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Etude de l'influence de la température du fluide sur la performance d'un échangeur de chaleur de la raffinerie d'Alger

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Nadjet Fadel
Université des sciences et de la technologie Houari Boumédiene à  Alger - Ingénieur d'état option: génie chimique 2010
  

précédent sommaire

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ANN EX ES

ANNEXEI Design du E 101

SOCIETE FOSTER WHEELER FRANCAISE L'échange de chaleur : Brut/ reflux intermédiaire E101 A-F.

Dimension : 42 pouces du diamètre intérieur Surface par unité : 25000 sq.ft

Surface par calandre :4180 sq.ft

FOCTIONNEMENT D'UNE UNITE

COTE CALONDRE COTE TUBE

Fluide circulant

Reflux de tête

brut

Quantité du fluide entrant

1000000

715260

Lb/h

0

Densité du liquide API

76

44,4

°

Température d'entrée F

240

80

°

Température de sortie F

150 1

220 4

Nombre de passe

15

20

Chute de pression sq.in

0,001

0

,002

Facteur d'encrassement

 
 

Coefficient de transfert de

0

,329

0

,329

Chaleur à l'etat propre (kW/ m 2 ° C)

 
 

COSTRUCTION

Pression du design sq.in

80

310

Pression d'essai sq.in

120

465

°

Température du design F

270

250

Nombre de tube

1100

 

Diamètre extérieur (in)

3/4 BWG 14

 

Longueur de tube (in)

20

 

Pas carré

1

 

Espacement entre chicanes (in)

18,30

 

ANNEXE II :DONNEES DE MARCHE DE BATTERIE E101-FED

E101 FED

PETROLE BRUT

REFLUX DE TETE

jours

h

te(°C)

ts(°C)

Q (m3/h)

15

d4

Pe(bar)

Ps(bar)

Te(°C)

Ts(°C)

Q '

(m3/h)

546

01/04/2010

8

18

100

223.736

0.790

16.5

14

123

58

346.762

10

19

100

223.746

0.790

16.5

14

123

57

346.762

12

19

100

215.676

0.790

16.8

14.1

122

57

336.882

14

21

100

207.588

0.790

17.1

14.6

122

60

336.882

547

02/04/2010

8

19

100

221.067

0.789

17

14.5

123

56

341.804

10

18

100

221.067

0.789

17

14.5

123

56

322.019

12

20

100

188.716

0.789

17.4

15

121

57

297.222

14

19

100

188.716

0.789

16.3

14

121

59

346.759

550

05/04/2010

8

17

99

221.060

0.786

17

14.5

122

58

356.666

10

18

99

221.060

0.786

17

14.4

122

56

336.851

12

18

100

221.060

0.786

17

14.5

124

58

349.090

14

18

100

221.060

0.786

17

14.6

123

58

349.090

551

06/04/2010

8

17

100

223.763

0.791

16.9

14.4

124

57

349.090

10

18

100

223.763

0.791

16.8

14

124

59

349.090

12

18

100

223.763

0.791

16.7

14.1

125

58

349.090

14

19

100

218.371

0.791

17

14.6

125

59

341.804

552

07/04/2010

8

18.5

102

218.371

0.787

17.2

14.6

124

57

349.090

10

18.5

100

218.371

0.787

17.1

14.6

123

58

349.090

12

19

101

210.284

0.787

17.5

15

124

60

349.090

14

19

100

204.892

0.787

18.1

15.9

123

59

336.851

554

09/04/2010

8

19

100

221.067

0.788

16.9

14.1

123

58

349.090

10

19

100

218.371

0.788

16.9

14.4

123

59

349.090

12

19

100

218.271

0.788

19.8

14.4

123

59.5

349.090

14

19

100

212.980

0.788

17.1

14.7

123

60

349.090

557

12/04/2010

8

19

101

218.371

0.790

16.6

14.1

123

52.4

356.666

10

19

100

218.371

0.790

16.6

14

124

52.4

356.666

12

19.5

103

207.588

0.790

17

14.5

124

53.5

346.759

14

19

100

215.676

0.790

17

14.5

124

51.9

346.759

558

13/04/2010

8

19

102

221.067

0.787

17.4

15

126

53.5

346.759

10

19.5

104

204.392

0.787

17.5

15.2

123

54

331.897

12

20

102

194.108

0.787

18.4

16.3

123

53

317.036

14

20

101

188.716

0.787

18.4

16.4

122

54

317.036

559

14/04/2010

8

19

100

218.371

0.789

17

14.5

123

52.4

361.619

10

19

100

218.371

0.789

17

14.4

123

52.4

351.712

12

20

100

215.676

0.789

17.1

14.6

123

52.9

346.759

14

20

100

215.676

0.789

17.4

15

123

52.5

346.759

E101 FED

PETROLE BRUT

REFLUX DE TETE

jours

h

te(°C)

ts(°C)

Q (m3/h)

15

d4

Pe(bar)

Ps(bar)

Te(°c)

Ts(°C)

Q '

(m3/h)

