WOW !! MUCH LOVE ! SO WORLD PEACE !
Fond bitcoin pour l'amélioration du site: 1memzGeKS7CB3ECNkzSn2qHwxU6NZoJ8o
  Dogecoin (tips/pourboires): DCLoo9Dd4qECqpMLurdgGnaoqbftj16Nvp


Home | Publier un mémoire | Une page au hasard

 > 

The lobbying of the u.s english movement since 1983: a campaign via the media in quest of national unity

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Victoria Riposseau
Université de Nantes - Maitrise IRT Anglais 2010
  

précédent sommaire

V. Education

1. What are the differences in educability between Hispanics (with their 50% dropout rate) and Asiatics (with their excellent school records and long tradition of scholarship)?

120 2. Where does bussing fit into the picture? Keep in mind that by 1990, over 50% of all the people under 15 years of age will be of minority status. They will also be heavily concentrated in certain geographic areas.

3. The whole bilingual education question needs to be mentioned.

VI. Race/Class Relations.

125 1. What will be the fate of Blacks as their numbers decline in relationship to Hispanics? As

they lose political power, will they get along with the Hispanics? Relations are already heavily strained in many places.

2. What happens when we develop a new underclass, or a two-tiered economic system? Especially if the two groups can`t speak the same language! (See Bouvier and Martin Chapter 130 5)

3. Is resegregation taking place, in the Southern part of the state in particular?

4. Phil Martin`s point: In agriculture, the Whites and Asiatics will own and manage, but will not be able to speak to the Hispanic field workers. They will need bilingual foremen. Does this sound like social peace? Or like South Africa? Keep in mind the poor educational level of

135 the field hands.

VII. The Economy.

I don`t think we should dwell much on the economy: I think we should try to make our contribution by talking about the non-economic consequences of immigration. Nonetheless:

1. Do high levels of immigration cut back on innovation (Bouvier, p. 27)?

140 2. Does it reduce the tendency and need of employers to hire current minority teens (Bouvier, p. 27)?

3. Is there a downward pressure on labor standards in general (Bouvier, p. 28)?

4. Phil Martin`s point on the colonization of the labor market. (Chapter 5).

VIII. Retirement

145 1. Since the majority of the retirees will be NHW, but the workers will be minorities, will the

latter be willing to pay for the care of the former? They will also have to provide the direct care: How will they get along, especially through a language barrier (Bouvier, p. 40)?

2. On the other hand, will the older and NHW groups be willing to pay the school taxes necessary to educate the burgeoning minorities?

150 3. The Federal Government may have to pay for the care of the elderly in schools--will it? XI. Religious Consequences.

This is the most difficult of all to tackle, and perhaps should be left out. Nonetheless:

1. What are the implications of the changes shown on Graphs 2 and 3 for the separation of church and state? The Catholic Church has never been reticent on this point. If they get a 155 majority of the voters, will they pitch out this concept?

2. Same question for parochial schools versus public schools.

3. Same question for the topic of abortion/choice, birth control, population control.

4. Same question for the role of women.

5. Will Catholicism bought in from Mexico be in the American or the European model? The 160 latter is much more casual.

6. Keep in mind that many of the Vietnamese coming in are also Catholic.

7. Is there anything to be said about the Eastern religions that will come along with the Asiatics?

X. Mexico and Latin America (Chapter 7, Bouvier & Martin).

165 Perhaps the main thing to be addressed here is whether or not shutting off the escape valve will lead to revolution, or whether keeping it open can avert it.

XI. Additional Demographic Items.

Teitelbaum`s phrase, "A region of low-native fertility combined with high immigration of high-fertility people does not make for compatible trend lines!"

170 Finally, this is all obviously dangerous territory, but the problem is not going to go away. Who can open it up? The question is analogous to Nixon`s opening of China: he could do it, Hubert Humphrey could not have. Similarly, the issues we`re touching on here must be broached by liberals. The conservatives simply cannot do it without tainting the whole subject.

I think the answers to many of these questions depend on how well people assimilate. This, in

175 turn, depends heavily on whether the parent society has made up its mind that assimilation is a good thing (we`re confused on this point now), whether it works at assimilating newcomers (as Canada and Australia do by following them longitudinally), whether the people coming want to assimilate (not all of them do), and, even if all the factors are favorable, whether the numbers are small enough so as not to overwhelm the assimilative process.

Source: TANTON, John. Mail from John Tanton to Witan Attendees?, 10 Oct 1986, Witan Memo III Intelligence Report, Summer 2002, Issue Number: 106, The Southern Poverty Law Center, Web. 5 March 2010.

