The morphosyntax of adverbs in Shupamem
par Abass NGOUNGOUO YIAGNIGNI
Université de Yaoundé 1 - Master en Linguistique Générale 2016
This chapter aimed at presenting the frameworks used for this study on the morpho-syntax of adverbs in Shupamem. As shown above, the main framework that has been adopted is the Minimalist Program. This is justified by the MP's view to minimize the language complexity. Also, being an expanded and widely studied framework, it is important to test its assumptions against the data from Shupamem.
Out of MP, I used the Cartographic Approach to account for the structure of the left periphery of Shupamem. Furthermore, a crosslinguistic hierarchy has been posited by Cinque (1999), and it is a challenge for descriptive studies to verify whether those assumptions do work in their languages or not.
INVENTORY AND CLASSIFICATION OF ADVERBS IN SHUPAMEM
The previous chapter presented the theoretical frameworks used for this study. In this chapter, I shall present the semantic classification of adverbs in Shupamem, as well as their morphological properties. The latter will be concerned with bringing out the forms of adverbs in Shupamem. Quoting Tabe (2015), data from Shupamem demonstrate that characteristic features of adverbs in Shupamem can be captured from events structures constituting different functional projections in the syntax. That is, the behavior of adverbs in this language is inextricably bound to both syntactic and semantic phenomena. The nature of the interface between them is explained through their distribution and properties in the language. The adverbs can appear left-adjoined or right-adjoined to the verb. From a cartographic perspective, Shupamem adverbs can occupy different functional heads comprising the CP, IP and VP respectively. Each syntactic position affects the semantics of the proposition. The possibility of adverbs stacking is constrained by the pragmatics of the semantic zones and the co-occurring and ordering restrictions in the syntax. The ordering is a relative linear proximity rather than a fixed order.
According to Trask (1993), an adverb is a lexical item that belongs to the category of words that express semantic notions such as time, manner, place, instrument or circumstance. Adverbs are also known to modify verbs, verb phrases, adjectives, other adverbs, clauses and sentences. In Shupamem, like in other languages, adverbs are grouped into classes, according to the notion they express. According to Jackendoff (1972), adverbs are semantically classified into four groups, namely speaker-oriented, subject-oriented, events related and focus adverbs. For this study, Ipresent manner adverbs, temporal adverbs, frequency adverbs, celerative adverbs, locative adverbs, adverbs of restriction, aspectual adverbs, among others.
Semantically, adverbs are classified according to the kind of meaning that they add to the elements that they modify. This section discusses the following types of adverbs: manner, celerative, temporal, frequency, epistemic, aspectual, locative, restrictive, completive, proximative, speech act, idoephonic, comparative and exocomparative adverbs. Hereafter, I give the semantic and the morphological properties of each of these types of adverbs.
Semantically, manner adverbs answer the question «how», and describe the way in which an action or an event took place. In Shupamem, manner adverbs modify the finite verb of the clause. Syntactically,their unmarked position in the structure is after the verb. In some constructions, a manner adverb can be fronted in order to mark emphasis. This is shown in (1) below:
(1) a) Post-verbal
m?ìn fa?? faÌ? k?ìnkériì
child worked work tiredly
«The child worked tiredly»
k?ìnkériì-iì, m?ìn fa?? faÌ?
tiredly child worked work
«Tiredly, the child worked».
Example (1.a) shows that the manner adverb «k?ìnkériì» (tiredly) modifies the verb «fa??» (worked) which it follows in the unmarked position. In (1.b), the adverb has been fronted in order to lay emphasis on the way in which the child worked.
This is tenable for other manner adverbs, such as «puoìtkériì/f??ìkériì» (weakly), «pu?ìtiì» (softly), «n?Ì k?ì» (forcefully), «n?Ì l??ìp» (fearfully) «n?Ì ????» (angrily), «yeìtni?» (correctly), «r?Ìm?i?» (beautifully), «wuìÌm?i?» (carefully), «faÌp?i?»(separately), «pyìkériì» (badly), «f?ì?ì?iì» (calmly), «vuÌ?kériì» (carelessly), «vyÌkériì» (surprisingly), «?aìp?i» (closely), «n?Ì ku?nt?ìm» (deliberately), «l??ìtkériì» (easily), «n?Ì ??ì?» (fondly), etc.
Morphologically, some manner adverbs are derived from nouns or adjectives. Here, the suffix «kériì» is added to the nominal stem to form the adverb. This is shown in (2) below, and shall be discussed details in the section on adverbs morphology.
