with the author the article or other journalists the drafting. «The revolution, it is that the receiver becomes in its transmitting turn and this with the same tool which is used to him to receive information29(*) ». by-there same, the Community function of the newspaper (and fidelity for the publication) are reinforced, as the multiplication testifies some to drilled discussions on the Web sites of the newspapers.
The newspaper on line can combine sounds, texts, images and vidéos but because of the time of important loading that it implies, the multi-media one is used very little in the pages of the newspapers. Multi-media assistance especially to be triumphed over the handicaps which one had believed insurmountable. Thanks to the hypertext, the written text is released from its linearity.
The printed newspaper is limited in space. The radio and television are limited by time. The Internet does not know any of these two limits. Thanks to his tree structure, the journalist can add information at any hour, to associate new information on the old ones while making them readable thanks to the hyperlinks. It is then easy to multiply the levels of processing of data. The segmentation of the levels of reading is infinitely open.
The almost paradoxical force of the Internet is to address themselves to the greatest number but also to be able to hold the attention of the public targeted to offer specific and personalized information to him. Internet marks the advent of « one to one », this practice come from the direct marketing and which, for the editors of press, consists in delivering on line, a single edition for each reader, according to his needs. One calls upon the cookies for this method. The cookies are small files which the sites write directly on the hard disk of the user. They can make it possible to allot a code particular to each user, then referred in the data base of the Web site. The type of collected information relates to the activities of the user when this one is connected: the opening of session, preferences, the last visited site... Conceived at the origin for the recognition of the visitors frequently reconsidering a site, their principal function is today to seize the principal characteristics of the user to adapt the contents (and in particular the publicity) of a Web site to its waitings.
2. The hypertext
According to Larousse 2003, the word « hyper » has a Greek origin and means « above ». A hyperspace is a space with several dimensions and one « hypertext » aims what is with the top of the text. It is a nonlinear mode of writing. « A hypertext link makes it possible to reach the various occurrences of one word inside a given text 30(*)» i.e. to find all that can compose a given information. The idea of the hypertext finds its origin in work of the American mathematician Vanevar Bush who in 1945, conceives Mérimex (system of management and access to knowledge). It stores books and documents on magnetic tape and develops a method of indexing which rests on the use of the bonds between information. In 1965, Ted Nelson conceives the project Xanadu (universal library inside which it would be possible to circulate by using the bonds hypertexts). He was the first to use the word hypertext.
The principle is as follows : You click on a letter, a word or an expression and that return you towards another page in your site or elsewhere. The descriptive one used for the reference can be the underlining, the fat, the colors and the icons.
The bonds which link the pages of the same site, autonomous documents equipped with a clean URL are materialized by the hypertexts, forms specific of the multi-media communication, meaning forms of the new mediation suggested by the press on line and of the role conferred on the Net surfer.
The bonds hypertextuels obey a particular design which derives from hyperécriture. According to Jakob Nielsen, it y' has three rules with hyperécriture31(*).
§ To be concise : an ideal page should contain between 500 and 4000 signs.
§ To write for « scannability » : The police forces of titles will have to be sizes higher than those used for the text. Preferably fatty and color.
§ sentences : 15 words. Quantify which returns to the amnesic empan (average capacity of immediate retention of information by a human being).
The text, with the screen, is different from the text paper. The luminosity and the flutter of the screen cause tiredness and can obstruct the reading. In more with the screen, there is a sight partial of the text. In 1998, engineer Jakob Nielson provided the foundations of the Web writing by studies on the behavior of the Net surfers : the latter would read 25 % more slowly to the cathode ray tube and 79% of them would sweep the texts. He explains why like the reader of the newspaper industry, the reader it presses it on line generally will start by flying over the page and afterwards, he will read attentively what interests it32(*).
In the world of the press on line, the journalistic function loses its traditional reference marks. It is preferable for the journalists to offer to the reader contents enriched thanks to the resources which support Internet offers. Article, the journalist must pass to the multi-media treatment of the subject and especially, the journalist loses the monopoly which it held on the access to the sources of information and consequently the monopoly of their diffusion. By regarding Internet as particular media and the cyberécriture like a style related to the media, it is necessary to wonder about the cyberjournalism.
It is the direct consequence of the World Wide Web. The fabric provides data coming from various origins and that calls into question one of the fundamental missions of journalism : To inform. Initially, it loses its monopoly of access to the sources of information because everyone can seek information on the Net. In the second place, the diffusion of information can from now on be done without the driving belt that are the journalists: no matter who has the right to put on line an informative site proclaiming itself.
With this demonopolisation of the access to the sources the loss of the monopoly of diffusion is added. Whoever can autoproclamer cyberjournalist. Moreover, thanks to the low cost which the creation of a Web site supposes, the majority of the actors of the social life can from now on disseminate and exchange directly their original information without necessarily passing by the filter of the journalists. The situation becomes complicated more in the countries as Cameroun where the profession is in lack of reference mark. Who is a journalist in Cameroun ? In the absence of a satisfactory answer to this question, it is difficult to define the cyberjournalist.
The superabundance of information and the absence of control make fabric a kind of Pandora's box. One finds there indeed, a very great number of propaganda, rumors and not checked information. One of the obvious examples of this loss of credibility is the syndrome of Salinger33(*). The other danger lies in the falsification of the documents. This is facilitated by the technological possibilities related to digitalization. The question of credibility returns basically to the control of the journalistic techniques to knowing to recut and check information before their diffusion.
In a context of superabundance of information, demonopolisation of information and his diffusion, the journalist is challenged. This new profession requires some knowledge and competences.
To distinguish the good from bad, the truth of the forgery, the intoxication of information is a very difficult task and it is it with what the cyberjournalist occupies itself. Thus, the added value that the journalist brings to information is invaluable.
Many search engines, on the basis of data introduced by the Net surfer give arranged information. But all is mixed there and it belongs to that which seeks information to sort. Ethics and the deontology are more than ever of setting in this context.
Vis-a-vis the increasingly strong competition of these new actors, the difficulty for the companies of press on line is double. On the one hand, it is very often difficult to determine on the Internet which is the statute of the information which one consults : it is of information presses, an advertizing story, contents produced by an agency of communication or journalists amateurs ? In addition, distinction in term of « quality » between information is increasingly difficult to establish. This double process of jamming which relates to the origin and the nature of the information disseminated on the Internet represents of not to doubt the great challenge that the companies of press on line have to raise.
Information in line which CT diffuses on its site comes from the undeniable sites and the choice was not done by chance. Like specified it the administrator of the site in a maintenance, CT took account of credibility. The partners of this information uninterrupted are the French agency of press, Reuters or Rfi (radio international France).
The cyberjournalist must control this new form of writing which takes account of the limits of the support and the tree structure of the contents. He must manage intelligently to exploit the assets which Internet offers to manage to give clear information, alive and complete. The problem of the writing on the Net does not arise yet for the newspapers in Cameronian line because it is the resumption of the printed versions. They is more the journalists of the webzines which make efforts of control of these particularisms related to Internet. What is envisaged in the short run with CT for example, it is the rewriting of the articles to return them more adapted to the support. The webmaster of CT contrary to that of Changes can change the formulation of the titles to return them hookers on the Net.
