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A GIS-based modeling of environmental health risks in populated areas of Port-au-prince, Haiti

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Myrtho Joseph
University of Arizona - Master in Natural Resources Information System 1987
  

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APPENDIX A - TABLES

Table 14: Risk of Air pollution from traffic - Vulnerability scales

Roads

Land Use

Traffic Density

Elevation

(meters)

Distance

Value

Types

Value

Threshold

Value

Threshold

Value

0 - 50 meters

4

Dense Urban

4

Extreme

4

0-100

4

51 - 100 meters

3

Low Residential and Business areas

3

High

3

101-200

3

101 - 200

2

Rocks & Bare soil

2

Moderate

2

201-400

2

> 200 meters

1

Vegetation and other uses

1

Low

1

>400

1

Table 15: EOW Results

Factors

Rank 1-9 (1=Low; 9=High)

Total

Average (row)

Average (Total)

Grader

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Air pollution from traffic

4

9

7

8

7

5

4

7

8

8

67

0.67

0.13

Garbage dumped in the streets

6

 

8

9

8

8

8

9

9

8

73

0.81

0.14

Cemetery (Main cemetery)

4

8

3

6

4

5

3

 

5

7

45

0.50

0.08

Hospitals (particularly the main hospitals)

 

9

3

4

4

 

6

3

5

7

41

0.51

0.08

Public market places (formal and informal)

3

9

8

8

5

8

8

8

7

8

72

0.72

0.13

Housing density

5

9

8

9

7

7

8

9

3

6

71

0.71

0.13

Polluted Water from rivers (not for drinking

4

7

8

8

5

8

8

7

2

8

65

0.65

0.12

Proximity to the sea (think about slums)

3

5

4

8

8

6

6

5

8

7

60

0.60

0.11

High voltage power lines

6

3

2

7

3

3

3

4

4

7

42

0.42

0.08

Table 16: Results for different combination and classification schemes

Classification

Combination

% of areas per risk levels

and classification scheme

Quintile

Natural Breaks (Jenks)

Equal Interval

Geometric Interval

41

3

2

1

4

3

2

1

4

3

2

1

4

3

2

1

Expert Opinion

18.3

18.6

27.8

35.3

14.4

23.7

32.9

29

9

28

44.5

18.5

17.7

19.3

27

36

Equal Influence

18.8

22.7

28.2

30.3

15.4

17.5

36.7

30.3

5.9

21

50.8

22.3

15.4

11.5

26.1

46.9

Maximum assignment

0

85.4

10.6

4.0

0

85.4

10.6

4.0

60.5

24.9

10.6

4.0

60.5

24.9

10.6

4.0

Personalized Assignment

18.7

20.1

28.9

32.3

13.8

25.9

36.1

24.2

9.0

28.2

43.8

19.0

16

21.2

27.4

35.4

Average (1, 2, 4)

18.6

20.5

28.3

32.6

14.5

22.4

35.2

27.8

8.0

25.7

46.4

19.9

16.4

17.3

26.8

39.4

3 Legend: 1 = Low risks 2 = Moderate Risks 3 = High Risks 4 = Very High Risks

Table 17: Summary results for the classification schemes

 

Quantile

Natural Breaks

Equal Interval

Geometric

Interval

41

3

2

1

4

3

2

1

4

3

2

1

4

3

2

1

Average (%)

19.4

23.8

30.8

26.1

15.2

25.8

37.1

21.9

8.3

28.2

49.2

14.4

17.0

19.4

30.6

33.13

Legend: 1 = Low 2 = Moderate 3 = High 4 = Very High

Table 18: Summary Results by Health Hazard and Risk Level

Factors

Very High

High

Moderate

Low

Area Coverage

(%)

High and Very high risks combined (% of total area)