(2) Nouns Adverbs
«k?ìn?ì» (tiredness) «k?ìnkeìriì» (tiredly)
«f??ì» (weakness) «f??ìkériì» (weakly)
Also, some manner adverbs can be derived through substitution. In this case, the final vowel is substituted either by «iì» or«é». This is shown in (3) below:
(3) Nouns Adverbs
raÌkaÌ? (stubbornness) raìkeì?(stubbornly)
pu?ìt?Ì (softness) pu?ìtiì (softly)
raÌ???Ì (adj. harsh) raÌ??iì (harshly)
Out of suffixation and substitution, some nouns can be combined with the morpheme «n?Ì» (with) to form manner adverbials. This is shown in (4) below:
(4) Nouns Adverbs
k?ì(force) n?Ì k?ì (forcefully)
jiì (knowledge) n?Ì jiì (knowingly)
???ì (anger) n?Ì ???ì (angrily)
In short, manner adverbs in Shupamem are base-generated after the verb.They can undergo fronting in emphatic constructions and are derived through affixation, substitution or adjunction.
Celerative adverbs are a kind of manner adverbs that describe the manner in which an action took place, in term of speed of movement. The action may occur slowly, gradually or quickly. In this perspective, some celerative adverbs in Shupamem are «l??ìtkéri» (rapidly), «n?Ì k?ì» (rapidly), «m?Ìj?ìt» (slowly), «n?Ìnd??ìr?ì» (quickly). The word «nda?» (very) can be used as intensifier of the adverbial, resulting in the adverbial «n?Ì nda? k?ì» (very quickly).
Like manner adverbs which I discussed above, celerative adverbs are base-generated after the verb. For emphasis, they can be fronted at the sentence initial position. This is shown in (5) below:
(5) a) maÌtwaì j??m n?Ìnd??ìr?ì
car turned rapidly
«The car turned rapidly».
b) n?Ì nd??ìr?Ì-?Ì, maÌtwaì j??m
rapidly -Top car turned
«Rapidly, the car turned»
Celerative adverbs modify the finite verbs, and can come before or after the other adverbs of the structure. They can be formed through the affixation (the suffix «kériì»or «riì» added to the noun or adjective stem) or through adjunction of «n?Ì» (with) to the noun. They can also be single words like «m?Ìj?ìt» (slowly).
In brief, the syntactic and morphological aspects of the manner adverbs are also tenable to celerative adverbs. In other words, they are base-generated after the verb, and are either pure adverbs like «m?Ìj?ìt» (slowly), or derived through adjunction or affixation, as shown in (5) above.
Semantically, temporal adverbs provide information about the time of occurrence of an event or an action. They situate the event or the action within a particular time frame. They can be single words like «ndi?Ì??iÌ» (today), «f??mn??ì» (tomorrow), «?kuÌr?Ì» (yesterday), «nku??n??ì» (morning), and «?aì?a?» (now). They can also combine with other elements such as nouns, numerals, determiners, and other qualifiers to form complex adverbial phrases like: «f?Ìmn??ì n?Ì ?ku??n??Ì» (tomorrow morning), «n?Ì tuì ?ku??n??Ì» (early in the morning), «n?Ì nd???gw?ìn-iì» (this evening), and others. Their use is illustrated in (6) below:
(6) a) m?ìn j?Ì p?ìn ?kuÌr?Ì
child ate fufu yesterday
«The child ate fufu yesterday»
b) ?kuÌr?Ì-?Ì, m?ìn j?Ì p?ìn
yesterday, child ate fufu
«Yesterday, the child ate fufu».
The example in (6.a) shows that temporal adverbs come after the verb. As for (7.b), it shows that temporal adverbs can be extracted to the sentence initial position, without causing ungrammaticality.
Morphologically, temporal adverbscan be single words or combinations of words. When used post-verbally, they have scope over the verb, whereas they have scope over the entire proposition when they occupy the sentence initial position.
For instance, in (6.a) above, the temporal adverb «?kuÌr?Ì» (yesterday) has scope over the verb «j?Ì» (ate), whereas in (6.b) it has scope over the entire sentence «m?ìn j?Ì p?ìn» (The child ate fufu).