Considering the situation of the two newspapers of our corpus, it is noted that the principal craftsman of the versions on line is the webmaster called also administrator of site because it is him which entirely manages the contents of the site. In both cases, the webmasters are data processing specialists who made an adapted formation ; the school of the HTML. It is the base of the formation of a webmaster. They thus learn how to create hypertexts, to assemble pages, to activate or to decontaminate beacons... as we mentioned above, it is more in the webzines the journalists acquire this formation. However CT already has in project the progressive training of these journalists to the control of language HTML. « We are in full creation of a cell of training of the journalists of the drafting and long-term, they will be able to put on line information34(*) ».
These remarks of the administrator of the site of CT show the concern of the newspapers well to integrate the concepts of cyberjournalist in the draftings. Indeed, even if information that we read on line is only the copy of what is diffused in the printed paper form, it required there to change the setting into the shape of the titles which must arouse the interest of the reader. The team of drafting online must have extra competences- journalistic complementary to the traditional edition.
For a success of the version on line of their publication, the directors of company of press do not need only human competences, but also, of a suitable technical device.
« The phenomenon of convergence is sometimes had a presentiment of like leading to the unification of the various uses in the same terminal. However, it is increasingly clear that many types of terminals will coexist, each one being more or less adapted to certain uses. Lastly, from a technical point of view, many possibilities of access to the high flows exist from now on, even if their deployment is today only at one very limited stage ».
The setting on line of information undoubtedly requires a great investment in technological terms of infrastructures. This chapter examines the essential technique in the case of the newspapers of our corpus.
Section 1 : Presentation of the newspapers
Maurice Kamto, professor at the university of Yaounde II and Protais Ayangma, general manager of the national Company of insurance are the principal shareholders of the Génération weekly magazine. They decide to remelt their newspaper in 1996. The project is entrusted to Alphonse Soh, engineer data processing specialist ; Haman Mana, journalist with CT and Alain Blaise Batongue, journalist with Génération. After 4 months of work (January- April 1996), the latter realize that the preferable solution is the setting-up of a new newspaper. The team calls upon other journalists (Emmanuel Gustave Samnick, Felix Cyriaque Ebolé Bola, Emmanuel Mbede and Mireille Bisseck) and baptize the Mutations newspaper. « We decided to make a newspaper as we learned at the school, as we felt it, as we wanted it. We made Mutations, even just to test 36(*)». « In the secrecy of the markets of the OAU, inquires into nebula organization of the top »; Such is the title that the public of the town of Yaounde discovers on July 8, 1996. The leading line is : «Sharp in the tone, serious in the behavior, cultural in the vision and iconoclast in the positions ».
July 8 1996- February 19 2002:300 Fcfa.
February 19, 2002- July 8, 2003 : 200 Fcfa.
July 8, 2003- Currently : 300 Fcfa.
Newspaper CT was created on July 1, 1974. The environment in which the newspaper is driven does not give him an other choice as regards leading line only that to promote the governmental policy. With its birth, it is the Cameronian Company of press which publishes it. Sopecam succeeds SCP by order in Council of July 18, 1977 and is placed under the supervision of Mincom. It is a publicly-owned establishment in commercial and industrial matter. It is placed under the authority of a General manager named by order in Council and responsible for the management and the application of the internal policy decided as a board of directors. The turnover has at its head a president named by order in Council. The members of CA, ten approximately, come from various administrations (presidency of the Republic, ministries, national Assemblée). Sopecam has four directions :
§ Direction of the drafting of Cameroon- platform.
§ Direction of the drafting of Camnews (arranges of press).
§ Direction of the production and the equipment (technical Direction).
§ Direction of the financial businesses.
Sopecam which replaced in 1977 the Company of press of Cameroun.
Section 2 : Technical device
I. Access to the network
1. The supplier of access Internet
The FAI of the newspapers cameroon- tribune.cm and quotidienmutations.net is Creolink Cameroon. It provides an access to Internet without wire and uses the radio waves : just like a radio operator signal, the data are transmitted towards the computer customer via the antennas. It is not a question of a direct access by satellite ; although the two types of access make a data transmission without telegraphic support. The access by satellite consists in sending and to receive the data through Vsat (very small aperture terminal) and the satellites orbits about it around the ground.
The FAI which inter alia services designs the Web pages limits, for these two newspapers, with the connection Internet of the companies. The administrator of the site undertakes the remainder. Because as ARIANE Tientcheu affirms it, account to manage in Creolink cameroon « We respect the schedule of conditions. In addition to connection, we bring a technical aid for the maintenance of the network which we configured37(*) ».
The flow of a connection by radio waves is very high. 128 are bordered Kbits (whereas the cybercafés have a flow from approximately 58 Kbits). The central connection comes from the United States- and is done by Vsat. This connection makes it possible to be directly related to the this and mother of all networks in individual a hop without passing by a multitude of relay or router.
2. Material used
To be able to collect the waves, one needs a bidirectional antenna placed a few meters outside the company. It is a pylon of radio which receives the data of the transmitting antenna of the FAI. One needs then a receiver. It is about a computer placed in the company. This machine is connected to the antenna via a coaxial or twisted cable. This computer plays the part of router and forwards Internet to the other computers of the company. CT currently has forty machines and Mutations a score. They are connected to the router. Connection is easier.
The machines on which are designed the Web pages are particular because they must have a very great capacity of filing.
CT uses Pentium 3 of mark Zenith with a hard disk of 20 Go and Mutations uses Pentium 3 of 40 Go of capacity.
II. Access to the newspaper on the Net
1. Opening of the window
For reaching a newspaper on its computer via Internet, It is necessary to proceed to some operations : To light the computer, to open the software of navigation (Netscape navigator or Internet to explore) and to establish connection. When the connection is certain, to type the URL of the newspapers in space reserved to this end. www.cameroun-tribune.cm or www.quotidienmutations.net. One does not need to specify the protocol of http:// language. When an address IP should be introduced, one does not specify any more www, one writes it directly. Example for CT, one writes 20723415934, one clicks on Ok or one types the entered key of the keyboard. It is then necessary to show patience because time passes before these sites do not open. Compared to the time of opening of the pages of these newspapers, it is advisable to bring a precision. Changes is lodged in the United States- and has a generic domain name38(*) « Net » whereas CT is lodged in Cameroun ; this is why, it is accompanied by cm. Changes puts little time to open compared to CT.
2. Consultation of the newspaper
The Home Page is the first contact between the reader and the newspaper. It is about the One of the electronic newspaper. The first report which strikes with the opening of the Web pages of the newspapers is this reduced surface which is devoted to them. It is then impossible to have a total sight of the page. Taking into account this fact, it is necessary to use a mouse to make ravel the page. The page is an abstract representation which requires a mental operation of rebuilding. The elements of the bar of menu are present and cannot be masked. Even if Microsoft Internet Explorer, to be convivial, uses the icons representing the principal functions, there is an omnipresence of the technique. That which consults the newspaper do not release to in no case the mouse. This tool enables him to evolve/move in the universe of the newspaper. The mouse also makes it possible to the reader to click on the bonds hypertexts whose location is facilitated by the underlining, the color, the illustrations and the icons. To activate a bond is to expect a reference. The duration of the remote loading varies with the weight of the files.
The technique is omnipresent. Thus, with Daniel Bougnoux, we consider that with
« L apparent transmitter of a statement (the team of setting in line of a newspaper), it is appropriate to add the recipient who copilot the message, but also the medium which coproduit, authorizes or conveys that- Ci39(*) ».
This insofar as the reader decides on what it will read and media Internet through the hypertexts give him this possibility and the assistance to look further into its research on information.
