The UN security council reforms: myth or reality? an african analysis
par Ndiyaye Innocent UWIMANA
UZ - MCS 2006
THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL REFORM: MYTH
Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of
Masters of Science in International
Supervisor: Professor HASU H. PATEL
Table of Contents Page
List of Abbreviations v
Chapter 1: Introduction 1
Background and Statement of the Problem 1
Objectives and Purpose of the Study 2
Literature Review 3
Theoretical Framework 5
Chapter 2: The United Nations Security Council 8
The Structure of the United Nations Security Council 8
The United Nations Security Council Modus Operandi 9
The United Nations Security Council Peacekeeping efforts in Africa and its Weaknesses 16
The African Contribution Towards International Peace and Security under Articles 52 and 53 of
the United Nations Charter 22
The Economic Community Monitoring Group 23
The Southern Africa Development Community 25
Chapter 3: The United Nations Security Council Reform 27
African Union Position 27
The Group of Four Position 29
The South African and Nigerian Position Regarding the Veto Power 30
The Group of Four and African Union Compromise Opponents' views 32
The Group of Four Proposal's Impact on the African Union Position 33
Chapter 4: The Possibility of Adopting the African Union Proposal or Otherwise 35
The Possibilities of Adopting the African Proposal or Otherwise 35
Chapter 5: Conclusion and Proposed Recommendations 48
Proposed Recommendations 50
Je dédié ce travail à mes
parents qui ont contribué d'une façon extraordinaire à mes
With humble and sincere heart, I dedicate this work
to all those who persistently fight for a
I would like to express my most sincere gratitude and appreciation to my supervisor Professor Hasu H. Patel.
«A mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires» [William Arthur Ward 1954].
Your advice has been a life-lesson and a source of challenge to me, and invaluable information you provided, helped me to complete this study. I am grateful for having benefited from your unparalleled understanding of global politics. I owe this work to you.
May unreserved appreciation goes to Dr Gideon Zhou who is behind all my success and completion of my studies.
Many thanks to Professor Walter Kamba, who persistently gave me various ways of arguing throughout this study. I have been privileged to have the benefit of his intellectual vigour and valuable advice. My Sincere gratitude goes to Dr. Jabulani Nyamwenda and Ms Mumba of the United Nations Information centre, Research Section [Harare], Mr Simon Badza and Wing Commander [RTD] Mafongoya, for your guidance, patience, understanding and insightful assistance in the conceptualisation of this work.
My deep and sincere appreciation goes to Bartheze and Maman Jihad, Sr.Takaza of Inter-Regional Meeting of Bishops of Southern Africa [IMBISA], Dr. Frank Ndayahoze, Bangamwabo François of the University of Galway, Juvenal Baraga, Bizimana Télésphore, Ngendahimana Alain and Owen Shumba for your unwavering material, moral and financial support throughout my studies.
My heartfelt thanks also goes to Dr Thomas of Katholischer Akademischer Auslander-Dienst, without your assistance, this work might not have been completed.
The encouragement and support I received from colleagues deserve my unreserved thanks. While it is impossible to mention them all, my admiration and gratitude goes to Fortune G, Heather Chingono, Heather Koga, Ndudzo, Richard M, Lui, Againmore Chakandinakira, Sithole Mandela, Justin and Brian. Thank you guys for all the light moments we shared and the constructive advice we exchanged pricelessly.
To all those I did not individually mention, especially those
from the Great Lakes region
List of Abbreviations
AU African Union
DRC Democratic Republic of Congo
ECOMOG ECOWAS Monitoring Group
ECOWAS Economic Community of West Africa States
EU European Union
FLS Front Line States
G-4 Group of Four
ICJ International Court of Justice
ICTR International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
ISDSC Inter-State Defence and Security Committee
MONUC United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
NAM Non-Aligned Movement
NEPAD New Partnership for Africa's Development
OAU Organisation for African Unity
ONUC United Nations Operation in the Congo
OPDS Organ on Politics, Defence and Security
P-5 Permanent Five
RCD Congolese Rally for democracy
RPF Rwanda Patriotic Front
SADC Southern Africa Development Community
SADCC Southern Africa Development Community Conference
UN United Nations
UNAMIR United Nations Assistance Mission Rwanda-Uganda
UNEFI United Nations Emergency Force
UNGA United Nations General Assembly
UNITAF United Nations Task Force
UNOSOM United Nations Observer in Somalia
UNSC United Nations Security Council
UNSG United Nations Secretary General
US United States
WFP World Food Programme
«It took World War II to `reform' the League of Nations into the United Nations - and it has often looked as if it might take World War III to reform the United Nations».
[John Mackman 1989: 40].
«Anybody who really wants to abolish war must resolutely declare himself in favor of his own country's resigning a portion of its sovereignty in favor of international institutions.» Albert Einstein 
The United Nations [U.N] was founded at the end of World War II [WWII] by the victorious world powers and China. The founders had high hopes that it would act to prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars unthinkable, by fostering an ideal of collective security. When the U.N was established, the core responsibility for maintaining international peace and security was entrusted to the United Nations Security Council [UNSC]. This organ is made up of Russia, France, United States [U.S], China and the United Kingdom [UK] as permanent members with veto power. This concentration of power to the exclusion of all other U.N member states has made the active pursuit of a universal and greater common good by the U.N, and particularly the UNSC virtually impossible. In addition, since its establishment, the UNSC did not fully discharge its mandate as enshrined in the U.N Charter. Furthermore, the UNSC composition does not reflect the dramatic political and economic changes that have occurred in the international community in the last sixty years, but rather represents the 1945 global balance of power. Therefore, in order to command worldwide respect and effectively address the challenges of the 21st century, it has become necessary that the UNSC expands its membership in the permanent and non-permanent categories, with inclusion of both developing and developed countries, so as to enhance its representativeness, effectiveness and credibility, especially from the global South. It is under this paradigm that several countries have offered epigrammatic blue print for a democratic and empowered UNSC. This study considers major criticisms addressed to the UNSC and discusses different versions of the reform proposed by various states, paying particular emphasis on the AU proposed blueprint. It also assesses the realism and practicality of the AU proposal currently on the table. Finally, it reflects on the effect that the reform would have on the legitimacy of the UNSC and its role in maintaining global peace and security.