Frequency adverbs indicate the number of times an action took place or has taken place (Cinque 1999). They modify the whole proposition in which they occur. In Shupamem, they are noun phrases obtained by adjunction of the morpheme «?gu?» (every, all) to a nominal element, as in the case with «?gu? lieìn??Ì» (everyday), «?gu? f?Ì?» (every time), «?gu??kuì?n??ì» (every morning), and «?gu? nd?ì??gw?ìn» (every evening). The intensifier «m?Ìnteìn» (all) can be used alongside the frequency adverbs. Frequency adverbials can also be formed by adjunction of the particle «?kaì» (indicating the number of times that an action occurred) to the numerals. For instance, we have «?kaì iìm?ì?» (once), «?kaì iìpa?» (twice), etc... To mark the difference between them, I use the notions frequency Ifor the first type of frequency adverb and frequency II for the second type. The syntactic property of frequency adverbs is shown in (7) below:
(7) a) m?ìsiìi naì ?k?Ì? ?gu? lién??ì (m?Ìnteìn)
bird Aff. sings everyday (all)
«The bird sings everyday»
b) ?gu? lién??ì (m?Ìnteìn), m?Ìsiìi naì ?k?Ì?
every day (all), bird Aff. sings
«Every day, the bird sings»
c) m?ìsiìi naì ?k?Ì? ?kaì iìpa?
bird Aff. cry twice
«The bird sings twice»
d) ?kaì iìpa?-n?ì, m?Ìsiìi naì ?k?Ì?
twice-Top bird Aff. sings
«Twice, the bird sings»
The examples above show that both the frequency adverbials with «?gu?» (every) and with «?kaì»(number of times)can be raised to the sentence initial position.It should be noted that the intensifier «m?Ìntén» (all) closes the adverbial domain. Its occurrence before the adverbial phrase renders the sentence ungrammatical. This is shown in (8) below:
(8) a) m?ìsiìi naì ?k?Ì? ?gu? lién??ì (m?Ìnteìn)
bird Aff. sings everyday (all)
«The bird sings everyday»
b) *(m?Ìnteìn), ?gu? lién??ì m?ìsiìi naì ?k?Ì?
(all) everyday, bird Aff. sings
Intended: «Every day, the bird sings»
Semantically, epistemic adverbs convey the attitude of the speaker towards the truth, the certainty or the probability of his assertion. It shows the speaker's degree of confidence about the truth of his proposition, (Cinque 1999). They include expressions such as «m???mb?ì», «m??? ?kaì» (maybe/perhaps), and «k?ÌpuÌ?5(*)» or «k?ÌmbuÌ?» (unavoidably). Syntactically, the epistemic adverbial«m??? mb?ì/m??? ?kaì» (maybe) occursat the clause initial position (I term it Epistemic I),while the other(k?Ì...puÌ?/k?Ì...mbuÌ?)(unavoidably) occurs before the verb, but never at the clause initial position, (Epistemic II). This is illustrated in (9) below and (10) below:
(9) a) m??? mb?ì maÌtwaì tu?Ì n?Ì ?yì?
maybe car came in the night
«Maybe the car came in the night».
b) *maÌtwaì tu?Ì n?Ì ?y? m??? mb?ì
car came in the night maybe
Intended: «The car came in the night, maybe»
(10) a) maÌtwaì k?Ì mbuì? ntu?Ì n?Ì ?y?
car unavoidably came in the night
«The car unavoidably came in the night»
b) * k?Ì mbuÌ? maÌtwaì tu?Ì n?Ì ?y?
unavoidably car came in the night
Intended: «Unavoidably, the car came in the night».
The data in (10) show that epistemic IIadverb «k?Ì mbuÌ?» (unavoidably) cannot come at the sentence initial position. In the same line, the epistemic I adverb «m??? mb?ì» (maybe) is always at the sentence initial position.
Morphologically, epistemic adverbs are formed through the adjunction of the particle «m???» to the verb «mb?ì» (epistemic I) and the particle «k?Ì» to the verb «mbuÌ?» (epistemic II).
Locative or place adverbs provide information about the place where an event or an action occurred or will occur. They modify the finite verbs in the structure. Among other locative adverbials, we have «?aÌ jiÌi» (here), and «?aì j??ì»(there), «?kuÌ ?aì, ?k?Ì ?iÌi, n?iÌ naì, n?iÌ niìi,» (over there), «n??Ìm ndaÌp» (behind the house), and others.
Morphologically, they can combine with prepositions like «?kuÌ» (over), «mf?ì» (at), and «n?iì» (at) to form locative adverbials, like in «?kuÌ ?aì», «?k?Ì ?iÌi», «n?iÌnaì», «n?iÌ niìi» (over there). Locative adverbs can also be nouns like «nt?ìn» (market), «ndaÌ ?iÌ?iÌ» (church), «ndaÌ leìr?ÌwaÌ» (school), and others. These nouns can also combine with prepositions to form locative adverbials, like the case with«n??Ìm ndaÌp» (behind the house).