561

16/04/2010

8

18.5

99

215.676

0.788

17

14.5

123

51

346.759

10

19

100

215.676

0.788

17

14.4

124

51.4

346.759

12

19

100

215.676

0.788

17

14.5

124

52

346.759

14

19

100

215.676

0.788

17

14.5

123

51.9

346.759

564

19/04/2010

8

19

100

215.676

0.792

17.2

14.8

124

53.1

346.759

10

19

100

210.284

0.792

17.6

15.3

124

52

336.851

12

19

100

210.284

0.792

17.7

15.4

124

53

336.851

14

19

100

210.284

0.792

17.5

15.1

124

52

336.851

565

20/04/2010

8

19.5

102

212.980

0.791

17.2

14.7

124

54

346.759

10

20

101

212.980

0.791

17.3

14.6

124

54

346.759

12

20

102

210.284

0.791

17.4

14.9

124

62

356.666

14

20

104

210.284

0.791

17.4

15

121

66.4

346.759

566

21/04/2010

8

19.5

98

218.371

0.795

17.1

14.5

123

51.2

346.759

10

19.5

100

218.371

0.795

17.2

14.6

127

54.2

346.759

12

20

104

215.676

0.795

17.4

14.7

124

52

346.759

14

20

100

210.284

0.795

17.6

15.1

123

53.2

336.851

568

23/04/2010

8

19

100

215.676

0.793

17.1

14.5

123

62.9

336.851

10

19.5

100

215.676

0.793

17.1

14.6

124

52.6

336.851

12

20

100

215.676

0.793

17

14.5

124

53

336.851

14

20

100

215.676

0.793

17

14.4

124

52.9

336.851

571

26/04/2010

8

20.5

104

212.980

0.794

17

14.2

125

56

336.851

10

21

104

212.980

0.794

17

14.2

126

56.3

336.851

12

21

104

207.588

0.794

17.2

14.5

125

56.3

336.851

14

21

104

202.196

0.794

18

15.7

123

55

331.897

572

27/04/2010

8

20

104

215.676

0.793

17

15

124

57.1

356.666

10

20

104

215.676

0.793

17

15

125

57.8

356.666

12

21

104

215.676

0.793

17

15

124

57.9

356.666

14

21

104

215.676

0.793

16.8

13.9

123

57.4

356.666

573

28/04/2010

8

20

103

215.676

0.788

16.5

13.5

125

56.5

346.759

10

20.5

104

207.588

0.788

18.4

16

124

57

341.805

12

21

104

204.892

0.788

18.3

15.7

124

56

336.851

14

24

102

202.196

0.788

18.2

15.7

123

54.2

326.944

575

30/04/2010

8

21

104

212.980

0.789

16.5

13.5

124

57

346.759

10

22

104

212.980

0.789

17

13.6

124

57

346.759

12

22

104

204.292

0.789

17.5

14.9

125

59

346.759

14

23

104

204.292

0.789

17.2

14.5

124

56.9

331.897

ANNEXE III :Résultats de calcul des températures caloriques

E101 FED

 

PETROLE BRUT

REFLUX DE TETE

 

jours

h

Fc

t

d 4

t moy

(°C)

t c (°C)

Tmoy

(°C)

t

d 4

Tc (°C)

At ch

(°C)

At fr (°C)

Atch

Atfr

546

01/04/2010

8

0.525

0.75830

59

61.05

90.5

0.65618

88.88

23

40

1.74

10

0.524

0.75790

59.5

61.12

90

0.65630

88.68

23

38

1.65

12

0.523

0.75790

59.5

61.36

89.5

0.65690

88.00

22

38

1.73

14

0.527

0.75700

60.5

62.63

91

0.65608

89.33

22

39

1.77

547

02/04/2010

8

0.515

0.75690

59.5

60.71

89.5

0.65649

88.5

23

37

1.6

10

0.518

0.75730

59

60.48

89.5

0.65666

88.3

23

38

1.65

12

0.527

0.75660

60

62.16

89

0.65749

87.3

21

37

1.76

14

0.534

0.75690

59.5

62.25

90

0.65699

87.9

21

40

1.9

550

05/04/2010

8

0.528

0.75500

58

60.30

90

0.65674

88.208

23

41

1.78

10

0.518

0.75460

58.5

59.50

89

0.65708

87.8

23

38

1.65

12

0.512

0.75430

59

60.60

91

0.65551

89.68

24

40

1.67

14

0.525

0.75430

59

61.00

90.5

0.65618

88.8

23

40

1.74

551

06/04/2010

8

0.52

0.75790

58.5

60.16

90.5

0.65595

89.16

24

40

1.67

10

0.523

0.75930

59

60.88

91.5

0.65525

90

24

41

1.7

12

0.515

0.75930

59

60.20

91.5

0.65484

90.49

25

40

1.6

14

0.515

0.75890

59.5

60.7

92

0.65525

90

25

40

1.6

552

07/04/2010

8

0.525

0.75440

60.25

62.3

90.5

0.65623

88.82

22

38.5

1.75

10

0.524

0.75500

59.25

61.2

90.5

0.65613

88.94

23

39.5

1.72

12

0.528

0.75460

60

62.3

92

0.65507

90.208

23

41

1.78

14

0.525

0.75496

59.5

61.5

91

0.65575

89.4

23

40

1.74

554

09/04/2010

8

0.523

0.75600

59.5

61.3

90.5

0.65608

89

23

39

1.69

10

0.525

0.75600

59.5

61.5

91

0.65575

89.4

23

40

1.74

12

0.526

0.75600

59.5

61.6

91.25

0.65558

89.6

23

40.5

1.76

14

0.528

0.75600

59.5

61.76

91.5

0.65546

89.74

23

41

1.78

557

12/04/2010

8

0.510

0.75760

60

60.8

87.7

0.65775

86.99

22

33.4

1.52

10

0.500

0.75790

59.5

59.5

88.2

0.65674

88.2

24

33.4

1.39

12

0.516

0.75670

61.25

62.58

88.75

0.65723

87.62

21

34

1.62

14

0.500

0.75800

59.5

59.5

87.95

0.65695

87.95

24

32.9

1.37

558

13/04/2010

8

0.505

0.75424

60.5

60.9

89.75

0.65576

89.387

24

34.5

1.44

10

0.528

0.75334

61.75

64.1

88.5

0.65809

86.57

19

34.5

1.8

12

0.515

0.75388

61

62.2

88

0.65778

86.95

21

33

1.57

14

0.516

0.75424

60.5

61.8

88

0.65283

92.91

21

34

1.62

559

14/04/2010

8

0.505

0.75700

59.5

59.9

87.7

0.65745

87.35

23

33.4

1.45

10

0.505

0.75700

59.5

59.9

87.7

0.65745

87.35

23

33.4

1.45

12

0.505

0.75660

60

60.4

87.95

0.65724

87.6

23

32.9

1.43

14

0.503

0.75660

60

62.2

87.75

0.65730

87.54

23

32.5

1.41

E101 FED

PETROLE BRUT

RFLUX DE TETE

 

jours

h

Fc

t

d4

t moy

(°C)

t c (°C)

Tmoy

(°C)

t

d 4

Tc (°C)

At ch

(°C)

At fr (°C)