< http://www.splcenter.org/get-informed/intelligence-report/browse-all-issues/2002/summer/thepuppeteer/witan-memo-iii>

ANNEX VI
Testimony of Mr. Mauro Mujica
Before the Subcommittee on Education Reform
Hearing on "Examining Views on English as the Official Language"
July 26, 2006

Thank you, Mr. Chairman, for the opportunity to testify regarding H.R. 997, legislation that would make English the official language of the United States. My name is Mauro E. Mujica, and I am Chairman of the Board of U.S. English, Inc., a nonprofit organization based in Washington, DC.

5 U.S. English was founded in 1983 by then-Senator S.I. Hayakawa, and we have now grown to over 1.8 million members. Our organization focuses on public policy issues that involve language and national identity, particularly official English laws.

As an immigrant and naturalized citizen, the issues we are discussing today are of great personal importance. When I came to the United States from Chile in 1965, there was no 10 doubt in my mind that I had civic duty to learn the common language of this country.

Mr. Chairman, one third of U.S. English members are either immigrants or the children of immigrants. A Rasmussen poll this June found that 84 percent of Americans favor a law to make English our nation`s official language, and a Zogby poll last summer found that support for Official English is higher among first and second generation immigrants than it is among

15 native born Americans. In both its motivations and content, H.R. 997 is a pro-immigrant bill.

While there is certainly a need for government to occasionally operate in other languages, that need must be balanced by a legitimate insistence that immigrants are on the road to learning English. That balance is embodied in H.R. 997, which requires that routine government operations be in English, while listing a number of exceptions where multilingual operations

20 make sense.

In a country whose residents speak 322 languages, multilingual government should be the exception, not the rule. Unfortunate, instead of promoting English learning, government agencies increasingly seek to cater to immigrants in as many languages as possible. The result is that I-- a 35 year resident of the United States-- can walk into virtually any government

25 office and demand services in my native language...and I`ll receive them, no questions asked
(!) My frustration is shared by Hispanic immigrant Alicia Colon, who wrote in the June 28th

New York Sun: What made us different from other immigrants who were forced to conquer the language gap to succeed...? Do all Italian-Americans speak Italian??

Mr. Chairman, we are faced with two undeniable facts: first, there are millions of people

30 living in America who don`t speak English well enough to dial 911 or read a voter guide, and who are not on the road to doing so. Second, our national aspiration is that these immigrants learn English and become Americans. There is a gap between our aspirations and reality, and I respectfully suggest that we need a policy to close that gap. I highly recommend the recent time magazine essay by Canadian born commentator Charles Krauthammer, who argues that

35 while Canada is a decent place,? America is at risk of facing Canadian-style linguistic divisions unless we change our assimilation norms. And making English the official language is the first step to establishing those norms.?

Mr. Chairman, I`m proud to be fluent in four languages, including my native Spanish. We
have never been-- and no serious person is suggesting that we become-- an English Only?

40 nation. But the American people decidedly do not want us to become an English Optional? nation.

If we are to successfully remain a Nation of Immigrants? the government cannot see
immigrants as mere customers, to be served in whatever languages they happen to speak. As
your former colleague Lindsey Graham noted in the recent Senate floor debate on a similar

45 measure, from a national perspective, we need to promote assimilation in our society.? H.R. 997 is consistent with this policy goal and with the values of the American people, and I respectfully urge this committee to pass this legislation.

Source: MUJICA, Mauro. Examining Views on English as the Official Language?, Subcommittee on Education Reform. 26 July 2006. Hearing. Committee on Education and Labor, U.S House of Rep. Web. 5 Dec. 2009. < http://republicans.edlabor.house.gov/archive/hearings/109th/edr/officiallang072606/mujica.htm >

Source: U.S English. It can't Happen Here.(Or can it?)?. Advertisement. Late 1980s. Print. U.S English. Wash. D.C.

Source: U.S English. 14 Nations call English their national language. We're not one of them?. Advertisement. Late 1980s. Print. U.S English, Wash. D.C.

Source: U.S English. If you can't read this ad don't feel badly. Our children can't read this book?. Advertisement. Albany Times-Union. 1989. Print. U.S English. Wash. D.C.

TRANSLATION

November 13 of 1989

Regents of the Educational System of the state of New York Albany....

Dear Regents:

We speak to you in Spanish because we don't speak English enough to write to you in that language.

We have suffered big disadvantages for not speaking English.

Our occupations don't let us spend the time required for the lessons we would like to take. But we don't want our children to have the same disadvantages.

We've noticed that the Education Department suggests to increase the teaching in Spanish instead of in English. We don't want our children to receive their education in Spanish. If they learn mainly in Spanish, they'll be in the same situation of disadvantage as we are.