This chapter enabled us to include/understand why, of many Cameronian sites did not hold the blow of an existence on line. Internet relates to only those which have the means of offering it because it is a field where strongly technology dominates.
USES AND IMPACTS OF CONVERGENCE
Chapter 1 : CONVERGENCE AND ITS APPLICATIONS
Chapter 2 : ANALYZE INTERNET SITES
Chapter 3 : WORKING OF THE NEWSPAPERS
CONVERGENCE AND ITS APPLICATIONS
« From a technical point of view, the digitalization of information supported convergence around the computer and other technologies of the communication. [...] That does not mean that the Internet inevitably will replace various technologies of transport and access to information. But those, at the very least, will be strongly called in question in the years which come40(*) ».
Convergence is a new phenomenon and which makes considerable great strides thanks to Internet which allows a universal communication in real time between the Men of all the corners of the world. Convergence touches all the trades including journalism. On which level this implication of convergence in the media is perceptible ? This chapter examines the impact of this news gives in the traditional media which are the radio, the TV and the newspaper industry. We will thus have a description of the sites subjected to our study. But front, it is necessary to determine the range of this concept of convergence.
Section 1 : DEFINITION OF THE CONCEPT
I. To define its range
The company of information is becoming a reality. The transformations which it goes inférer are at such a point that a top in two times is devoted to him. It is about the world top on the company of the information, whose first phase proceeded in Geneva in 2003 and the second phase will take place in November 2005 in Tunisia. This phenomenon is fed by the fast change of technologies which transform the information industries. The emergence of this company of the knowledge is more facilitated by the numerical revolution which upsets and transforms the world of the data processing industry. The green book published by the European Commission on convergence in the company of information gives several definitions of the concept of convergence: « Capacity of various punts- forms to transport the primarily similar services41(*) » ; « Regrouping of the equipment general public like the telephone, television and the micro-computers42(*) ».
This last direction is popularized the most and in spite of that, the convergence of the equipment is less real today than the convergence of the networks. Convergence is especially that of the services, offered either separately but starting from an accessible offer grouped thanks to multipurpose terminals abolishing the borders which exist between the equipment.
It is strong of this principle of the abolition of the borders that the world of the edition underwent the blow of the revolution. Today, by preoccupation with a modernity and to fulfill the requirements of a diversified, universal and demanding public, many publications invested the fabric.
II. Evolution of the concept
The concept of convergence appeared in the Eighties starting from a simple report which holds, essentially, with the fast development of the digitalization of the signals (texts, images and sounds) and of the networks which transmit these signals. This digitalization consists in returning to a simpler system of coding of the signal resting on representable impulses in the form of 0 and of 1. This binary code circulates in the networks and is decoded by a terminal which restores it in its analogical form.
This new fashion of transmission of information, inherited the data processing and its capacities of calculation, could spread only with « vulgarizing » of the computer. The computer became not only one tool allowing numerical coding, but also an instrument of communication from now on integrated into the network and determining operation.
« This is why even if the principle of the convergence of data processing and telecommunications could have been preceded as of the years 1970, it is only more tardily, under the impulse of the fast development of Internet and the protocol IP which convergence really continued like a principle guiding communication and information technologies43(*) ".
Section 2 : Impacts in the mediae
One nowadays attends a convergence between technologies of the communication and those of the data processing. This thanks to the digitalization of the communication systems which, essentially, rest on a simple formula ; That of the analogical information division in a continuation of 0 and 1.
« This representation could be moulted in real applications thanks to the improvement of the performance of the mathematical processes which ensure of it the calculation and, thanks to progress of the technology of the integrated circuits which carry out it concretely and in real time44(*) ".
In fact more technological progress supported the emergence of this convergence.
The digitalization of information mixes and amalgamates the instruments of treatment and transport of information. Thus the every the traditional day, mass media that are television, the radio and the newspaper industry evolve/move and are restructured more in a more attractive form, more ludic with a bottom more personalized because the consumer can build the contents of the media. In the wave of these innovations, one with the numerical radio, digital television and the press online.
I. The radio and the television of the future
It is the new numerical standard of broadcasting. The sound, digitalized is of a quality largely higher than the analogical sound (of the receivers current). The reception of Dab is perfect some is the rate of travel of the listener. In addition to the hertzian wave transmission of the sounds with an unequal quality, Dab thus allows the diffusion of the texts and the images.
1987 are the date of launching of the European project Eureka 147 in Stockholm in Sweden. The goal of the program is to develop a European standard making it possible to control the numerical radio.
In 1994, the standard Eureka 147 is recognized by the International Telecommunication Union as being only being able to diffuse numerical audio programs. 1998 mark the opening of this radio operator with general public with his marketing.
According to Dr.'s Abolo Mbita, digitalization makes it possible the communication system to profit from seven virtues : quality, quantity, mobility, convenience, effectiveness, diversity and universality.
But in a context of universality, proximity and collaboration, Dab will quickly be integrated in the practices of listening of African in general and Cameronian in particular. On the strictly professional level, even the techniques of assembly of the sounds evolved/moved. Band of assembly (which always exists), certain stations of radio as Crtv adapted the cabins of numerical assembly (radio assist): A technique of assembly computer-assisted. The sound is released from all uselessnesss and returned is appreciable. And more and more, the Cameronian journalists adapt the audio DIGITAL types. But like known as so well Dr. Abolo Mbita,
« Cameroun will be able can be to taste with the joys of Dab. But it is still necessary to traverse a way long and sown obstacles : Liberalization of the audio-visual landscape, modernization of the existing systems and transformation of popular mentalities with respect to the mass culture45(*) ».
These remarks can be brought up to date. Because in 2000, the decree of application of the law on the audio-visual communication was made public by the Ministry for the communication. So Cameroun needs to be modernized and especially to transform mentalities. Another challenge which challenges the journalists
It is this new way of recording and of transmitting animated images (video) and sound (audio). Digital television, has used the same type of technology employed by the industry of the disc for a few years, i.e. one takes several measurements of the sound. From these measurements, one calculates what the sound waves should have been and one reproduces them. It is this process by many measurements which one calls « digital recording ». Today these measurements are in binary codes and the laser beam does not damage the disc. The TVHD is an application of digital technologies. It is of a better video quality and the image is larger. One can also join several channels and recreate to it an environment like that of the movie theaters.
« All the specialities of the media get along for saying that television and Internet will approach. It is what they name convergence. [...] The obstacle which occurs on the ways of this convergence and which was not solved is technical and of a great economic stake : even digital, the TV would not be precise enough for the posting of the texts and the precise graphs of the Web 46(*)».
Indeed, the TV was conceived for a remote contact whereas the computer is used in bringing together with the user.
Contrary to our current television sets, the TVHD has a better quality of image, a format of broader screen, the images are clearer and the better color.
II. Convergence in the newspaper industry
It is the site of the bilingual national daily newspaper. The banner page is divided into three columns :
The first column includes/understands the logo of the newspaper. Under this logo, there are 5 icons
The second column, most important in term of space contains 12 articles (of which some illustrated) which constitute the One of the electronic newspaper. The higher part of this column is reserved for the advertizing banners. Although the webmaster declares « As we do not have yet of marketing policy, we make the publicity of the anthology of the speeches of the president of the Republic. This document is the work of Sopecam47(*) ». The third column includes/understands the logo of Sopecam, the meter of the visits (hit), the One miniature of the printed newspaper, the information uninterrupted which comes from the news services, the dialog box for the research of the files by key words, the drawing of the day made by the Retin caricaturist, the survey and the newsletter. The principle of the newsletter is that of the selection of certain articles to forward them directly in the electronic boxes of the subscribed readers to this service. That takes part of the preoccupation with a personalization of information such as Internet allows it48(*). Unfortunately, this function is not activated yet. The site is free but to reach the invitations to tender, it is necessary to be subscribed with the transport cameroon- tribune.cm.