Atch

Atfr

561

16/04/2010

8

0.500

0.75650

58.75

58.75

87

0.65774

87

24

32.5

1.35

10

0.500

0.75600

59.5

59.5

87.7

0.65716

87.7

24

32.4

1.35

12

0.501

0.75600

59.5

59.58

88

0.65696

87.93

24

33

1.38

14

0.505

0.75600

59.5

59.9

87.45

0.65766

87.09

23

32.9

1.43

564

19/04/2010

8

0.505

0.76000

59.5

59.9

88.55

0.65645

88.55

24

34.1

1.42

10

0.501

0.76000

59.5

59.58

88

0.65697

87.93

24

33

1.38

12

0.505

0.76000

59.5

59.9

88.5

0.65679

88.14

24

34

1.42

14

0.501

0.76000

59.5

59.58

88

0.65697

87.93

24

33

1.38

565

20/04/2010

8

0.513

0.75806

60.75

61.8

89

0.65683

88.09

22

34.5

1.57

10

0.510

0.75824

60.5

61.3

89

0.65666

88.3

23

34

1.48

12

0.530

0.75788

61

63.46

93

0.65430

91 .14

22

42

1.91

14

0.540

0.75716

62

65

93.7

0.65141

94.63

17

46.4

2.73

566

21/04/2010

8

0.500

0.76350

58.75

58.7

87.1

0.65766

87.1

25

31.7

1.27

10

0.500

0.76278

59.75

59.7

90.6

0.65475

90.6

27

34.7

1.28

12

0.515

0.76116

62

61.2

88

0.65780

86.92

20

32

1.6

14

0.505

0.76260

60

60.4

88.1

0.65712

87.75

23

33.2

1.44

568

23/04/2010

8

0.534

0.76096

59.5

62.25

92.95

0.65450

90.9

23

43.9

1.9

10

0.505

0.76070

59.75

60.1

88.3

0.65696

87.94

24

33.1

1.38

12

0.505

0.76060

60

60.4

88.5

0.65679

88.14

24

32.9

1.37

14

0.510

0.76060

60

60.8

88.45

0.65713

87.74

24

35.5

1.48

571

26/04/2010

8

0.520

0.7690

62.25

63.9

90.5

0.65598

89.12

21

35.3

1.68

10

0.515

0.75980

62.5

63.7

91.15

0.65517

90.1

22

35.3

1.6

12

0.517

0.75980

62.5

63.9

90.65

0.65568

89.48

21

34

1.62

14

0.529

0.75980

62.5

64.9

89

0.65772

87.03

19

37.1

1.95

572

27/04/2010

8

0.534

0.75920

62

64.8

90.55

0.65668

88.27

20

37.8

1.89

10

0.525

0.75910

62

64.1

91.4

0.65548

89.72

21

36.9

1.76

12

0.529

0.75880

62.5

64.9

90.95

0.65605

89.03

20

36.4

1.82

14

0.531

0.75880

62.5

65

90.2

0.65677

88.16

19

36.5

1.92

573

28/04/2010

8

0.518

0.75452

61.5

62.99

90.75

0.65565

89.52

22

36.5

1.66

10

0.530

0.75400

62.25

64.7

90.5

0.65649

88.5

20

36.5

1.83

12

0.525

0.75400

62.5

64.5

90

0.65666

88.3

20

35

1.75

14

0.501

0.75344

63

63.39

88.6

0.65645

88.53

21

30.2

1.44

575

30/04/2010

8

0.529

0.7548

62.5

64.9

90.5

0.65645

88.56

20

36

1.8

10

0.510

0.75444

63

63.82

90.5

0.65539

89.83

20

35

1.75

12

0.525

0.75440

63

65

92

0.65496

90.35

21

37

1.76

14

0.523

0.75410

63.5

65.5

90.45

0.65616

88.907

20

33.9

1.69

Tableau de calcul de a

ANNEXE IV

Distillation ASTM du reflux de tête

d 14 5 =0,7175.

PI 58

5% 82

10 %

85 ,3

15 %

-

20 %

88,9

30 %

91,9

40 %

94,7

50%

97,5

60%

100,3

70%

103,3

80%

106,9

90%

110,8

95%

116,1

PF

125,1

S= t 70 - t10 .

60

S=0,3.

t 10 + 2t 50 +t90

.

4

t v =

t v = 98,025°C.
Tmav = tv #177; a .

a=-4.
Tmav = 94,025°C.

Distillation TBP pour le pétrole brut
d 4 =0,7985.

15

PT 35

5% -

10 % 91

15 % -

20 % 124

30 % 155

40 % -

50% 238

60% -

70% 340

80% 106,9

90% 378

95% -

PF -

Résidu 4%. Perte 2%.

S= t 70 - t10 .

60

S=4,15.

t t t

+ +

20 50 80

t =

.

3

v

t v = 240,33°C
T mav = tv #177; a.

a=-29

Tmav = 211,33°C. Tmav = 484.48 K

ANNEXE V :Calcul des propriétés physiques des deux fluides

E101FED

PETROLE BRUT

REFLUX DE TETE

j

h

p (kg/m3)

k 10-4 (kw/m°c)

CP (kJ/kg°c)

u*104
(kg/m)

p' (kg/m3)

k' 10-4

(kw/m°c)

CP~

(kJ/kg°c)

u*104 (kg/m)