Syntactically, the unmarked position of locative adverbs is post-verbal. However, for emphasis (topicalization), they can move to a pre-verbal position. In the case of locative adverbials made from nouns, their extraction to a pre-verbal position require the use of the resumptive modifier «??ì n?ìt» (there) at the end of the clause. This is shown in (11) below:
(11) a) léraÌ? wu?Ìn mf?ìndaÌ lér?ÌwaÌ
teacher went to school
«The teacher went to school»
b) mf?ìndaÌ lér?ÌwaÌ-n?Ì, léraÌ? wu?Ìn ??ì n?ìt
to school teacher went there
«To school, the teacher went (there)»
c) * mf?ìndaÌ lér?ÌwaÌ, léraÌ? wu?Ìn
toschool teacher went
Intended: «To school, the teacher went (there)»
Adverbs of degree provide information on how an event or an action is performed. In other words, it presents the degree of realization of an action. In Shupamem, we have adverbs of degree such as «m?Ì kériÌ» (a few), «?kwaÌriì», «r?Ìniì» (a lot), «t?Ìt?Ìn» and «??Ìt nduÌu»(too much). The examples in (12) below present the different syntactic positions of the adverbs of degree in Shupamem.
(12) a) m?Ì mviì naì ?g?ì? ?bg?Ìfuìm t?Ìt?Ìn
goat Aff. likes maize too much
«The goat likes maize too much»
b) t?Ìt?Ìn n?ì, m?Ì mviì naì ?g?ì? ?bg?Ìfuìm
too much goat Aff. likes maize
«Too much, the goat likes maize)
c) *m?Ì mviì t?Ìt?Ìn naì ?g?ì? ?bg?Ìfuìm
goat too much Aff. likes maize
Intended: «The goat, too much, likes maize»
The example in (12.a) shows that adverbs of degree are base-generated after the verb and modify the finite verb. As for (12.c), it shows that they do not occur just before the finite verb.It should be noted that the adverb of degree «t?Ìt?Ìn» (too much) can be used as intensifier of other adverbs in the same structure. This is shown in (13.a) and (13.b) below:
(13) a) m?Ì mviì naì ?g?ì? ?bg?Ìfuìm t?Ìt?Ìn pékériì
goat Aff. likes maize too much honestly
«Honestly, the goat likes maize»
b) m?Ì mviì naì ?g?ì? ?bg?Ìfuìm pékériì t?Ìt?Ìn
goat Aff. likes maize honestly too much
«The goat likes maize, honestly, a lot.»
Morphologically, adverbs of degree are mostly pure adverbs, such as «t?Ìt?Ìn» (too much), and «r?Ìniì/?kwaìriì» (a lot). Also, they can be made through adjunction, as in the case with «??Ìt nduÌu» (too much) and «m?Ì kériÌ» (a few).
Semantically, adverbs of restriction inform on the strict restriction of the action expressed by the verb, (Njike 2009). In Shupamem, we have the restriction adverb «ndùu» (only, just). Syntactically, this adverb is generated post-verbally. Morphologically, «ndùu» (only/just) is a pure adverb. Its syntactic property of is presented in (14) below:
(14) a) p?ìn j?Ì-naÌ nduÌu p?ìn n?Ì ?y?
children ate only fufu in the night
«The children ate only fufu in the night»
b) *ndùu p?ìn-n?ì, p?ìn j?Ì-naÌ n?Ì ?y?
only fufu-Top children ate in the night
«Only fufu, the children ate in the night»
c) ndùu p?ìn-n?ì, p?ìn j?Ì-naÌ jiìr?ì n?Ì ?y?
only fufu children ate that in the night
«Only fufu, the children ate that in the night»
d) p?ìn j?Ì-naÌ n?Ì ?y? po^ nduÌu p?ìn
children ate in the night Foc. only fufu
«The children ateonly fufu in the night»
The example in (14.a) shows that adverb of restrictionis base-generated at the post-verbal position. Its extraction to the sentence initial position is not allowed (14.b), unless there is a resumptive pronoun «jiìr?ì/?iìr?ì» (it/them) at its base-generated position, as shown in (14.c). This also shows that the adverb should move with its noun to the initial position. Also, it can be preceded by other adverbs in case of focalization with «po^» (Focus marker), as shown in (17.d) above.
