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The UN security council reforms: myth or reality? an african analysis


par Ndiyaye Innocent UWIMANA
UZ - MCS 2006
  

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THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL REFORM: MYTH OR
REALITY? AN AFRICAN ANALYSIS

BY
INNOCENT NDIYAYE UWIMANA

Dissertation Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of Masters of Science in International
Relations Degree

Supervisor: Professor HASU H. PATEL
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE STUDIES
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITY OF ZIMBABWE

2006

Table of Contents Page

Dedication iii

Acknowledgements iv

List of Abbreviations v

Foreword vii

Abstract viii

Chapter 1: Introduction 1

Background and Statement of the Problem 1

Objectives and Purpose of the Study 2

Literature Review 3

Theoretical Framework 5

Hypothesis 7

Methodology 7

Chapter 2: The United Nations Security Council 8

Introduction 8

The Structure of the United Nations Security Council 8

The United Nations Security Council Modus Operandi 9

The United Nations Security Council Peacekeeping efforts in Africa and its Weaknesses 16

The African Contribution Towards International Peace and Security under Articles 52 and 53 of

the United Nations Charter 22

The Economic Community Monitoring Group 23

The Southern Africa Development Community 25

Chapter 3: The United Nations Security Council Reform 27

Introduction 27

African Union Position 27

The Group of Four Position 29

The South African and Nigerian Position Regarding the Veto Power 30

The Group of Four and African Union Compromise Opponents' views 32

The Group of Four Proposal's Impact on the African Union Position 33

Chapter 4: The Possibility of Adopting the African Union Proposal or Otherwise 35

Introduction 35

The Possibilities of Adopting the African Proposal or Otherwise 35

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Proposed Recommendations 48

Introduction 48

Proposed Recommendations 50

Bibliography 52

Dedication

Je dédié ce travail à mes parents qui ont contribué d'une façon extraordinaire à mes études.
A toute la famille de JOSEPH BARASA, je dis: Danke Schon.

With humble and sincere heart, I dedicate this work to all those who persistently fight for a
better, safer world, which the poor, and powerless dream of daily for all humanity.

Acknowledgements

I would like to express my most sincere gratitude and appreciation to my supervisor Professor Hasu H. Patel.

«A mediocre teacher tells. The good teacher explains. The superior teacher demonstrates. The great teacher inspires» [William Arthur Ward 1954].

Your advice has been a life-lesson and a source of challenge to me, and invaluable information you provided, helped me to complete this study. I am grateful for having benefited from your unparalleled understanding of global politics. I owe this work to you.

May unreserved appreciation goes to Dr Gideon Zhou who is behind all my success and completion of my studies.

Many thanks to Professor Walter Kamba, who persistently gave me various ways of arguing throughout this study. I have been privileged to have the benefit of his intellectual vigour and valuable advice. My Sincere gratitude goes to Dr. Jabulani Nyamwenda and Ms Mumba of the United Nations Information centre, Research Section [Harare], Mr Simon Badza and Wing Commander [RTD] Mafongoya, for your guidance, patience, understanding and insightful assistance in the conceptualisation of this work.

My deep and sincere appreciation goes to Bartheze and Maman Jihad, Sr.Takaza of Inter-Regional Meeting of Bishops of Southern Africa [IMBISA], Dr. Frank Ndayahoze, Bangamwabo François of the University of Galway, Juvenal Baraga, Bizimana Télésphore, Ngendahimana Alain and Owen Shumba for your unwavering material, moral and financial support throughout my studies.

My heartfelt thanks also goes to Dr Thomas of Katholischer Akademischer Auslander-Dienst, without your assistance, this work might not have been completed.

The encouragement and support I received from colleagues deserve my unreserved thanks. While it is impossible to mention them all, my admiration and gratitude goes to Fortune G, Heather Chingono, Heather Koga, Ndudzo, Richard M, Lui, Againmore Chakandinakira, Sithole Mandela, Justin and Brian. Thank you guys for all the light moments we shared and the constructive advice we exchanged pricelessly.

To all those I did not individually mention, especially those from the Great Lakes region
currently studying at University of Zimbabwe, I thank you all for your support and
encouragement, GOD BLESS.

List of Abbreviations

AU African Union

DRC Democratic Republic of Congo

ECOMOG ECOWAS Monitoring Group

ECOWAS Economic Community of West Africa States

EU European Union

FLS Front Line States

G-4 Group of Four

ICJ International Court of Justice

ICTR International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda

ISDSC Inter-State Defence and Security Committee

MONUC United Nations Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

NAM Non-Aligned Movement

NEPAD New Partnership for Africa's Development

OAU Organisation for African Unity

ONUC United Nations Operation in the Congo

OPDS Organ on Politics, Defence and Security

P-5 Permanent Five

RCD Congolese Rally for democracy

RPF Rwanda Patriotic Front

SADC Southern Africa Development Community

SADCC Southern Africa Development Community Conference

UN United Nations

UNAMIR United Nations Assistance Mission Rwanda-Uganda

UNEFI United Nations Emergency Force

UNGA United Nations General Assembly

UNITAF United Nations Task Force

UNOSOM United Nations Observer in Somalia

UNSC United Nations Security Council

UNSG United Nations Secretary General

US United States

WFP World Food Programme

Tables, Diagrams and Figures

 

Table 4.1

46

Diagram 4.1

...38

Figure 4.1

45

Annex

 

The High-Level Panel on Threats, Challenges, Changes composition

.55

Foreword

«It took World War II to `reform' the League of Nations into the United Nations - and it has often looked as if it might take World War III to reform the United Nations».

[John Mackman 1989: 40].

Abstract

«Anybody who really wants to abolish war must resolutely declare himself in favor of his own country's resigning a portion of its sovereignty in favor of international institutions.» Albert Einstein [1934]

The United Nations [U.N] was founded at the end of World War II [WWII] by the victorious world powers and China. The founders had high hopes that it would act to prevent conflicts between nations and make future wars unthinkable, by fostering an ideal of collective security. When the U.N was established, the core responsibility for maintaining international peace and security was entrusted to the United Nations Security Council [UNSC]. This organ is made up of Russia, France, United States [U.S], China and the United Kingdom [UK] as permanent members with veto power. This concentration of power to the exclusion of all other U.N member states has made the active pursuit of a universal and greater common good by the U.N, and particularly the UNSC virtually impossible. In addition, since its establishment, the UNSC did not fully discharge its mandate as enshrined in the U.N Charter. Furthermore, the UNSC composition does not reflect the dramatic political and economic changes that have occurred in the international community in the last sixty years, but rather represents the 1945 global balance of power. Therefore, in order to command worldwide respect and effectively address the challenges of the 21st century, it has become necessary that the UNSC expands its membership in the permanent and non-permanent categories, with inclusion of both developing and developed countries, so as to enhance its representativeness, effectiveness and credibility, especially from the global South. It is under this paradigm that several countries have offered epigrammatic blue print for a democratic and empowered UNSC. This study considers major criticisms addressed to the UNSC and discusses different versions of the reform proposed by various states, paying particular emphasis on the AU proposed blueprint. It also assesses the realism and practicality of the AU proposal currently on the table. Finally, it reflects on the effect that the reform would have on the legitimacy of the UNSC and its role in maintaining global peace and security.

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