01/04/2010

8

758.3

1.4344

2.128

7.58

656.18

1.55549

2.203

2.077

10

757.9

1.4344

2.129

7.57

656.3

1.555

2.344

2.081

12

757.9

1.4342

2.13

7.55

656.9

1.5557

2.341

2.092

14

757

1.4330

2.134

7.43

656.08

1.5545

2.347

2.071

02/04/2010

8

756.9

1.436

2.128

7.59

656.49

1.5552

2.343

2.084

10

757.3

1.436

2.128

7.62

656.66

1.55541

2.343

2.087

12

756.6

1.435

2.133

7.47

657.49

1.5563

2.338

2.103

14

756.9

1.435

2.134

7.46

656.99

1.5558

2.341

2.093

05/04/2010

8

755

1.442

2.131

7.61

656.74

1.55549

2.342

2.088

10

754.6

1.4427

2.129

7.67

657.08

1.55585

2.341

2.095

12

754.3

1.4421

2.132

7.58

655.55

1.5542

2.348

2.068

14

754.3

1.4418

2.133

7.54

656.18

1.5549

2.345

2.078

06/04/2010

8

759.7

1.433

2.124

7.67

655.95

1.5546

2.346

2.073

10

759.3

1.432

2.126

7.6

655.25

1.554

2.349

2.06

12

759.3

1.433

2.124

7.66

654.84

1.5535

2.351

2.052

14

758.9

1.4329

2.126

7.61

655.25

1.5539

2.349

2.06

07/04/2010

8

754.4

1.4389

2.137

7.44

656.23

1.55495

2.345

2.079

10

755

1.439

2.133

7.53

656.13

1.55484

2.3452

2.077

12

754.6

1.4389

2.137

7.44

655.07

1.55373

2.3502

2.057

14

754.96

1.439

2.134

7.51

655.75

1.55444

2.347

2.069

09/04/2010

8

756

1.4338

2.132

7.53

656.08

1.5548

2.345

2.076

10

756

1.4377

2.133

7.52

655.75

1.55444

2.347

2.07

12

756

1.4376

2.133

7.51

655.58

1.5543

2.348

2.066

14

756

1.4375

2.134

7.5

655.46

1.55414

2.349

2.064

12/04/2010

8

757.6

1.4346

2.127

7.59

657.75

1.5566

2.337

2.108

10

757.9

1.4357

2.123

7.7

656.74

1.5555

2.342

2.088

12

756.7

1.4332

2.134

7.44

657.23

1.556

2.339

2.098

14

758

1.4357

2.123

7.7

656.95

1.5557

2.341

2.093

13/04/2010

8

754.24

1.44

2.132

7.55

655.76

1.5545

2.347

2.07

10

753.34

1.4375

2.144

7.28

658.09

1.5569

2.336

2.115

12

753.88

1.439

2.137

7.44

657.78

1.5566

2.337

2.109

14

754.24

1.439

2.135

7.48

652.83

1.5513

2.361

2.015

14/04/2010

8

757

1.437

2.125

7.66

657.45

1.5563

2.339

2.102

10

757

1.437

2.125

7.66

657.45

1.5563

2.339

2.102

12

756.6

1.4368

2.127

7.62

657.24

1.556

2.3398

2.098

14

756.6

1.4369

2.126

7.47

657.3

1.5565

2.3396

2.099

16/04/2010

8

756.5

1.44

2.122

7.76

657.74

1.5565

2.337

2.108

10

756

1.439

2.125

7.69

657.16

1.5559

2.34

2.097

12

756

1.439

2.125

7.68

656.96

1.5557

2.341

2.093

14

756

1.439

2.127

7.65

657.66

1.5565

2.338

2.106

19/04/2010

8

760

1.431

2.121

7.69

656.45

1.5552

2.345

2.083

10

760

1.432

2.12

7.72

656.97

1.5557

2.341

2.093

12

760

1.431

2.121

7.69

656.79

1.5555

2.342

2.089

14

760

1.432

2.12

7.72

656.97

1.5557

2.341

2.093

E101FED

PETROLE BRUT

REFLUX DE TETE

j

h

p (kg/m3)

k 10-4 (kw/m°c)

CP (kJ/kg°c)

u*104
(kg/m)

p' (kg/m3)

k' 10-4

(kw/m°c)

CP~

(kJ/kg°c)

u*104 (kg/m)

20/04/2010

8

758.06

1.432

2.13

7.51

656.83

1.5556

2.342

2.090

10

758.24

1.432

2.128

7.56

656.66

1.5554

2.343

2.087

12

757.88

1.43

2.136

7.38

654.3

1.553

2.354

2.042

14

757.16

1.429

2.142

7.25

651.407

1.5498

2.368

2.000

21/04/2010

8

763.5

1.427

2.113

7.84

657.66

1.5565

2.338

2.106

10

762.78

1.426

2.117

7.75

654.75

1.5534

2.352

2.05

12

761.16

1.423

2.13

7.6

657.8

1.5566

2.337

2.109

14

762.6

1.426

2.119

7.68

657.117

1.556

2.340

2.096

23/04/2010

8

760.96

1.428

2.129

7.51

654.5

1.5531

2.353

2.046

10

760.7

1.43

2.121

7.69

656.96

1.5557

2.341

2.093

12

760.6

1.429

2.122

7.66

656.79

1.5555

2.342

2.089

14

760.6

1.429

2.123

7.63

657.13

1.556

2.34

2.096

26/04/2010

8

760

1.425

2.134

7.37

655.98

1.5547

2.346

2.074

10

759.8

1.425

2.133

7.38

655.17

1.5538

2.349

2.056

12

759.8

1.425

2.134

7.36

655.68

1.5544

2.347

2.068

14

759.8

1.424

2.138

7.28

657.72

1.5565

2.337

2.107

27/04/2010

8

759.2

1.426

2.1388

7.29

656.68

1.5554

2.342

2.087

10

759.2

1.4266

2.136

7.34

655.48

1.5542

2.348

2.064

12

758.8

1.4259

2.139

7.27

656.055

1.5548

2.345

2.075

14

758.8

1.4259

2.139

7.27

656.77

1.5555

2.342

2.089

28/04/2010

8

754.52

1.436

2.138

7.38

655.65

1.5554

2.347

2.068

10

754

1.435

2.145

7.24

656.49

1.5552

2.343

2.084

12

754

1.435

2.144

7.26

656.66

1.5554

2.343

2.087

14

753.44

1.436

2.114

7.34

656.45

1.5552

2.3435

2.083

30/04/2010

8

754.8

1.433

2.144

7.24

656.45

1.5552

2.344

2.083

10

754.44

1.434

2.114

7.32

655.39

1.554

2.349

2.063

12

754.44

1.433

2.145

7.22

654.96

1.5536

2.35

2.055

14

754.1

1.4329

2.146

7.18

656.16

1.5549

2.345

2.077

ANNAXE VI :Les données de calcul des températures des tubes

E101 FED

PETROLE BRUT

REFLUX DE TETE

j

h

M

(kg/s)

Gt (kg/m2s)

Re

JH

M'

(kg/s)

Gt'

(kg/m2s)