Aspectual adverbs inform about the state of an action at the moment of discourse. In other words, they indicate whether an action is recurring, continuing or has been completed. In Shupamem, the aspectual adverb markers include the habitual and frequentative aspects«kaì (mb?ì)»(often, always), the repetitive aspect «piÌt/mbiÌt» (again), the durative and continuing aspects «kaÌ? (?k?ì)» (still), and the anterior aspect «teìt» (already). The progressive aspect is marked by the morpheme «ti?ì» (Prog.), or is lexicalized and marked by the verbal sequence «mb?ì m?Ì jiÌn6(*)» (to be doing) followed by the verb that describes the action. In the same vein, the repetitive aspect can be marked by the sequence «m?ì? ?ké» (once again). Consider the examples in (15), (16) and (17) below:
(15) a) m?ìn kaì (mb?ì) nsuì ???Ì?
child often wash clothes
«The child often washes the clothes»
b) * kaì (mb?ì) m?ìn nsuì ???Ì?
often child wash clothes
Intended: «Often, the child washes the clothes»
c) aì kaì(mb?ì) nsuì m?ìn ???Ì?
Foc. often wash child clothes
«It is the child who often washes the clothes».
(16) a) m?ìn piÌt nsuì ???Ì?
child again wash clothes
«The child washed the clothesagain»
b) *piÌt m?ìn nsuì ???Ì?
again child washed clothes
Intended: «Again, the child washed the clothes»
c) m?ìn suìu ???Ì? m?ì? ?ké
child washed clothes once again
«The child washed the dish once again»
d) m?ì? ?ké, m?ìn suìu ???Ì?
once again child washed clothes
«Once again, the child washed the clothes»
(17) m?ìn paì m?Ì jin-nsuì ???Ì?
child Prog. Inf.-wash clothes
«The child is washing the clothes»
The examples in (15.a), (16.a) and (17) show that the aspectual adverbs occur in the pre-verbal position, that is, between the subject and the verb.
Only the repetitive «m?ì? ?ké» (once again)can appear post-verbally. The examples in (15.b) and (16.b) show that some aspectual adverbs cannot appear at the sentence initial position, while (16.d) shows that «m?ì? ?ké» (once again) can. The example in (16.c) shows that the raising of the habitual aspect marker «kaì (mb?Ì)»(Hab.)is possible through the focalization with «aì» (Cleft copula focus marker).
Morphologically, aspectual adverbs are mostly grammatical morphemes, that is, they have no sense on their own. They must be accompanied by the verb to mark the aspect of the action. It is the example with «ti?ì» (progressive), «kaì» (habitual), «tét» (anterior tense), «piÌt» (repetitive), and others. Moreover, they can be formed through adjunction, as is the case with «moÌ? ?ké» (repetitive), «mb?Ì m?Ì jiÌ» (progressive).
Speech act adverbsexpress the situation or terms under which the statement is being made. Generally, they have scope over the entire sentence and are used to introduce an utterance. In Shupamem, we have the speech act adverbials «m?Ì ndaì ?gamÌ», «m?Ì ndaì ?gambékét» (honestly) and the adverb «pékériì» (honestly).
Morphologically, «m?Ì ndaì ?gam/?gambékét» (honestly) is made from the preposition «m?Ì», the adjective «ndaì» (good) and the nouns «?gaÌm» (fact)or«?gambékét» (truth). As for «pékériì» (honestly), it is derived from the noun «mbékét» (truth), to which the suffix «kériì» is added.
Syntactically, speech act adverbs are generated at the sentence initial position. They can also appear inside the sentence without making the sentence ungrammatical. This is shown in (18) below:
(18) a) pékériì m?Ì j??ìn ??ìn
honestly I P1 see thief
«Honestly, I have seen the thief»
b) m?Ì j??ìn ??ìn pékériì
I P1 see thief honestly
«I have seen the thief, honestly»
c) m?Ì ndaì ?gam m?Ì j??ìn ??ìn
honestly I P1 see thief
«Honestly, I have seen the thief»
d) m?Ì j??ìn ??ìn m?Ì ndaì ?gam
I P1 see thief honestly
«I have seen the thief honestly».
Completive adverbs indicate that the action described by the verb has been completed. In Shupamem, they occurs at the sentence final position. Its extraction to the sentence initial position does not make the sentence ungrammatical. The completive adverbmodifies the finite verb of the clause.An example of a completive adverb is «m?ìteìn» (completely/totally), which is presented in (19) and (20) below:
(19) Sani j?Ì ?kuìn m?ìteìn
Sani ate beans completely
«Sani ate the beans completely»
(20) m?ìteìn-n?ì, Sani j?Ì ?kuìn
completely-Top Sani ate beans
«Completely, Sani ate the beans»
Morphologically, the completive adverb «m?ìteìn» (completely) is a pure adverb.