For our children and grandchildren to have success, they need to be able to "speak" in English (it actually says to "operate in English"... but that's a South American way to express). Thus, we ask you to approve the program of instruction in English. We'll take care of our families to learn the Spanish that we consider appropriated.

Sincerely

Source: U.S English. On Tuesday you can tell Congress where to go?. Advertisement. USA Today. 30 Oct 1992. Print. U.S English. Wash. D.C.

Source: U.S English. It's time to focus on what unites us as a people, as opposed to what divides us?. Advertisement. Jan. 1993. Print. U.S English. Wash. D.C.

Source: U.S English. Why a Hispanic heads an organization called U.S English?. Advertisement. 1994. Print. U.S English. Wash. D.C.

Source: U.S English. To make it in America you need to speak my language?. Advertisement. 1995. Print. U.S English. Wash. D.C.

Source: U.S English. Stop the madness?. Advertisement. 1996. Print. U.S English. Wash. D.C.

Source: U.S English. I need to learn English?. Advertisement. 1997. Print. Wash. D.C. U.S English.

Source: U.S English. Should our government operate in a foreign language??. Advertisement.1994 .Web. 4 Dec 2009. < http://www.usenglish.org/view/30 >

Source: U.S English. Immigrants want and need to learn English. It's time politicians got the message?. Advertisement.1994 .Web. 4 Dec 2009. < http://www.usenglish.org/view/31 >

Source: U.S English. Immigrants who don't learn English can really clean up in America?. 2008. Advertisement. Web. 4 Dec 2009. < http://www.usenglish.org/view/32 >

Source: U.S English. Will it come to this?? Advertisement. 1999. Web. 4 Dec 2009. < http://www.usenglish.org/view/33 >

Source: U.S English. One more way the federal government is making doctors sick?. Advertisement.2007 .Web. 4 Dec 2009. < http://www.usenglish.org/view/34 >

Fig.1. Attitude towards the Demand for Immigrants` Rights 122

Fig.2. Attitude towards Bilingual Education123

122 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset? Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgi-- bin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=IMMPUSH&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2 FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2F TMPDIR >

123 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset?. Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgi-

bin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=NOBILING&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fht

ml%2FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fht ml%2FTMPDIR>

Fig.3. Attitude towards an Official Language Legislation124

Fig.4. Attitude towards the Status of English in the U.S125

124 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset?. Web. 4 Dec 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgibin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=ENGOFF1&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2 FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2F TMPDIR>

125 Source:?Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset?. Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgibin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=ENGTH RTN&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml% 2FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2 FTMPDIR>

Fig.5. The Role of English in the United States126

Fig.6. Attitude towards Ethnic Change in 25 years127

126 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset . Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgi-

bin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=ENGUNITE&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml% 2FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2 FTMPDIR >

127 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset?. Web. 4 Dec 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgibirVhsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=ETH CHNG&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2 FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2F TMPDIR>

Fig.7. The Importance of Ancestry in Defining American Identity128

Fig.8. American Society and Immigration129

128 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset . Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgibin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=AMANCSTR&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml %2FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml% 2FTMPDIR>

129 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset . Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgi-

bin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=IMMIMP&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2F D3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FT MPDIR>

Fig.9. Attitude towards the Rights and Status of Immigrants130

Fig.10. Primary Identity: Ethnic or American?131

130 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset . Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgibin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=IMMRGHTS&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml %2FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml% 2FTMPDIR>

131 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset . Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgi- - bin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=ETHID1&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FD 3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FTM PDIR>

Fig.11. The Role of Government in the Blending of Cultures132

Fig.12. Immigration and National Unity133

132 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset . Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgibin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=GVTMELT&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2 FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2F TMPDIR>

133 Source: Selected Study: GSS 1972-2008 Cumulative Dataset . Web. 4 Dec. 2009. < http://sda.berkeley.edu/cgibin/hsda3?sdaprog=describe&var=IM MUNITE&sdapath=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fsdaprogs%2Fsda&study=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtm l% 2FD3%2FGSS08%20%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2FNpubvars%2FGSS08&varcase=upper&subtmpdir=%2Fvar%2Fwww%2Fhtml%2 FTMPDIR>