§ Address IP : 20723415934.
§ Frequency of update : Daily : from Monday to Sunday.
§ Administrator : Jean Essissima Baptist.
§ FAI : creolink Cameroon.
§ Email : email@example.com.
The design of the banner page of Changes is different from that of CT. To describe it, we will represent the various parts in the following diagram :
N°1 graph : Diagram of the newspaper Changes
Source : the author.
A lays out the logo of the newspaper. Under this logo, there is a photograph fixed, practically the only one of this page; it does not have any bond but the title in lower part of this photograph is a bond towards the file of the articles on the last edition of the black Screens. This photograph is known as standard because the users can neither copy it, nor to increase it. We have then the last edition of the newspaper. This bond returns to the last update of the newspaper. Not to mislay the reader who, in the search of filed information, wants to return to the edition in progress. The listing of the headings follows. With the bottom of this column A, one finds the files which the newspaper wants to put forward. To have information on a precise heading, it is necessary to click on the heading and to read the last 10 day old articles.
B comprises the advertizing banner most important of the site (it is not only). During our month of observation, it was the publicity of Gwedi, the directory Web international which occupied this space. Under this streamer, there are the large titles ravelling. Matérialisation of these large titles is a strategic choice to make it possible to the readers to have information on the articles which remain for the drafting, relevant. Their number is limited. Here the titles ravelling which one identified during our observation.
§ The newspaper which disturbs : scenarios of after Biya.
§ Single thought : can- one still think differently ?
§ After Biya : scenarios of the future.
§ Chantal Biya, president of the shade.
One finds in this column, the current date, the name of the D.P, the titles ravelling inter alia. And also bonds towards the supplements of the newspaper, the books, the large files, the forum, the mail, the mailing list, the subscription, publicity and Changes confidential. The majority of these bonds are not activated. To reach the files, a drop-down menu proposes the date to be chosen and it is necessary to click on OK to have access to the whole edition of the newspaper. The files of Changes go until N° 861 of Monday March 10, 2003.
The publicity which is with the bottom of this column is entitled : UNESCO- Nepad : repertory of African of the diaspora/index off africans off the diaspora/Register-/You register.
C is the space reserved for the synopsis. One at the date of the edition and all the articles referents.
D carries the signature of the newspaper : 2002- 2003 QUOTIDIENMUTATIONS.NET published by South media corporation.
§ Name of the site : www.quotidienmutations.net.
§ Address IP : 649125382.
§ Frequency of update : Daily : From Monday to Friday.
§ Administrator : Samuel Ngué.
§ FAI : creolink Cameroon.
§ Email : firstname.lastname@example.org.
This chapter was limited to a descriptive presentation of Internet sites of CT and Changes. Thus, it is difficult to decide on this level compared to a possible integration of the standards of convergence. The following chapter carries out this analysis.
ANALYZE INTERNET SITES
« If, generally, the standardization of the shapes of the press on line seems to draw an emergent kind, the singular identity of each title remains to be defined as well it appears as the editors confuse stating and signature, putting more care to mark each element of the territory leading, anxious to mean their filiation with the printed edition, rather than to create the conditions of a singular stating49(*) ».
This chapter proposes the analysis of the sites which constitute our corpus. The period of analysis is August 2004. To analyze contents of site is different from the analysis of contents of the newspapers. The pr. Emmanuel Tonye, engineer data processing specialist, at a working session affirmed us that the configuration of the sites is different according to the contents. A site of newspaper is different from a site of kitchen or research scientific. To analyze, it is then important to initially observe specificities of the type of site in order to bring out the scientific elements of analyzes. Thus we decided to follow the groundwork of Annelise Touboul which identifies the elements of this analysis of Internet sites of the newspapers. Thus the categories are those of A. Touboul But the instruments of analysis are those which Madeleine Grawitz proposes.
Section 1 : Methodological choices
I. Method of analysis
It is a question for us of showing on the one hand how the contents of the versions on line are managed and other shares, which is the degree of relevance of these newspapers in line (those constituting our corpus). Thus, we will study or better analyze the various screen pages-. Documentation on the analysis of the elements of the screen page- are rare. We go from this fact of exploiting the diagram used by Annelise Touboul in its report of DEA.
Annelise Touboul leaves the principle presented by the pr. Jean François Têtu which specifies that : « a semiotic analysis of the screen page- implies to regard the page as a unit, a whole, a plan 50(*)».
We thus will analyze the elements which return in the composition of a screen page- to knowing the title and the logo of the newspaper, the titraille, the headings, the illustrations and the hypertext. They will be there the measuring units of the relevance of these sites. We will be based on the method of analysis of the contents of Madeleine Grawitz51(*) to complete this work.
The comparative analysis of the principal meaning elements of the model and the tree structure of these two newspapers will enable us to release some differences but more especially some significant reports related to specificities of Cameroun. Even if we quote the versions papers regularly, we did not want to make a comparison between the versions on line and the printed versions since the contents of the articles are not modified on the one hand and other shares, the supports are different. It acts for us through certain elements suitable for the Web to show which is the degree of application of convergence i.e. is what the newspapers respect the tree structure of their newspapers, the interactivity and the personalization of the offer.
II. Diagram of analysis
The technical stages of our analysis are those which Mr. Grawitz proposes. This examination is done on the basis of choice of the categories and the units of quantification.
Madeleine Grawitz defines the categories as being « significant headings, in function of which the contents will be classified and possibly quantified ». By taking account of the indicators of follow-up which A. Touboul proposes, we can define the categories as the principal meaning elements of the model and the tree structure of each newspaper. Thus the categories are on the one hand the structural components of the speech in line (the title and the logo, the titraille, the headings, illustrations) ; other shares the bonds hypertexts.
The principal unit of quantification that we will use is the unit of numeration. This to formulate the frequency of the illustrations and the hypertexts.
Section 2 : Distribution by categories
I. Structural components of the contents of the newspaper
We now will identify the elements which use the composition of the screen pages- and which play a fundamental part in the esthetic and semantic construction of the newspaper. These elements are the name of the newspaper and its logo, the headings, the titraille, the illustrations and the bonds hypertexts.
1. Name of the newspaper and logotype
Table N° 3 : Observation on the logos
Source : the author.
Changes changes name but in the denomination chosen, one finds the name of the newspaper. This is important because the credit that the users grant to the versions on line depends partly on the prestige which enjoys the printed version.
Beside the name of newspaper CT, one can miss noticing the presence of the logo of Sopécam occupying same space only that of the newspaper. It is about the company editor of the newspaper. Changes during the period of our study posted the logo of Gwedi and CT made the publicity of the anthology of the speeches of the president of the Republic. The administrator of the site of CT, during a maintenance, affirmed us that the newspaper did not develop yet the online advertizing. It is the same for Mutations.
The name of the newspaper is a referent which makes it possible to identify a newspaper some is its support. It is an introductory signature. But contrary to the printed newspaper where one does not find the logo of the newspaper in all the pages, the sites post the logos in all the pages. To point out their identity during the references hypertextuels.