Re

Jh

01/04/2010

8

47.133

965.84

19151.15

64.00

63.205

509.72

59070.59

148.00

10

47.168

965.33

19166.32

64.50

63.216

509.80

58974.80

147.21

12

45.405

930.43

18522.30

63.00

61.470

495.73

57045.77

143.20

14

43.651

894.49

18094.46

62.00

61.390

495.08

57526.31

145.10

02/04/2010

8

46.479

952.44

18860.57

63.80

62.330

502.66

58056.75

146.00

10

46.503

952.93

18795.98

63.50

58.740

473.70

54633.25

141.20

12

39.662

812.74

16352.70

57.20

54.280

473.74

50101.77

130.15

14

39.677

813.06

16381.08

57.20

63.280

510.32

58651.22

146.80

05/04/2010

8

46.361

950.02

18763.20

63.40

65.066

524.72

60488.56

149.50

10

46.337

949.53

18606.83

63.20

61.480

495.80

56963.75

143.00

12

46.318

949.14

18820.00

63.80

63.568

512.65

56568.70

148.60

14

46.318

949.14

18919.86

63.90

63.630

513.15

59447.47

148.40

06/04/2010

8

47.220

967.62

18961.30

63.90

63.607

512.96

59560.80

148.55

10

47.195

967.11

18778.20

63.50

63.540

512.42

59873.50

148.80

12

47.195

967.11

18623.50

63.20

63.500

512.09

60056.60

149.20

14

46.033

943.30

18745.80

63.40

62.213

501.72

58623.30

146.80

07/04/2010

8

45.76

937.70

18943.05

63.90

63.630

513.15

59410.90

148.35

10

45.797

938.46

18731.80

63.40

63.620

513.06

59466.20

148.45

12

44.077

903.22

18246.50

62.50

63.520

512.26

59947.97

149.00

14

42.968

880.50

17621.70

60.60

61.358

494.80

57963.30

145.20

09/04/2010

8

46.424

951.31

18988.30

63.90

63.620

513.06

59492.00

148.48

10

45.858

939.71

18781.70

63.50

63.590

512.82

59630.80

146.60

12

45.837

939.28

18798.10

63.60

63.570

512.66

59756.50

148.70

14

44.725

916.50

18366.66

62.70

63.560

512.58

59776.20

148.72

12/04/2010

8

45.955

941.70

18647.90

63.20

65.166

525.53

60007.20

149.10

10

45.973

942.07

18388.70

62.80

65.060

524.68

60702.00

149.70

12

43.634

894.14

18063.10

62.00

63.300

510.48

58566.50

146.70

14

45.412

930.57

18163.70

62.20

63.280

509.68

58614.07

146.80

13/04/2010

8

46.316

949.10

18894.00

63.80

63.160

509.35

59227.30

148.25

10

42.876

878.60

18139.20

62.10

60.670

589.27

55681.90

142.00

12

40.648

832.95

16826.90

59.00

57.930

467.17

53318.07

139.00

14

39.538

810.20

16279.80

57.10

57.490

463.63

55382.50

141.80

14/04/2010

8

45.918

940.94

18462.60

62.90

66.040

532.58

60985.70

149.90

10

45.918

940.94

18462.60

62.90

64.230

517.98

59313.90

148.30

12

45.328

928.85

18321.01

62.60

63.300

510.48

58566.50

146.70

14

45.328

928.85

18688.90

63.30

63.310

510.56

58547.80

146.65

16/04/2010

8

45.322

928.73

17988.20

62.00

63.350

510.89

58335.50

146.40

10

45.291

928.11

18139.80

62.10

63.300

510.48

58594.40

146.72

12

45.292

928.11

18163.40

62.20

63.280

510.32

58688.02

146.82

14

45.292

928.11

18234.60

62.50

63.350

510.89

58390.90

146.50

19/04/2010

8

45.532

933.03

18235.90

62.50

63.230

509.92

58523.50

147.00

10

44.393

909.69

17710.70

61.00

61.470

495.73

57010.13

143.10

12

44.393

909.69

17779.80

61.50

61.450

495.56

57086.04

143.30

14

44.393

909.69

17710.70

61.00

61.470

495.73

57010.13

143.10

E101 FED

PETROLE BRUT

REFLUX DE TETE146.90

j

h

M

(kg/s)

Gt (kg/m2s)

Re

JH

M'

(kg/s)

Gt'

(kg/m2s)

Re'

Jh

20/04/2010

8

44.848

919.02

18392.60

62.80

63.270

510.24

58754.60

146.90

10

44.858

919.22

18275.00

62.60

63.250

510.08

58829.06

147.00

12

44.269

907.15

18474.90

62.90

64.820

522.74

61617.80

150.00

14

44.227

906.30

18788.50

63.50

62.470

505.97

60893.50

149.86

21/04/2010

8

46.313

949.04

18193.90

62.30

63.350

510.88

58389.80

146.50

10

46.269

948.14

18387.80

62.80

63.060

508.55

59711.20

148.72

12

45.601

934.45

18480.00

63.00

63.360

510.97

58289.30

146.40

14

44.545

912.81

17864.00

61.70

61.480

495.80

56936.60

142.90

23/04/2010

8

45.589

934.20

18696.40

63.30

61.240

493.87

58100.90

146.30

10

45.574

933.90

18253.00

62.50

61.470

495.73

57010.10

143.10

12

45.568

933.77

18321.90

62.60

61.450

495.56

57099.70

143.30

14

45.568

933.77

18394.00

62.80

61.487

495.86

56943.50

143.00

26/04/2010

8

44.962

921.35

18789.50

63.50

61.380

495.00

57447.60

144.90

10

44.951

921.13

18759.60

63.40

61.300

494.35

57874.50

145.60

12

43.813

897.80

18334.10

62.60

61.350

494.76

57586.40

145.20

14

42.675

874.48

18054.20

62.00

60.640

489.03

55865.90

142.20

27/04/2010

8

45.484

932.05

19216.30

65.00

65.060

524.68

60512.90

149.60

10

45.484

932.05

19085.40

64.00

63.940

515.65

60134.20

149.30

12

45.460

931.56

19259.10

65.20

65.000

524.20

60807.20

149.75

14

45.460

931.56

19259.10

65.20

65.060

524.67

60453.80

149.50

28/04/2010

8

45.203

926.30

18864.90

63.80

63.150

509.27

59275.75

148.20

10

43.478

890.94

18495.60

63.00

62.330

502.66

58056.75

146.00

12

42.913

879.36

18204.90

62.50

61.440

495.48

57145.20

143.40

14

42.317

867.15

17756.50

61.40

59.620

480.80

55558.60

141.90

30/04/2010

8

44.655

915.06

18996.30

64.00

63.230

509.92

58923.50

147.00

10

44.634

914.63

18779.90

63.50

63.130

509.11

59400.30

148.35

12

42.813

877.32

18263.32

62.50

63.090

508.79

59594.04

148.55

14

42.793

876.90

18356.30

62.70

60.490

487.82

56532.60

142.50

ANNEXE VI : Résultats de calcul de la températures des tubes

E101FED

PETROLE BRUT

REFLUX DE TETE

 

j

h

ut*104 (kg/ms)

hi /øt (kw/m20c)

hie/ øt (kw/m20c)