Cemetery

22.6

19.8

25.8

31.7

4.0

1.7

Hospitals

18.0

12.0

31.0

39.0

7.3

2.2

Sea Pollution

33.1

19.2

18.9

28.8

22.7

11.9

Traffic Pollution

33.6

22.1

27.6

16.7

75.7

42.1

Streams Pollution

28.9

27.2

17.8

26.1

87.6

49.1

Markets Pollution

14.0

21.6

29.2

35.2

22.4

8.0

Housing Density

12.1

33.6

24.6

29.7

100

45.7

Electric Power

30.7

25.5

19.0

24.8

54.4

30.6

Waste Pollution

27.8

25.1

24.8

22.3

95.1

53.4

Average

24.5

22.9

25.6

30.1

52.13

27.2

Table 19: Weighting schemes and Results Ranking

Factors

(1)

EOW

(2)

Own Weight

(3)

(High & Very High Risks)

% of study area

(4)

Ranking of Area coverage

(5)

High and Very high risks (% of total area)

(6)

Ranking of High/Very High risks ranking

(7)

Traffic Pollution

0.13

0.14

42.1

4

42.1

4

Waste Pollution

0.14

0.16

53.4

2

53.4

1

Cemetery

0.08

0.06

1.7

9

1.7

9

Hospitals

0.08

0.06

2.2

8

2.2

8

Markets Pollution

0.13

0.10

8.0

7

8.0

7

Housing Density

0.13

0.14

45.7

1

45.7

3

Streams Pollution

0.12

0.10

49.1

3

49.1

2

Sea Pollution

0.11

0.16

11.9

6

11.9

6

Electric Power

0.08

0.08

27.2

5

30.6

5

Table 20: Regression of EOW on Percent of High and Very High Risks

Regression Statistics

 
 
 
 

Multiple R

0.64165

 
 
 
 

R Square

0.411715

 
 
 
 

Adjusted R Square

0.327674

 
 
 
 

Standard Error

19.44877

 
 
 
 

Observations

9

 
 
 
 

ANOVA

 
 
 
 
 

 

df

SS

MS

F

Significance F

Regression

1

1853.065

1853.065

4.898988

0.062486

Residual

7

2647.783

378.2548

 
 

Total

8

4500.849

 

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Coefficients

Standard Error

t Stat

P-value

Lower 95%

Intercept

-38.9955

31.57875

-1.23486

0.25672

-113.667

% High/Very High Risks

615.6591

278.1552

2.213366

0.062486

-42.0734

Table 21: Regression of Own Weight on Percent of High and Very High Risks

Regression Statistics

 
 
 

Multiple R

0.57574

 
 
 

R Square

0.331477

 
 
 

Adjusted R Square

0.235974

 
 
 

Standard Error

0.035085

 
 
 

Observations

9

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

ANOVA

 
 
 
 

 

df

SS

MS

F

Regression

1

0.004272

0.004272

3.470846

Residual

7

0.008617

0.001231

 

Total

8

0.012889

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

 

Coefficients

Standard Error

t Stat

P-value

Intercept

0.081591

0.019694

4.142963

0.004333

Results

0.001084

0.000582

1.863021

0.104746

 
 
 
 
 

Table 22: Regression of EOW on Average of Area Covered (%)

Regression Statistics

 
 
 

Multiple R

0.677797

 
 
 

R Square

0.459409

 
 
 

Adjusted R Square

0.382182

 
 
 

Standard Error

30.48402

 
 
 

Observations

9

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

ANOVA

 
 
 
 

 

df

SS

MS

F

Regression

1

5528.073

5528.073

5.9488

Residual

7

6504.927

929.2753

 

Total

8

12033

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

 

Coefficients

Standard Error

t Stat

P-value

Intercept

-66.0182

49.49654

-1.33379

0.224032

% Area covered

1063.364

435.9805

2.439016

0.044824

Table 23: Regression of Own Weighting on Percent of Area (%)

Regression Statistics

 
 
 

Multiple R

0.589602

 
 
 

R Square

0.347631

 
 
 

Adjusted R Square

0.254435

 
 
 

Standard Error

33.48765

 
 
 

Observations

9

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

ANOVA

 
 
 
 

 

df

SS

MS

F

Regression

1

4183.041

4183.041

3.73012

Residual

7

7849.959

1121.423

 

Total

8

12033

 

 

 
 
 
 
 

 

Coefficients

Standard Error

t Stat

P-value

Intercept

-11.1655

34.62315

-0.32249

0.756502

% Area covered

569.6897

294.9694

1.931352

0.094734

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