Larousse defines the heading as « A category of articles on a given subject appearing regularly in a newspaper ». Daily, the headings are used to structure the newspaper. The shape and the order of the headings differ from a newspaper to another. Changes renews the titraille of its printed newspaper : extra title, title and hat and add the heading to the end. CT states initially the heading then the title and the hat. Changes gives access to all the titles of articles of the newspaper, edition of the day whereas for reading CT, it is necessary to click on a heading ; because only some titles are stated with the One. To click on the heading of a heading with Mutations, it is to seek the last 10 day old articles written in the heading.
N°4 table : Comparison of the titles of printed CT and in line (Edition of August 30, 2004)
Source : the author.
N°5 table : Comparison of the titles of Changes and the articles of the banner page (Edition of August 30, 2004)
Source : the author.
These two tables are carried out on the basis of importance that these newspapers grant to certain news. Thus, the imposing titles of the One of the printed version are the principal news which the newspaper communicates to the public. We note that the classification is not respected in the setting into liege of this information.
The webmaster of CT seems freer in the classification of these titles. The order is not respected. On 8 titles in One, only 4 are found on the banner page. Changes with some exceptions close keep the same order as that of the version paper.
As for the order that the headings take, the opinions and the methods are varied. The webmaster of CT affirms that it chooses the titles of its One whereas Mutations follows practically the order of relevance of the printed version.
Let us note on this level the formula adopted by CT which consists in recalling the headings to all bottoms of pages thus making it possible to pass from a heading to another without returning in the banner page.
The titles, are used as guide. According to the force of body in which a title is written, it can arouse the interest of the reader. Changes uses the titles in its columns of information but, because of presentation in the form of list, the title loses of its interest. The titles announce simply the articles.
N°6 table : Comparison of the forces of body of the titles of CT and Changes online (editions of August 27, 2004).
Source : the author.
The difference between the extra title and the hat in Mutations is the heavy type of the title. CT attaches more importance to the title by putting it at the top of the hat. Moreover, the verdana, the police force which CT uses has more pastings than arial, the character which uses Mutations. So the titraille of CT is more visible than that of Changes.
CT separates the various elements from the titraille whereas Mutations aligns them. There is only the fat which distinguishes the title from the other elements because the extra titles and the hats have the same force of body.
We chose the essential visual variables such as photography, the drawings and the icons.
Table N° 7 : Illustrations with CT and Changes
(Editions of August 27, 2004)
Source : the author
CT has a more pleasant Home Page and containing many photographs. These illustrations mitigate the effect of abstraction and distance that does not fail to produce the electronic newspaper. CT proposes its printed in format miniaturized and it is enough to double- to click above to have it in size on all the page. It is a scannée image, therefore fixed which one cannot exploit.
The two photographs which one finds on the site of Changes are fixed photographs which illustrate the files Ecrans blacks 2004 and Can Tunisia 2004.
The use of photography is an attachment with printed which is used as reference. On the other hand, the absence of photographs directs the newspaper on line towards the listings the short ones or dispatches of news services.
We chose to explain by taking the example of only one edition. But in a general way, it is the same situation with all the editions.
II. The bonds hypertexts
The reader of an article paper is confronted with a physical object on which the text is completely expressed. He can certainly annotate, cut out, go up or stick ; but the text is there always same, because the already carried out one. The reading on screen does not know this palpable presence of the text. The alphabetical signs that we read are only data-processing codes translated by a computer which plays the part of interface. « An hypertext is a matrix of potential texts, of which only some will be carried out under the effect of the interaction with a user52(*) ». In the electronic versions of the newspapers, the whole of the hypertexts is found in the Home Page which acts as synopsis. It is remarkable that the banner pages of the sites of press generally take the form of synopses. These pages, halfway between the plan and the catalog present construction of a tabular type. Their form falls under a space logic, guided by the requirement to make visible the internal organization of the sites. But, if the list proposes a more or less hierarchical organization of juxtaposed elements, from its form seldom emerges a strong singular identity.
Table N° 8 : Together hypertexts of the banner page
Source : the author.
The transaction which includes/understands here the advertisements, invitations to tender and numbers useful has the smallest number of bonds. There N are no advertisers (Changes has a bond towards the African repertory of the diaspora). As we announced higher, it did not develop yet of marketing policy related to Internet. The essence of the publicity which exists in our corpus relates to the company editor and the FAI. CT has 9 bonds on the company editor. It is to say the impact of Sopécam within the newspaper. Contrary to Mutations which does not have any bond on South media corporation, the company editor of the newspaper.
Table N° 9 : Percentage of the bonds of the banner page.
Source : the author.
This table gives us the relationship between the bonds of access to information and the other bonds.
The main part of the bonds hypertexts is reserved for information. 73% for Changes and 67% for CT. It is very delicate for us to draw from such conclusions because our understanding of the concept of information in this context can be called into question. Despite everything, the informational one makes the main part of the sites. It is this concern of informing which imposes on CT the heading information inspired uninterrupted by the sites of the news services. The bonds hypertexts create an inextricable network of relations between various documents. The reader is then involved far from his concerns first and opens. The bonds hypertexts can involve the reader in the files or worms of other sites. What occurs regularly : you click on a bond and you have a new window without possibility of using the key « the preceding one ». Thus, you will have the initial window and the new window and none will prevent from traversing the other. So to open another heading, it is necessary to return to the window of the site of the newspaper.
Publicity, with, in a general way 2,3% of the bonds, is the service less used.
Alluring at first sight, the hypertext is more complex than it does not appear. The exercise is harder than one imagines it. Compensating for the weak exploitation of the horizontal axis, the newspaper on line uses the hypertext to deepen its contents.
If page-setting is due to surface, the setting in network is connected with the depth and the abstraction. It is not enough to create a hyperlink so that it is functional. It is necessary to be able to feed the page of reference, especially if it is on the same site. On 65 bonds which exist in banner page of Changes, 10 return in empty pages ; that is to say 15% of the whole of the bonds of the page. CT has 9 bonds without contents i.e. 14% of its contents.
The page of the newspapers on line is not simple access since it is up to the reader to give his direction, its structure, its coherence with this whole of speech of different universes connected by the hypertext. But one can think finally that
« Far from destroying the text, the virtualisation seems to make it coincide with its gasoline suddenly revealed. As if the contemporary virtualisation achieved to become to it text53(*).
To make a newspaper is difficult, very difficult : each day, it is necessary to start again with the eye rivetted on the clock of planning of manufacture and the ears receptive with the last movements of the world 54(*) ».
Serges Guerin & Philippe Tap
Each newspaper has its visual personality which enables him to have a clean identity. This visual identity is the resultant of the combination of a certain number of factors. « There are five factors which, put together constitute the personality of a newspaper: the text, illustrations, the preparing, publicity and white55(*) ». This whole of elements thus makes it possible to identify the newspapers without looking at their titles or remote. It is to say that the model is a fundamental element of the identity of a newspaper. This is why when certain newspapers want to modify or lifter their models, they warn their public.
Which situation live the electronic newspapers? How are the models designed and how are they managed?
Section 1 : Working
The observation of our corpus makes it possible to state a first report: the construction of the Web pages is dominated by the vertical axis and the structure is established on the basis of the columns.