øt

ut'*104
(kg/ms)

h0/øc (kw/m20c)

øc

tt (0c)

01/04/2010

8

6.43

1.367

1.078

1.0230

2.252

1.370

0.9880

76.62

10

6.43

1.377

1.087

1.0230

2.253

1.391

0.9889

76.59

12

6.45

1.344

1.060

1.0223

2.260

1.356

0.9892

76.31

14

6.34

1.316

1.038

1.0225

2.234

1.370

0.9895

77.82

02/04/2010

8

6.44

1.365

1.077

1.0233

2.258

1.380

0.9888

76.32

10

6.47

1.360

1.073

1.0232

2.265

1.336

0.9886

75.91

12

6.436

1.217

0.960

1.0210

2.262

1.234

0.9898

76.30

14

6.365

1.217

0.960

1.0225

2.243

1.390

0.9900

77.42

05/04/2010

8

6.43

1.362

1.074

1.0239

2.261

1.415

0.9890

76.17

10

6.474

1.361

1.074

1.0240

2.274

1.355

0.9886

75.46

12

6. 37

1.369

1.080

1.0246

2.244

1.402

0.9886

77.03

14

6.39

1.368

1.0797

1.0234

2.251

1.402

0.9888

76.75

06/04/2010

8

6.446

1.369

1.0799

1.0246

2.253

1.403

0.9884

76.55

10

6.387

1.356

1.0697

1.0246

2.237

1.402

0.9885

77.40

12

6.386

1.353

1.0676

1.0260

2.236

1.405

0.9881

77.41

14

6.39

1.355

1.0689

1.0250

2.240

1.383

0.9883

77.23

07/04/2010

8

6.35

1.361

1.0740

1.0224

2.242

1.402

0.9895

77.32

10

6.33

1.355

1.0694

1.0250

2.236

1.403

0.9897

77.72

12

6.29

1.332

1.0506

1.0238

2.224

1.404

0.9891

78.26

14

6.34

1.295

1.0214

1.0240

2.238

1.370

0.9891

77.49

09/04/2010

8

6.387

1.365

1.077

1.0233

2.247

1.403

0.9889

76.97

10

6.36

1.356

1.07

1.0237

2.240

1.403

0.9890

77.33

12

6.354

1.358

1.071

1.0237

2.237

1.403

0.9889

77.48

14

6.34

1.338

1.056

1.0238

2.233

1.402

0.9890

77.72

12/04/2010

8

6.48

1.351

1.066

1.0224

2.272

1.415

0.9896

75.74

10

6.5

1.348

1.064

1.0240

2.272

1.417

0.9883

75.49

12

6.43

1.317

1.039

1.0206

2.258

1.390

0.9898

76.51

14

6.49

1.336

1.054

1.0240

2.270

1.391

0.9887

75.68

13/04/2010

8

6.37

1.366

1.077

1.0240

2.245

1.399

0.9887

77.00

10

6.376

1.314

1.037

1.0190

2.256

1.349

0.9910

76.80

12

6.41

1.257

0.992

1.0210

2.263

1.320

0.9900

76.33

14

6.19

1.218

0.961

1.0268

2.193

1.327

0.9882

79.84

14/04/2010

8

6.49

1.350

1.065

1.0235

2.273

1.422

0.9891

75.60

10

6.492

1.350

1.065

1.0234

2.274

1.407

0.9890

75.50

12

6.466

1.341

1.058

1.0233

2.268

1.390

0.9892

75.84

14

6.476

1.347

1.063

1.0200

2.271

1.390

0.9890

75.69

16/04/2010

8

6.535

1.337

1.055

1.0243

2.286

1.389

0.9887

74.80

10

6.48

1.335

1.054

1.0243

2.273

1.390

0.9888

75.54

12

6.47

1.337

1.055

1.0243

2.270

1.391

0.9887

75.70

14

6.305

1.342

1.059

1.0274

2.233

1.390

0.9918

78.24

E101FED

PETROLE BRUT

REFLUX DE TETE

 

j

h

ut*104 (kg/ms)

hi /øt (kw/m20c)

hie/ øt (kw/m20c)

øt

ut'*104
(kg/ms)

h0/øc (kw/m20c)

ac

tt (0c)

19/04/2010

8

6.472

1.338

1.056

1.0244

2.260

1.391

0.9886

76.19

10

6.506

1.308

1.032

1.0242

2.270

1.356

0.9887

75.68

12

6.49

1.317

1.039

1.0240

2.266

1.357

0.9887

75.89

14

6.506

1.308

1.0320

1.0242

2.270

1.356

0.9887

75.68

20/04/2010

8

6.42

1.336

1.054

1.0222

2.253

1.390

0.9896

76.75

10

6.426

1.333

1.052

1.0230

2.253

1.391

0.9893

76.67

12

6.252

1.331

1.050

1.0235

2.205

1.410

0.9893

79.33

14

6.09

1.336

1.054

1.0247

2.158

1.400

0.9887

81.90

21/04/2010

8

6.59

1.338

1.056

1.0246

2.285

1.391

0.9886

74.84

10

6.423

1.344

1.060

1.0266

2.237

1.400

0.9879

77.29

12

6.45

1.340

1.058

1.0232

2.257

1.390

0.9900

76.67

14

6.515

1.317

1.039

1.0234

2.267

1.354

0.9891

75.88

23/04/2010

8

6.33

1.344

1.061

1.0242

2.220

1.376

0.9886

78.43

10

6.507

1.337

1.055

1.0237

2.269

1.356

0.9888

75.76

12

6.49

1.337

1.055

1.0235

2.264

1.357

0.9888

76.00

14

6.49

1.340

1.057

1.0230

2.267

1.355

0.9891

75.93

26/04/2010

8

6.35

1.339

1.057

1.0210

2.229

1.369

0.9900

78.13

10

6.31

1.338

1.055

1.0222

2.219

1.371

0.9894

78.62

12

6.32

1.320

1.041

1.0220

2.223

1.370

0.9900

78.48

14

6.39

1.303

1.028

1.0180

2.245

1.350

0.9910

77.46

27/04/2010

8

6.34

1.368

1.079

1.0200

2.231

1.416

0.9910

78.12

10

6.303

1.350

1.065

1.0220

2.219

1.408

0.9900

78.69

12

6.307

1.370

1.081

1.0200

2.222

1.414

0.9900

78.58

14

6.388

1.370

1.081

1.0180

2.244

1.415

0.9900

77.32

28/04/2010

8

6.306

1.354

1.068

1.0223

2.229

1.400

0.9896

78.04

10

6.29

1.329

1.049

1.0200

2.229

1.380

0.9900

78.22

12

6.306

1.320

1.041

1.0200

2.234

1.357

0.9900

77.97

14

6.379

1.301

1.027

1.0210

2.238

1.342

0.9900

77.63

30/04/2010

8

6.29

1.349

1.064

1.0200

2.228

1.390

0.9900

78.30

10

6.27

1.343

1.060

1.0220

2.220

1.399

0.9900

78.62

12

6.21

1.316

1.039

1.0210

2.204

1.399

0.9900

79.55

14

6.265

1.318

1.040

1.0220

2.222

1.347

0.9900

78.62

j

h

hi0 (kw/m20c)

he

(kw/m20c)