DETAILED OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION 1

PART I U.S ENGLISH AND THE IMPLICATIONS FOR THE NATION OF AN ENGLISH LANGUAGE AMENDMENT 4

A. THE STATUS OF ENGLISH AND THE CONTEXT FOR THE RISE OF THE MOVEMENT 5

1. The Status of English in the United States 5

2. Context for the Rise of the Movement 12

3. Evolution of U.S ENGLISH Views between 1983 and 2009 17

B. QUESTIONING THE UNIFYING ROLE OF LANGUAGE IN THE AMERICAN NATION 21

1. The Role of Language in the Nation-building Process 21

2. Rhetoric Analysis: the Interaction between Language, Culture, and Identity 27

3. Origins and Consequences of the Rejection of Bilingualism 31

C. PROPOSITION OF AN OFFICIAL LANGUAGE AMENDMENT 35

1. Amending the Constitution: a New Conception of the Nation 35

2. Implications of an Official Language Legislation for Democracy 39

3. Accounting for the Division between State and Federal Government 43

PART II DECODING THE MESSAGE SENT BY U.S ENGLISH 47

A. THE COMMUNICATION STRATEGIES OF U.S ENGLISH 48

1. The Scope of the U.S ENGLISH Campaign 48

2. Promoting the Movement by Celebrating National Symbols 52

3. U.S ENGLISH Strategy: Projecting Disunity while Advocating Unity 57

B. QUESTIONING THE PRO-IMMIGRATION IMAGE OF THE MOVEMENT 60

1. To What Extent does U.S ENGLISH Foster Immigration? 60

2. Analysis of the 2008 Advertising Campaign: the 'Unwanted' Immigrants 64

C. REASONS AND ENDS OF THE U.S ENGLISH ANTI-HISPANIC ATTITUDE 68

1. Documenting U.S ENGLISH`s Hispanophobia . 68

2. Roots of the Organization Railing against Hispanics 72

3. Impact of the Media Coverage of the Ethnic Composition of the Nation 77

PART III TOWARDS A NEW CONCEPT OF AMERICAN IDENTITY 80

A. U.S ENGLISH OR A NEW FORM OF NATIVISM? 81

1. The Promotion of the Melting-pot as a 'National Ideal' 81

2. A 'National English Language Foundation' and the Role of School in the Identity-

forming Process 86

3. U.S ENGLSIH Symbol Nativism? 90

B. THE PORTRAYAL OF AMERICAN NATIONAL IDENTITY 93

1. Characterizing U.S ENGLISH's Conception of the Nation 93

2. To what Extent does U.S ENGLISH Re-imagine American Identity? 98

3. What does the Support for This Movement Tell about American Identity? 102

CONCLUSION 108

BIBLIOGRAPHY 111

ANNEXES 126

DETAILED OUTLINE 178

INDEX 180

INDEX

A

Advertising18, 19, 34, 36, 48, 50, 51, 54, 55, 56,

57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 64, 65, 67, 68, 72, 78, 105

American Dream 66, 88, 114

Americanization 6, 7, 88, 89, 90

Anderson, Benedict 1, 24, 35, 36, 37, 39, 78, 79

Assimilation6, 8, 14, 30, 33, 34, 55, 62, 70, 73, 81, 82, 83, 85, 87, 88, 89, 97, 107, 116, 133, 145, 148, 150, 153, 156

B

Barthes, Roland 83, 84

Billig, Michael 2, 11, 53, 55, 56, 100, 101

C

Chauvinism 69, 97, 134, 142

Civic Republicanism 95

Civil Rights 14, 16, 39, 66, 69, 71, 133

D

Democracy9, 16, 29, 30, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 45, 95, 108, 115, 127, 129

E
Ethnoculturalism 97

G

Gellner, Ernest .. 2, 23, 24, 25, 29, 56, 68, 71, 87, 98
Gramsci, Antonio 26

H

Hegemony .... 11, 25, 26, 27, 70, 84, 88, 92, 96, 109,

110

I
Incorporationism 97, 109

Integration3, 16, 17, 32, 64, 66, 68, 77, 82, 87, 104, 108

K
Khon, Hans 86

L

Lau.v Nichols 123

Liberal Nationalism92, 93, 94, 95, 97, 103, 120, 145, 148

Lincoln, Abraham 39, 147

Lobby 12

M

Melting-pot 6, 55, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 97, 98,

101, 109, 133 Multiculturalism 96, 109, 118

N

Nationalism1, 5, 23, 35, 36, 55, 56, 68, 70, 93, 94,

95, 96, 97, 98, 100, 106, 107 Nativism 6, 81, 90, 92, 109

P
Patriotism 56, 69, 107

R

Renan, Ernest 25, 29, 38, 53, 56, 119

Roosevelt, Theodore 6, 33, 88, 116

Ruiz, Richard 32, 33, 44

S

Salad-Bowl 82, 84, 85, 116, 141, 150

Sapir-Whorf hypothesis 38

Smith, A.D 2, 7, 22, 23, 24, 25, 28, 29, 92

T
Tower of Babel 10, 11, 37, 40, 96

précédent sommaire