All the pages of the electronic newspaper cannot be apprehended instantaneously and completely on the screen. The run on the vertical axis proves to be necessary to traverse the totality of the contents of the Home Page. The webmasters of CT and Changes agree for saying that vertical unfolding is a choice made when designing graphic page. It is painful for a reader to make ravel the horizontal and vertical bar at the same time. One needs a main effort of abstraction and much of patience. Thus the width of the Web pages of Changes is of 700 pixels and that of CT is of 800 pixels. Another reason that we can evoke is the rate/rhythm of production of information on the fabric (put in line of information). The newspaper is always in production. However, the hours of setting on line are not specified because it acts, in this case, of a setting on line of the printed versions. Always it is that « the choice of the vertical axis corresponds to a certain temporal logic, as if the facts were reported progressively with their existence56(*) ». The height of the pages depends on the number of articles of the page, the length of the hats and the number of photographs (specific case of CT).
Contrary to the formats tabloïd or magazine where one can define the number of columns of a model, it is not obvious to identify the construction of a newspaper on line. Samuel Ngué, administrator of the site of Changes lights us on this subject : « the pages are not drawn but gone up thanks to the HTML, the tracing is removed and there remains only this whole visible with all the same an aspect suitable for the site ». Indeed, construction varies according to sites'. CT has 3 columns whereas Mutations has only 2. Always it is that the framework reserved for information is broadest.
The low number of columns (2 to 3) is explained by the low width of the document and certain constraints related to the technique.
§ The small surface of the window opened by Microsoft Internet Explorer.
§ The difficulty of reading on the screen which obliges to use a body of large nature.
Consequently, when one has little place to place a wholesale text characters, one cannot multiply the number of columns because the frequent returns to the line parcel out the reading and obstruct its comprehension.
The banner page is built than the others; it pleasant, is structured and full with colors. Practical, it proposes a clear and exhaustive organization contents. CT adds photographs to it but is only limited to illustrate some titles. Changes, more sober, practically does not propose photographs, but the list of all the articles with the structure of the version paper to knowing extra title, title, hats, with a precision of the heading. CT gives this indication of window more.
This is brought up to date the every day in the case of the two newspapers. The current date is modified the every day except the weekend with Mutations online. The photographs, the titles their forms then change the every day with CT qu with Mutations the titles change but the structure remains the same one.
These observations on the fitting of the pages of the electronic newspaper testify to the important lack of formal construction. The reader cannot have the Home Page as a whole; he cannot confront two articles. We will admit of this fact with Annelise Touboul that «the successive presentation of information such that the newspapers propose it on Internet has as a consequence a loss of direction, an impoverishment of the speech57(*)». That is strongly related to the technique (data-processing).
Section 2 : Relevance of these sites
After an analysis of the elements which enter the realization of the screen page-, it is easy for us to record the relevance of the sites of our corpus. That really returns to see whether convergence is respected. This work will be done on the level of the contents and the dynamics of these contents.
I. Relevance of the contents
The contents that CT and Changes on line propose to us are obviously the same one as that of the printed versions. But of the elements suitable for the Web can allow as a whole to release quality of these contents and on the level of the provision of these contents. And not on the level of the quality of the articles. These elements are the update and the use of the bonds hypertexts.
The two newspapers are daily newspapers and their setting on line corresponds exactly to the frequency of publication of the printed editions.
CT on its site brings up to date the date of Monday at Sunday contrary with Mutations whose date goes until Friday. Changes puts its newspaper on line as of the release of the printed version. From 6 A.m., the surfers can consult the newspaper whereas CT makes its update in the course of the day and the newspaper is available only starting from 9 H. the hits are brought up to date automatically on the two sites. Compared to this actualization, we can affirm that it is respected. The update of the versions Web of our corpus is a reality.
Research thus made it possible to determine some principal functions of the hypertextuality in the case of the press on line: Initially, the hypertextuality contributes to trace the limits of the leading territory, to structure it, organize it. These newspapers generally use the bonds hypertexts to build a tree structure inherited the setting in headings of the printed press, starting from the increasingly detailed menus. In the second place, the hypertextuality plays a strategic part. It makes it possible to control circulation on the leading territory and proclamation the partnerships. The study reveals indeed that the editors propose only rare openings on outside (Changes and CT do not have practically any external bond. Apart from the bonds towards the supplier of access or the directory Web Gwedi, all the bonds return to the site of the newspaper). They thus try to hold the captive reader. Lastly, the hypertextuality takes part of a certain form of creativity. While choosing to activate a hypertext link, the Net surfer is directed in the space of the electronic newspaper; the choice of a route builds the direction of its step. The term of direction can be heard like significance and direction, both being indissociable in this case. In the same way, it is necessary to hear the term of step at the same time like method and course of consultation, of access to information. The multiplicity of the possible routes thus makes emerge a singular object, a transitory form and a significance. The newspaper on line, is finally renewed by the courses of the Net surfers who consult it, even if navigation is limited by the intentions of the originator, the constraints of the device and the limits of technology.
The hypertext has direction only when the page of reference is informative, i.e. gives more informative to than the reader read front. But 15% of the bonds of Changes and 14% of the bonds of CT return in empty pages. However elements like the logo of the newspaper or the headings exist in all the pages and allow of this fact of returning to the principal menu without difficulties.
Concerning the writing on line, it is not applied yet because of the policy to copy- to stick various draftings. But the webmaster of CT has more freedom to modify the order of the titles and even their forms to adapt them to media Internet.
II. Relevance on the dynamics of the contents
Internet is dynamic media. On the one hand because of the multi-media one that it allows (sounds, combined images and texts); other shares because of the interactivity facilitated with the users.
The elements of interactivity are the letters to the Editor, the forum the gold book and the surveys. As a whole, that accounts for 12, 4% of the bonds hypertexts of the Web pages of the newspapers of our corpus. One notes a lack of follow-up of the letters to the Editor because all the letters do not have an answer even when it is necessary some. With CT, there is this possibility of reacting in an article. Your answer is published on the site and some relevant opinions are included in the printed edition of the day.
The mailing list in Mutations and the newsletter with CT are the two bases of the personalization of the contents. I.e. to be able according to certain criteria, to send articles to the subscribed readers and also of publicity consequently. Alas, this personalization exists only of name because these two elements referred to above are useless bonds. The pages are empty and the webmaster of Changes affirms us to this end that « The newspaper has as an ambition to manage all these elements which make Net interactive media and also this mailing list. But it is not a priority of the hour ".
Our work concerned numerical convergence in the Cameronian newspaper industry : case of the Web sites of Cameroon platform and Changes. Let us recall already that this convergence is heard here like a new possibility offered to the traditional media, by technologies, to be able to diffuse on a support which is not the initial support. Referring to the context of the printed press, convergence, permitted or facilitated by Internet allows a new type of diffusion of information: diffusion on line. The press on line thus will invest the fabric with research of a new assistantship and by using a new technique of publication. The Cameronian press will follow the step with since 1996, the opening of Internet sites and the diffusion on line.
In this new context, these Cameronian newspapers which integrated convergence have it- they makes by mode or then parce qu it was a requirement because of their leading policy. This interrogation returns to another, the more scientific : The Cameronian newspapers which exist on the Net integrated the standards related to Internet heard here like a data carrier different from the TV, radio or printed press ? It is around this question that we based our problems.
To study this situation, we chose two national daily newspapers CT and Changes for two reasons. The first is the actualization day laborer which they will have to make because of their statute of daily newspaper. The second reason is the serious one with which these sites are managed.