UP (kw/m20c)

01/04/2010

8

1.103

1.354

0.608

10

1.112

1.376

0.615

12

1.084

1.341

0.600

14

1.061

1.356

0.595

02/04/2010

8

1.102

1.364

0.610

10

1.098

1.321

0.600

12

0.980

1.221

0.544

14

0.982

1.376

0.573

05/04/2010

8

1.100

1.399

0.616

10

1.100

1.340

0.604

12

1107

1.386

0.615

14

1.105

1.386

0.615

06/04/2010

8

1.107

1.387

0.615

10

1.096

1.386

0.612

12

1.095

1.388

0.612

14

1.095

1.367

0.610

07/04/2010

8

1.098

1.387

0.613

10

1.096

1.389

0.613

12

1.076

1.389

0.606

14

1.046

1.355

0.590

09/04/2010

8

1.102

1.388

0.614

10

1.095

1.387

0.612

12

1.096

1.387

0.612

14

1.081

1.387

0.607

12/04/2010

8

1.090

1.400

0.613

10

1.090

1.400

0.613

12

1.060

1.376

0.600

14

1.080

1.375

0.605

13/04/2010

8

1.103

1.383

0.614

10

1.056

1.337

0.590

12

1.013

1.307

0.570

14

0.990

1.311

0.964

14/04/2010

8

1.090

1.407

0.614

10

1.090

1.392

0.611

12

1.083

1.375

0.606

14

1.085

1.375

0.606

j

h

hi0 (kw/m20c)

he

(kw/m20c)

UP (kw/m20c

16/04/2010

8

1.081

1.373

0.605

10

1.080

1.374

0.605

12

1.081

1.375

0.605

14

1.088

1.379

0.608

19/04/2010

8

1.082

1.375

0.606

10

1.057

1.341

0.591

12

1.064

1.342

0.593

14

1.057

1.340

0.591

20/04/2010

8

1.077

1.375

0.604

10

1.076

1.376

0.604

12

1.075

1.395

0.607

14

1.080

1.384

0.607

21/04/2010

8

1.082

1.375

0.606

10

1.088

1.383

0.609

12

1.083

1.377

0.606

14

1.063

1.339

0.592

23/04/2010

8

1.087

1.360

0.604

10

1.080

1.340

0.598

12

1.080

1.342

0.598

14

1.081

1.340

0.598

26/04/2010

8

1.079

1.355

0.600

10

1.078

1.356

0.600

12

1.063

1.356

0.596

14

1.047

1.338

0.587

27/04/2010

8

1.100

1.403

0.617

10

1.088

1.394

0.614

12

1.103

1.400

0.617

14

1.100

1.400

0.616

28/04/2010

8

1.092

1.385

0.610

10

1.070

1.367

0.600

12

1.062

1.344

0.593

14

1.049

1.329

0.586

30/04/2010

8

1.085

1.377

0.607

10

1.083

1.385

0.608

12

1.061

1.385

0.600

14

1.060

1.334

0.590

ANNAXE VII : Résultats de calcul du coefficient de transfert de chaleur propre

ANNAXE VII : Résultats de calcul du coefficient de transfert de chaleur encrassé

j

h

E

R

F

DTML (0c)

At (0c)

U (kw/m20c)

01/04/2010

8

0.7809

0.793

0.875

30.72

82

0.254

10

0.779

0.8148

0.850

29.88

81

0.273

12

0.7864

0.8024

0.850

29.27

81

0.261

14

0.7821

0.7848

0.865

29.69

79

0.238

02/04/2010

8

0.7788

0.827

0.850

29.45

81

0.266

10

0.7809

0.817

0.850

29.88

82

0.266

12

0.792

0.800

0.843

28.25

80

0.236

14

0.7941

0.7654

0.860

29.49

81

0.225

05/04/2010

8

0.7809

0.7805

0.864

31.14

82

0.250

10

0.7788

0.8148

0.852

29.88

81

0.261

12

0.7735

0.8049

0.870

31.32

82

0.246

14

0.7809

0.7926

0.870

30.72

82

0.252

06/04/2010

8

0.7757

0.8072

0.843

31.32

83

0.263

10

0.7735

0.7926

0.870

31.74

82

0.248

12

0.7663

0.8170

0.865

31.91

82

0.248

14

0.7641

0.8148

0.845

31.91

81

0.245

07/04/2010

8

0.7914

0.8024

0.850

29.48

83.5

0.270

10

0.7799

0.7975

0.869

30.51

81.5

0.250

12

0.7809

0.7805

0.848

31.14

82

0.243

14

0.7788

0.7901

0.840

30.72

81

0.239

09/04/2010

8

0.7788

0.8025

0.825

30.30

81

0.267

10

0.7788

0.7901

0.852

30.72

81

0.252

12

0.7788

0.7839

0.844

30.93

81

0.252

14

0.7788

0.777

0.828

31.14

81

0.249

12/04/2010

8

0.784

0.8609

0.831

27.30

82

0.293

10

0.7714

0.8839

0.837

28.44

81

0.276

12

0.7990

0.8443

0.840

26.98

83.5

0.285

14

0.7714

0.8901

0.840

28.22

81

0.273

13/04/2010

8

0.7757

0.8735

0.824

28.93

83

0.286

10

0.8164

0.8166

0.811

25.98

84.5

0.306

12

0.796

0.8536

0.771

26.55

82

0.289

14

0.7941

0.8395

0.815

26.98

81

0.258

14/04/2010

8

0.7788

0.8716

0.829

27.88

81

0.284

10

0.7788

0.8716

0.829

25.88

81

0.284

12

0.7766

0.8760

0.825

27.66

80

0.281

14

0.7766

0.8812

0.821

28.48

80

0.274

16/04/2010

8

0.7703

0.8940

0.824

28.04

80.5

0.278

10

0.7714

0.8960

0.823

27.99

81

0.281

12

0.7714

0.888

0.829

28.26

81

0.276

14

0.7788

0.8770

0.825

27.66

81

0.284

19/04/2010

8

0.7714

0.8750

0.838

28.75

81

0.270

10

0.7714

0.8888

0.829

28.26

81

0.270

12

0.7714

0.8760

0.838

28.71

81

0.263

14

0.7714

0.8888

0.829

28.26

81

0.270

j

h

E

R

F

DTML (0c)