Proximative adverbs inform on the time of realization of a forthcoming event or action. It modifies the entire sentence and is base-generated after the verb. In Shupamem, we have the adverbials «f??? ?iìr?ì» and «maÌn??Ìm m?Ìkét f?Ì?» (soon, after a little time). Morphologically, they are made through the adjunction process. They can come before or after the verb, without causing ungrammaticality, as illustrated in (21) below:
(21) a) m?Ì naì ntu?ì piÌn piìn f??? ?iìr?ì
I F1 dance (V) dance (N) soon
«I will dance soon»
b) f??? ?iìr?ì-?ì, m?Ì naì ntu?ì piÌn piìn
soon -Top I F1 dance(V) dance(N)
«Soon, I will dance.»
An ideophone is a vivid representation of an idea in sound or a word, often onomatopoeic, which describes a predicate, a qualificative or an adverb in respect to manner, colour, smell, action, state or intensity(Welmers 1973:461).In other words, an ideophone is an onomatopoeic representation of a concept, often consisting of reduplicated syllables and not adhering to the phonotactic structure of the given language, Tabe (2015:121). Some manner adverbs in Shupamemare ideophones. They are used to describe the manner in which an action is performed by appealing to some of our senses. They are usually preceded by the manner morpheme «miì» (that). We then have cases like «miì waÌaan?» (describing high speed), «miì gb?Ìmm» (describing the sound of a heavy fallenobject),and «miì kp?Ìm» (quietly). Let's consider the data in (22) below:
(22) a) maÌtwaì jaÌ? maì man?é miì waÌaang
car passed on the road rapidly
«The car passed rapidly on the road»
b) miì waÌaang, maÌtwaì jaÌ? maì man?é
rapidly car passed on the road
«Rapidly, the car passed on the road»
The example in (22.a) shows that ideophonic adverbs are generated post-verbally. They can be raised to the sentence initial position, as shown in (22.b).
Morphologically, ideophonic adverbs are formed through adjunction of the morpheme «miì» (that) to the corresponding onomatopoeia. It is the case with «miì waÌaang» (rapidly), «mi kp?Ìm» (quietly), and others.
Comparative adverbs are used to compare one thing to another. In Shupamem, comparison is marked by the morpheme «jékaìa» (like). Exocomparative adverbs require an implicit comparison of an entity to some other entity, (Tabe 2015:130). In Shupamem, we have «ndu?niì», (differently)and «?g??? (n?ì) ?g???» (similarly). Consider the examples in (23) (for comparative adverbs), and (24) (for exocomparative adverbs) below:
(23) a) mpkaÌraÌ?m?Ìn k?? jékaìa m?ìn
adult cried like child
«The adult cried like a child»
b) jékaìa m?ìn-n?ì, mpkaÌraÌ?m?Ìn k?? ??ìr?Ì
c) like child-Top. adult cried so
«Like a child, the adult cried (so)»
(24) a) m?ìn k?Ì? ndu?niì
child cried differently
«The child cried differently»
b) *ndu?niì-n?ì, m?ìn k?Ìu
differently-Top child cried
«Differently, the child cried»
c) ndu?niì-n?ì, m?ìn k?Ìu ??ìr?Ì
differently-Top child cried so
«Differently, the child cried»
The example in (23.a) shows that the comparative adverb «jékaìa» in Shupamem is generated after the verb. The example in (23.b) on its part shows that it can undergo extraction. As for (24.a), it shows that exocomparative adverbials are generated at the sentence final position, and (24.b) shows that they cannot come at the sentence initial position, unless there is a resumptive pronoun at their initial position (24.c).
Morphologically, comparative adverbs are pure adverbs, such as «jékaìa» (like) and «ndu?niì» (differently). Reduplication also intervenes in the case with the exocomparative adverb «?g??? ?g???» (similarly).
The analyses done throughout the previous section show that adverbs in Shupamem are not morphologically the same. Although there is no clear one-to-one correspondence between their semantic and morphological properties, some remarks that need to be mentioned have been done thereon. In fact, some adverbs in Shupamem are single and independentwords, (pure adverbs) while the others are either made of two or more words, or derived through adjunction, affixation,reduplication and substitution processes, (derived adverbs). This section studies the morphology of adverbs, namely the single words adverbs, the adjunction, the affixation,the reduplication and the substitution processes.