In time, our corpus was the analysis of the publications which went from Monday August 02 at Tuesday August 31 is one month and 22 editions of each publication. The method of the analysis was on the technical level that of Madeleine Grawitz but the identification of the elements of the screen page- married the groundwork traced by Annelise Touboul. These elements are on the one hand those which help to build the speech (Logo and titles, titraille, headings, illustrations), other shares, the hypertexts. The analysis enabled us to draw certain conclusions which associated with the observation with the other elements like the run, the column, the technical device, enables us to affirm compared to our starting questions :
The Cameronian newspapers followed the movement of Internet sites but very early, that appeared very heavy in terms of infrastructurelles and human resources. What pushed certain newspapers with the closing or the abandonment of their site. Those which, later, included/understood the need for being invested sought the human means and the technical device. The site of CT and Changes existed but did not have qualified providers. Moreover, these are the FAI which dealt of the setting on line and the actualization of the site. Later, in fact formed webmasters will take again the things in hand. Their provider current provides one of the fastest connections (waves radios). Moreover, the newspapers think of a training of the journalists to the control of the HTML, bases page-setting Internet.
The important fragmentation of the documents published on these sites consequently seems a response to the small surface of the screens and the embarrassment gotten by the unfolding of a document. To mean the bonds which exist between all the documents, to recreate a unit even if this one is necessarily mosaic, these sites recall on each page the markers of the visual identity of their site. The observation reveals, indeed, the strong recurrence of the elements identifying and structuring: the presence pressed of the names of sites (simple variation of that of the printed newspaper which allows the immediate identification of the edition on line its referent paper) as well as the repetition of the menus or synopses of headings on all the pages. The latter creates not only one framework to organize the contents, a guide to direct navigation, but more especially, a formal bond between the pages thus drawing the leading territory. Indeed, the model functions as a mould which imposes strictly defined limits (in particular with regard to the quantity and the obstruction of the information presented in banner page). The banner page is thus built like a fixed container, in which all new information does not appear that to replace some another while at the same time many bonds are invariably repeated each day. The mark of this identity is clean newspapers on line which are in the search of a singular recognition. Thus, the printed newspaper remains the identity referent of the newspapers on line in the double plan of the offer and the speech of the actors.
By taking in example the other sites of newspapers which made considerable projections, one can think that the press in Cameronian line is taking reference marks. The principal difficulty for the moment is the lack of training of those which write the topicality. The basic difference between the two types of publications more holds on the bottom on the form. It is necessary to adapt the texts to the support and probably with time, the draftings online, detached of the central draftings will exist. They will be able to consist of professionals who, failing to write all the articles, will rewrite what their colleagues will have produced. This for the success of the newspaper.
I. Specialized works (media and Internet)
1. Agnes Yves, (2002), Handbook of journalism, to write for the newspaper, ED. The Discovery, Paris, 447 P.
2. Ball Francis, (1999), Media and companies, Montchrestien, Paris, political Domat, 9th edition, 811 P.
3. Ball Francis, (2000), media, Flammarion, Paris, 128 P.
4. Frederic barber & to lavenir Bertho Catherine, (1996), History of the mediae: De Diderot with Internet, Armand Colin, Paris, 352 P.
5. Béra Michel & Mechoulan Eric, (1999), the machine Internet, Odile Jacob, Paris, 320 P.
6. Breton Philippe, (2000) the worship of the Internet, the Discovery, Paris, 125 P.
7. Crouzet Thierry, (2001), I successful my research on Internet, Microsoft near, Quebec, 428 P.
8. Dreyfus Michel, (2000), the magnum, Campus Near, Paris, 720 P.
9. Fouchard Gilles & Bonalair Jean Christophe, (2000), Research on Internet, Microsoft Near, Quebec, 428 P.
10. Guerin Serges, (1996), cyberpress, the press and writing off line on-line, Hermès, Paris, 157 P.
11. Guichard Eric, (2001), To include/understand the uses of the Internet, ED. the ULM, Paris, 261 P.
12. Hafner Katie and Lyon matthew, (1999), wizards of the Net, Calmann- Levy, Paris, 343 P.
13. Institute Panos West Africa, (2003), To include/understand and treat the Company of Information, ED. The sénégalaise, Dakar, 217 P.
14. Kent Peter, (2001), Internet, how to make..., Campus Near, Paris, 378 P.
15. Kindersley Peter, (1996), Multi-media, Gallimard, Paris, 200 P.
16. Lacroix Guy, (1997), mirage Internet : Economic and social stakes, Vigot, Liege, 156 P.
17. Levy Pierre, (1998), Who is what the virtual one ? The Discovery, Paris, 153 P.
18. Morris Bruce, (2000), Formation except for HTML, Microsoft, Quebec, 394 P.
19. Nikitenko Charlotte, (2001), publication on line, Hermès, Paris, 222 P.
20. Tap Philippe and Guerin Serges, (1999), the daily press, Flammarion, Paris, 127 P.
II. Usual and works of methodology
1. Béaud Michel, (1999), the art of the thesis, Discovery, Paris, 180 P.
2. Chindji Kouleu Ferdinand, How to make a success of a report, document not published.
3. Chindji Kouleu Ferdinand, (2002), the invasion of the capital letters, University Presses of Yaounde, Yaounde, 115 P.
4. Fragnière Jean Pierre, (1996), How to make a success of a report, Dunod, Paris, 120 P.
5. Grawitz Madeleine, (1996), Methods in social sciences, Dalloz, Paris, 9th edition, 870 P.
6. Larousse (2003), Larousse, Paris, 1818 P.
7. Da Paul, (2000), Methodology of research : Problems with the discussion of the results, University Presses of Ivory Coast, 130 P.
8. Quivy Raymond & Campenhoudt Luc Van, (1995), Handbook of research in social sciences, Dunod, Paris, 290 P.
1. Annelise Touboul, (1996), the electronic newspaper : Speech and offers French press of general information on the Internet network, Université of Lyon 2, memory of DEA, Lyon, 136 P
2. Assouzo' O Benjamin Gerard, (2001), the radio on Internet: Antagonism or complementarity, Esstic, memory of Dstic, Yaounde, 72 P.
3. Lewat Geraldine Osvalde, (1998), cyberpress in Cameroun : Analyze contents from Cameroun Actualité, Esstic, memory of Dstic, Yaounde, 80 P.
4. Mbele Severin reduced, (2002), the writing in a newspaper on line: The case of the political heading of Cameroon information - Net from January to June 2001, Esstic, memory of Dstic, Yaounde, 85 P.
5. Ndzie Atedzoe Marie German, (2001), the audience of Internet in Cameroun : Profiles and opinions of public from Yaounde, Esstic, memory of Dstic, Yaounde, 87 P.
6. Schiltz Thierry, (2002), E- Presses : Press in danger or further information, Université Bordeaux 3, master's paper, 148 P.
IV. Numerical articles and documents
1. Bruno Salgues & Melanie Blanchard, to define Well the concept of company of Information; communication of February 13, 2003 at the institute of telecommunications of Paris, www.salgues.net/wsis.diplomatie.html.
2. Charles de Laubier, the newspaper industry vis-a-vis the technological developments, with the changes and the economic transformations- socio, www.scd.univ-tours.fr/Epress.htm.
3. Jakob Nielsen, rules of the hypertext, www.cortexte.com/lettre/N °3.htm.
4. Martin Beaudin Lecours, the TVHD www.globetrotter.net/futursimple/archives/televise.htm
5. Neil Postman, « Functions of the press » in the echo of the press, July 1990, Paris.
6. To write on Internet, www.nouvelobs.com/articles/P1946/a1175.htm
7. The newspaper industry in line, www.ddm.gouv.fr/presse_ written/dossiers_thematic/presscrlign.htm.
8. the numerical radio, www.multimania.com/elisecolette/accueil. htm.
