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The impact of fiber optic transmission in multiservices networks in rwanda

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par Théogène NIYITEGEKA
National university of Rwanda - Bachelor's degree in electronics and communication system engineering  2011
  

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BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

I certify that the project report titled «THE IMPACT OF FIBER OPTIC TRANSMISSION IN MULTISERVICE NETWORK IN RWANDA» Case Study NUR Fiber Optic Network is the bonafide work done by Mr. NIYITEGEKA Théogène (Ug10105802) In a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor?s degree in Electronics and Communication System Engineering and I certify that to the best of my knowledge the work reported is my own work and it has not been submitted anywhere for the award of any Degree.

Signature of Supervisor Signature of H.O.D

Dr. TWIZERE Celestin Eng. MANIRAGABA Ezechiel (Msc)

Signature of Internal Guide Signature of External Guide

Submitted for University examination held in October/ 2011 at National University of Rwanda, University Avenue 117, Butare, Rwanda.

ABSTRACT

Fiber Optic is a flexible and transparent fiber made of very pure glass not much bigger than a human hair that acts as light pipe to transmit light between the two ends of the fiber. In this project, we assess the Network of National University of Rwanda and the impact of the fiber optic in this network. The fiber optics, as seen in our project have changed the daily life of many workers in this university throughout the high bandwidth available with fiber optic connectivity.

We have seen that the company?s provider of network in Rwanda can implement fiber optic in order to deliver a reliable service to their customer.

However the bandwidth of fiber optic is usually greater than other media cables and depending on the properties of a pure glass of the core which make easy the total internal reflection of light inside the core and the cladding of the fiber. The fiber optic grounded wire are allowed to transfer more data and does not radiate electromagnetic wave in space.

DEDICATION

To The Almighty GOD
To My mother NTABUGI JEANNINE
To My Brothers and Sisters

This project is dedicated

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I owe much thanks to the almighty God for his help and guidance may this simple word express my respect to him.

I would also like to express my appreciation to Dr. Celestin TWIZERE for his tireless efforts to guide us and supervise my work and make it a success through encouragement and advices.

I am very grateful to my mother NTABUGI JEANNINE for her kindly moral and financially support.

With respect, I express my special thanks to lectures and staffs members of the faculty of Applied Sciences at National University of Rwanda; My sincere thanks go also to Mr. NDUSHABANDI JEAN BOSCO for his collaborating efforts to provide needed information to the achievement of this project.

I wish to extend my sincere gratitude thanks to all classmates and relatives who have directly or indirectly helped me and rendered great moral encouragement.

NIYITEGEKA THEOGENE

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Bonafide certificate i

Abstract ii

Dedication iii

Acknowledgement iv

Table of contents v

List of figures viii

List of symbols ix

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Background 1

1.2 Problem statement 2

1.3 Interest and relevance of the choice of the topic 2

1.4 Research hypothesis 3

1.5. Research methods 3

1.6 Limitation of the topic 3

1.7 Structure of the work 3

CHAPTER TWO: FIBER OPTIC TRANSMISSION 4

2.1 General information on the transmission media 4

2.1.1 Common characteristics 4

2.1.1.1 Bandwidth 4

2.1.1.2 Impedance characteristics 4

2.1.2 Guided media 5

2.1.2.1 The twister pair 5

2.1.2.2 Coaxial cable 5

2.1.2.3 Waveguide 6

2.1.2.4. Fiber optic 7

2.1.3 Unguided media 8

2.1.3.1 Microwave link 8

2.1.3.2 Satellite 8

2.2 Optical fiber cable 9

2.2.1 Definition 9

2.2.2 Principle of optical transmission. 10

2.2.4 Emission 13

2.2.5 Reception 14

2.2.6 Types of fiber optic 15

2.2.6.1 Single mode fiber optic 15

2.2.6.2 Multimode step index fiber optic 16

2.2.6.3 Multimode graded index fiber optic 17

2.2.7 Advantages and disadvantages of optical transmission 18

2.2.7.1 The advantages 18

2.2.7.2 The disadvantages 18

2.2.8 Application of fiber optic 18

2.2.9 Fiber optic connection 19

2.2.10 The principle structure of fiber optic 19

2.2.10.1. Fiber optical multiplexing 19

2.2.10.2 Fiber optical modulation 20

2.2.11 Maintenance of an optical link. 20

CHAPTER THREE: THE ANALYSIS OF FIBER OPTIC NETWORK IN NUR 21

3.1 Introduction 21

3.2 The fiber optic link 21

3.3 Passive optical network. 23

3.3.1 Ethernet passsive optic network 24

3.3.2 Broadband passive optic network 26

3.4 Active optical network 27

3.5 Sonet technology 28

3.6 Fiber optic losses 29

3.6.1 Types of losses 29

3.6.1.2 Absorption loss 30

3.6.1.3 Rayleigh scatter 31

3.6.1.4 Bending loss 31

3.6.1.5 Insertion loss 32

3.6.1.6 Return loss 32

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION AND INTERPRETATION OF THE RESULTS 33

4.1 Discussion of the network in nur 33

4.2 Fiber optic results in bandwidth and years in nur network 34

4.3 The increase in bandwidth chart of nur internet 35

4.4 The traffic monitoring of nur internet link 36

Conclusion and Recommendations 37

References 39

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9Impact, le film from Onalukusu Luambo on Vimeo.