As seen above, some adverbs in Shupamem are single words. They are divided into two groups, namely lexical and grammatical words.
This is the group of adverbs that have sense on their own. They do not need to combine with other words or to be in a particular context to have meaning. This comprises mostly the temporal adverbs. In fact, some nouns can beused in the discourse to informabout the time of occurrence of an event. Some of temporal adverbs that are lexical words are presented in (25) below:
(25) «ndi?Ì??iÌ» (today); «f??mn??ì» (tomorrow);
«?kuÌr?Ì» (yesterday); «nku??n??ì» (morning);
Moreover, some restrictive and degree adverbs are lexical words. They are shown in (26) below:
(26) «nduìu» (only/just) «t?Ìt?Ìn» (too much)
These adverbs are mostly those that need to be adjoined to other words, or appear in a particular context to have sense. This group of pure adverbs is made up of some aspectual adverbs. The latter are free morphemes which, in a particular context, express the aspect of the action described in the discourse. They are shown in (27) below:
(27) «kaì» (habitual aspect) «piÌt» (continuing aspect)
«ti?ì» (progressive aspect) «t?Ìt» (completive aspect)
Adverbs in Shupamem have four derivation processes.These processes are adjunction, affixation, reduplication and substitution.
This is a process whereby two or more words are put together to play a given role in the sentence. In the case of adverbials in Shupamem, we mostly have the following cases of adjunction:
- Preposition+Noun (P-N);
- Demonstrative+Demonstrative (Dem-Dem);
- Preposition+Demonstrative+Demonstrative (P-Dem-Dem);
- Preposition+Adjective+Noun (P-Adj-N)
- Preposition+Verb (P-V)
- Adjective+Noun (Adj-N)
- Verb+Preposition+Infinitive (V-P-Inf.)
This adjunction concerns the manner and locative adverbs. To express the manner in which an action is performed, we adjoin the preposition «n?Ì» (with) to a noun. Some of the manner adverbs derived through Preposition+Noun are shown in (28), while their use is illustrated in (29) below:
(28) «n?Ì k?ì» (with force/forcefully) «n?Ì l??ìp» (with fear/fearfully)
«n?Ì ????» (with anger/angrily) «n?ì jiì» (with knowledge)
(29) m?ìn kiÌem paÌm n?Ì k?ì
child carried bag forcefully
«The child carried the bag forcefully»
Also, some locative adverbs are derived through the adjunction of the prepositions «maì, n?iì, mf?ì, ?kuì», (at, to, in) to a noun. It is the case with the adverbials«?kuì ndaìp» (to the house), and «maì nd?Ìm t?ìn» (to the market).The use of these locative adverbials is shown in (30) below:
(30) a) m?Ì wu?Ìn ?kuì ndaìp
I went to the house
«I went to the house»
b) m?Ì wu?Ìn maì nd?Ìm t?ìn
I went to the market
«I went to the market»
These cases of adjunction are restricted to the locative adverbs in Shupamem. As Demonstrative+Demonstrative, we have «?aÌ jiÌi» (here), «?aì j??ì» (there).
To these adverbials, a preposition can be adjoined for need of precision in the discourse, resulting in the structure Preposition+Demonstrative+Demonstrative. It is the case with «?kuÌ ?aÌ jiÌi» (over here), and «?kuÌ ?aÌ j??ì» (over there). The examples in (31) below illustrated these cases of adjunction.
(31) a) maÌtwaì jaÌ? ?aÌ jiÌi
car passed here
«The car passed here»
b) maÌtwaì jaÌ? ?kuÌ ?aÌ j??ì
car passed over there
«The car passed over there»
This adjunction process concerns the speech act adverbials «m?Ì ndaì ?gaÌm» and «m?Ì ndaì ?gaÌmbekét», (honestly). They are made up of the preposition «m?Ì» (in), the adjective «ndaì» (good) and the nouns «?gaÌm» (fact) and «?gaÌmbékét» (truth). They are shown in (32) below:
(32) a) m?Ì ndaì ?gaÌm léraÌ? tu?Ì
Honestly teacher came
«Honesty, the teacher came»
b) m?Ì ndaì ?gaÌmbekét mb??Ì toì
Honestly rain fell
«Honestly, it rained»
This is the case with the aspectual adverb «kaì (mb?ì)» (habitual).The verb here is «mb?ì» (be) and its use is optional, whereas the particle «kaì» is the habitual aspect marker. This is shown in (33) below:
(33) m?ìn kaì (mb?ì) ?gw?Ìn lér?ÌwaÌ
child Hab. go school
«The child always go to school»
This is the single case with the progressive aspect «mb?ì m?Ì jiÌn» (to be doing something) in Shupamem. Here, there is the verb «mb?ì» (be), the preposition «m?Ì» (on) and the infinitival phrase «jiÌn», (Infinitive marker). The example in (34) below illustrates this derivation process:
(34) m?ìn paÌ m?Ì jin-?gw?Ìn lér?ÌwaÌ
child Prog. Inf-go school
«The child is going to school»
The expression «paÌ m?Ì jin» which figures in the data above is the conjugated form of «mb?ì m?Ì jiÌn», the progressive aspect marker mentioned previously.