At (0c)

U (kw/m20c)

20/04/2010

8

0.7894

0.8484

0.824

27.78

82.5

0.286

10

0.7788

0.8642

0.835

28.14

81

0.273

12

0.7884

0.7561

0.921

30.93

82

0.226

14

0.7316

0.650

0.888

29.28

84

0.254

21/04/2010

8

0.7584

0.9146

0.886

28.22

78.5

0.255

10

0.7488

0.9040

0.86

30.69

80.5

0.248

12

0.8076

0.8570

0.820

25.53

84

0.321

14

0.7766

0.8725

0.828

27.79

80

0.273

23/04/2010

8

0.7788

0.7419

0.863

32.33

81

0.234

10

0.7703

0.8869

0.827

28.31

80.5

0.276

12

0.7692

0.8875

0.825

28.26

80

0.275

14

0.7692

0.8887

0.823

28.22

80

0.277

26/04/2010

8

0.7990

0.8263

0.898

27.62

83.5

0.267

10

0.7904

0.8397

0.868

28.13

83

0.270

12

0.7980

0.8277

0.870

27.53

83

0.268

14

0.8177

0.8192

0.900

25.78

83

0.269

27/04/2010

8

0.8076

0.7964

0.888

27.68

84

0.276

10

0.8

0.8

0.864

28.58

84

0.274

12

0.8058

0.7963

0.880

27.59

83

0.275

14

0.8137

0.7903

0.900

26.76

83

0.278

28/04/2010

8

0.7904

0.8253

0.880

28.64

83

0.263

10

0.8067

0.8023

0.863

27.43

83.5

0.273

12

0.8058

0.8192

0.862

26.80

83

0.274

14

0.7878

0.8820

0.867

26.46

78

0.253

30/04/2010

8

0.8058

0.8072

0.886

27.22

83

0.273

10

0.8039

0.8170

0.888

26.80

82

0.272

12

0.7961

0.8048

0.884

28.25

82

0.249

14

0. 8019

0.8283

0.900

26.34

81

0.260

ANNAXE VIII : Calcul de Rd

j

h

UP

(kw/m20c)

U (kw/m20c)

Rd

(m20c /kw)

RMOY

(m20c /kw)

01/04/2010

8

0.608

0.254

2.292

2.258

10

0.615

0.273

2.077

12

0.600

0.261

2.162

14

0.595

0.238

2.504

02/04/2010

8

0.610

0.266

2.120

2.324

10

0.600

0.266

2.090

12

0.544

0.236

2.399

14

0.573

0.225

2.690

05/04/2010

8

0.616

0.250

2.371

2.331

10

0.604

0.261

2.173

12

0.615

0.246

2.499

14

0.615

0.252

2.342

06/04/2010

8

0.615

0.263

2.174

2.353

10

0.612

0.248

2.398

12

0.612

0.248

2.398

14

0.610

0.245

2.442

07/04/2010

8

0.613

0.270

2.068

2.347

10

0.613

0.250

2.367

12

0.606

0.243

3.465

14

0.590

0.239

2.489

09/04/2010

8

0.614

0.267

2.116

2.288

10

0.612

0.252

2.334

12

0.612

0.252

2.334

14

0.607

0.249

2.368

12/04/2010

8

0.613

0.293

1.782

1.91

10

0.613

0.276

2.000

12

0.600

0.285

1.842

14

0.605

0.273

2.010

13/04/2010

8

0.614

0.286

1.87

1.813

10

0.590

0.306

1.573

12

0.570

0.289

1.91

14

0.964

0.258

2.103

14/04/2010

8

0.614

0.284

1.892

1.922

10

0.611

0.284

1.884

12

0.606

0.281

1.912

14

0.606

0.274

2.00

j

h

UP

(kw/m20c)

U (kw/m20c)

Rd

(m20c /kw)

RMOY

(m20c /kw)

16/04/2010

8

0.605

0.278

1.944

1.924

10

0.605

0.281

1.91

12

0.605

0.276

1.97

14

0.608

0.284

1.88

19/04/2010

8

0.606

0.270

2.054

2.049

10

0.591

0.270

2.012

12

0.593

0.263

1.963

14

0.591

0.270

2.012

20/04/2010

8

0.604

0.286

1.841

2.229

10

0.604

0.273

2.01

12

0.607

0.226

2.777

14

0.607

0.254

2.290

21/04/2010

8

0.606

0.255

2.271

2.025

10

0.609

0.248

2.39

12

0.606

0.321

1.465

14

0.592

0.273

1.974

23/04/2010

8

0.604

0.234

2.617

2.116

10

0.598

0.276

1.950

12

0.598

0.275

1.960

14

0.598

0.277

1.938

26/04/2010

8

0.600

0.267

2.080

2.050

10

0.600

0.270

2.040

12

0.596

0.268

2.053

14

0.587

0.269

2.010

27/04/2010

8

0.617

0.276

2.000

2.003

10

0.614

0.274

2.020

12

0.617

0.275

2.016

14

0.616

0.278

1.974

28/04/2010

8

0.610

0.263

2.163

2.117

10

0.600

0.273

2.000

12

0.593

0.274

1.963

14

0.586

0.253

2.340

30/04/2010

8

0.607

0.273

2.010

2.137

10

0.608

0.272

2.030

12

0.600

0.249

2.350

14

0.590

0.260

2.151

ANNEXE IX

AbaqueIX.3 : Détermination du facteur de correction de la MLDT.

Abaque IX.4 : Détermination des températures caloriques.

Abaque IX.6 : Fonction de transfert en fonction de nombre de Reynolds, côté calandre

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