9. The numerical one, www.essentielpc.com/S/breve 342.html
V. Internet sites of the newspapers
Personnel in service with CT and Changes
The Cameronian fair labor standards act defines as paid of a company
« Any individual who within the framework of the performance of a duty, precise receives a regular remuneration which can be constant at the base by a contract of employment signed at the same time by the employer and the employee ».
The company employs a whole of competences thus, the ones in a permanent way, the others in a circumstantial way.
a) Board of directors
§ Maurice Kamto
§ Protais Ayangma
§ Laurent Charles Boyomo Assala
b) The Council with the drafting : Claude Bernard Kingue
2. Journalists and others
II. Cameroon- platform
Paul TESSA : Chairman of the board
2. Equip with drafting
* 1 Extract of the text constitutive of Nepad in Institute panos, 2003, To include/understand and treat the company of information, ED. Sénégalaise. Dakar, P.100.
* 2 O. Nzepa Chick, 2002, multi-media Ntic and, Esstic, Yaounde.
* 3 Institute panos, 2003, COp. Cit. P.14.
* 4Bruno Salgues is the Director of studies at the National Institute of Telecommunications of Paris.
Melanie Blanchard joined the National institute of Telecommunications in September 2001. Melanie Blanchard actively contributed to all the operations of launching of the vote on Internet in Europe, developed by election.com. It currently occupies the station of deputy with the communication. This communication relating to the Company of Information dates from February 13, 2003 at the National Institute of Telecommunications of Paris. Source : www.salgues.net/wsis diplomatie.htm.
* 5 C. of Laubier, 2002, the press online in Europe, www.scd.univ-tours.fr/epress/sommaire.htm.
* 6 NR. Postman, 1990, functions of the newspaper in the echo of the press, Paris.
* 7 The site will be remakes in 1999 for a version on line of the newspaper.
* 8 Source : site of the embassy of France in Cameroun.
* 9 Michel Beaud, 1999, the art of the thesis, ED. The Discovery, Paris, P32.
* 10 R. Quivy and L. Van Campenhoudt, 1995, Handbook of research in social sciences, Dunod, Paris, P. 136.
* 11 Mr. Grawitz, 1993, Method of social sciences, 9th edition, Dalloz, Paris, P. 470.
* 12 Berelson quoted by Mr. Grawitz, COp. Cit. P. 551.
* 13 A. Touboul, 1996, the electronic press : Speech and offers French press of general information on the Internet network, memory of DEA, Université of Lyon 2.
* 14 Mr. C Vetraino- Boozer, 1998, cultural stakes of Internet, Hatchet, Paris, P. 59.
* 15 F. Ball, 1999, Media and companies, Montchrestien, Paris, 9th edition, P. 176.
* 16 Ibid
* 17 P. Kent, 2001, « Internet, how to make », Campuspress, Paris, P. 8.
* 18 The correct figures are not given because they are different according to sources'.
* 19 S. Bud and A. Bebak, 2001, To create Web pages for null, First interactive, Paris P.5.
* 20 This under section is realized on the basis of work of Michel Tjade Eone, 2001, Démonopolisation, liberalization and freedom of communication in Cameroun : Advanced and backings, Harmattan, Paris, P. 83-89.
* 21 Intelcam: International Telecommunication off Cameroon. Today, this service became Cameroon Telecommunication (CAMTEL) created by decree N° 98/198 of September 8, 1998 within the framework of the reorganization of the sector of telecommunications which followed upon the law N° 98/014 of bearing 14 July 1998 liberalization of the sector. www.camnet.cm source
* 22 Band-width : maximum capacity of data transmission of a cable. In the order of the aptitudes, there is the twisted, coaxial cable and with optical fiber.
* 23 www.camnet.cm source.
* 24 J.C Guédon, 1996, the planet cyber- Internet and cyberspace, Gallimard, Paris, P. 30- 31.
* 25 A. Touboul, COp Cit. P. 20.
* 27 He is the Secretary-general of the Mutations newspaper. Remarks collected during a maintenance Wednesday August 25, 2004.
* 28Guy Lacroix, 1997, the mirage Internet, Vigot, Liege, P.25.
* 29 Rémy Galland, 2001, in the publication in line, Hermès, Paris, P. 84.
* 30 www.dicoweb.dalloz.fr
* 32 Jakob Nielsen, ibid
* 33 July 17, 1996, flight TWA 800 was crushed in the Atlantic, with broad Island length, involving in death its 130 passengers and members of crew. The tragedy was going to upset the United States- and to give place to a long series of speculations which would be abundantly relayed by Internet.
Four months later, the Journalist with the retirement Pierre Salinger, a 20 year old high-speed motorboat of televised journalism, in particular as correspondent in Europe of the network ABC, proclaimed to have put the hand on a scoop. During a conference given in front of leaders of company, it announced to have obtained from a person related to the government a document depending secret signal that the TWA had been cut down by error by a missile of the American navy. The news was juicy except that it was going to be enough to a half day to hundreds D `Net surfers to point the finger on the Web site of an amateur of theories of the plot on which this document slept since months. P. Lapointe, 1999, journalism per hour of the Net, university Presses of Laval, Quebec, P114- 115.
* 34Matter of J.B. Essissima, administrator of the site of CT. Maintenance of Tuesday August 10 with the author.
* 35 Report/ratio of the French ministry of the economy, finances and industry on the problems of the high flows and their progressive installation in Africa. In Including/understanding and treating the company of information, COp. Cit. P. 109.
* 36 Haman Mana in N°052 Changes of July 10, 1990.
* 37 Discussion with the author Thursday August 26, 2004.
* 38 The domain name is the part of an Internet name which identifies an Internet site specifically. There are two types : Nationals with two lettes (cm, Fr, custom) and credits with three letters (COM, Net, org, gov).
* 39 D. Bougnoux, quoted by A. Touboul, COp. Cit. P. 98.
* 40 Guy Lacroix, COp. Cit. P.48- 49.
* 41 Deliver green European Commission on convergence in the company of information, P. 9, accessible to the www.europa.eu.int/ispo/convergencegp/97623fr.doc address.
* 42 Ibid
* 43 www.dicoweb.dalloz.fr/convergence.htm.
* 44 Christian Abolo Mbita in Southern Frequency N°14, June 1998, P.171.
* 45 Abolo Mbita, COp. Cit. P.179.
* 46 Martin Beaudin-Lecours in Future, www.globetrotter.net.
* 47J.B. Essissima, webmaster of CT. COp. Cit.
* 48 Cf P.40
* 49 Annelise Touboul, in the cyberpress, www.enssib.fr.
* 50 J.F. Obstinate, quoted by A. Touboul, COp. Cit. P.99.
* 51 Mr. Grawitz, COp. Cit. P. 560.
* 52 P. Levy, 1998, Who is what the virtual one ? ED. The Discovery, Paris, P. 38.
* 53 P. Levy, COp. Cit. P. 48.
* 54 P. Tap and S. Guerin, 1999, the daily press, Flammarion, Evreux, P.18.
* 55 Haman Mana, 2002, Knowledge of the profession, Esstic.
* 56 Annelise Touboul, COp. Cit. P. 101.
* 57Annelise Touboul, COp. Cit. P. 104.