This process is concerned with the attachment of a suffix to a nominal or adjectival stem to form an adverb. In fact, the semantic classification of adverbs (section 3.1) above revealed that the speech act adverb «pékériì» (honestly) and most manner adverbs are formed through this process. These are thesuffixes «-kériì» added to the nominal stem, or «-riì» attached to the adjective to form the adverb. This process is summarized in (35) below:
(35) a) Nouns Suffix Adverbs
«f??ì»(weakness) -kériì «f??ìkériì» (weakly)
«pyì» (badness) -kériì «pyìkériì (badly)
«vuÌ?» (carelessness) -kériì «vuÌ?kériì» (carelessly)
b) Adjectives Adverbs
«poìkét» (good) -riì «poìkériì» (good)
«f??ìkét» (weak) -riì «f??ìkériì» (weakly)
«wuÌmkét» (safe) -riì «wuÌmkériì» (safely)
«??Ìtkét» (perfect) -riì «??Ìtkériì» (perfectly)
«l??ìpkét» (fearful) -riì «l??ìtkéri» (fearfully)
«k?ìnkét» (tiredness) -riì «k?ìnkeìriì» (tiredly)
It should be mentioned that the «t» that is present in adjectives before derivation disappears in adverbs, in order to ease pronunciation.
In the course of the inventory of adverbs in Shupamem, I have realized that the manner adverb «m?Ìjét» (slowly) can be duplicated in the discourse. This results in the adverbial «m?Ìjétm?Ìjét»(slowly). Also, the manner adverbials formed through adjunction can have their nominal elements duplicated. For instance, we have «n?Ì ?yì?» which becomes «n?Ì ?yì? ?yì?» (in the night), and «n?Ì k?ì» which becomes «n?Ì k?ì k?ì», (rapidly/forcefully). It is also the case with the exocomparative adverb «?g?ì? ?g?ì?» (similarly). They are illustrated in (36) below:
(36) a) ?iÌ-n?Ìn m?Ìjét m?Ìjét
b) ?iÌ-SM n?Ì k?ìk?ì
As mentioned previously, some manner adverbs are derived through substitution. In fact, a vowel of a noun or adjective can be substituted by another vowel to form a manner adverb. Consider the data in (37) below:
(37) a) Noun Substitution Adverb
«raÌkaÌ?» (stubbornness) aÌ é «raìké?» (stubbornly)
«r?Ìm??Ì» (beauty) ?Ì i? «r?m?i?» (beautifully)
«?y?r?Ì» (stupidity) ?Ì i? «?y?ri?» (stupidly)
b) Adjective Substitution Adverb
«raÌ???Ì» (rude) ?Ì i? «raÌ??i?» (rudely)
«f?ì?ì??Ì» (calm) ?Ì i? «f?ì?ì?iì» (calmly)
In (37.a), the last vowel «aÌ» which is found in the noun «raÌkaÌ?»(stubbornness) has been substituted by the vowel «é». This substitution results in the manner adverb «raìké?» (stubbornly). In the same light, the vowel «?Ì» of the adjective «raÌ???Ì» (rude) is substituted by the vowel «i?», resulting in the manner adverb «raÌ??i?» (rudely). The use of these two adverbs is illustrated in (38) below:
(38) a) wuì fuìu liÌ-?aì raìké?
you read name-Poss. stubbornly
«You called my namestubbornly»
b) wuì jaÌ?k?ì ndaÌ lér?waÌ raÌ??i?
you read book rudely
«You read the book rudely»
* 5«k?Ì...puÌ?» is used to mark certainty of actions that have not yet occured, while «k?Ì...mbuì?» expresses certainty of passed actions.
* 6«mb?ì» is the verb «be» that must be conjugated according to the subject of the sentence;