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Flood vulnerability assessment of donstream area in Mono basin in Yoto district, south-eastern Togo


par Abravi Essenam KISSI
University of Lome - Master 2014
  

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4.2.4.1. Socio-Demographic Characteristics of Households

The total sample comprised of 221 respondents who were household heads. The social demographic features of households are as shown in (Table 7). The majority of the respondents were male (86.9%) while females constituted 12.2%. Most of the respondents were aged between 40 and 59 years (47.1%). The level of education was assessed because it was an important factor in understanding household vulnerability to disasters. The majority of the respondents (39.8%) attained only primary education as their highest level with 38.9% having no schooling at all. 14.5% had secondary level education and only 0.09% had attained tertiary level of education. The majority of the households heads are married (90.5%) with 7.2% of widowed. Most of households that is 62.90% had more than 10 members.

4.2.4.2 Location of settlement and type of construction

The location of settlements in the targeted area led to increase household vulnerability to flood disasters. As observed during the field survey, most of the settlements are located near the river as the river is the main source of water in the study area. The proximity to the river body facilitates the access to water for their various activities.

Photo 2: Use of water in the community, Photograph taken during field work

The field survey carried in the scope of this study shows that the vulnerability of the building structure depends on the building materials. A total sample comprised of 221 respondents were household heads .The majority of the households interviewed (74.7%) lived in building made up of clay walls with thatched roof. Of the households, 13.1% lived in clay walls with iron/tiles sheet roof's building, while 4.5% and 5.9% of the respondents lived in brick walls with iron/tiles sheet roof and hurdle or banco walls with thatched roof buildings, respectively. The majority of households therefore lived in the type of houses that make them susceptible to floods.

Photo 3: House made in Banco and straw Photo 4: House made by clay wall with destroyed by the 2010 flood in Tokpli county thatched roof, Photograph taken during Source: PDNA, 2010 field work

4.2.4.3. Livelihood patterns of respondents

The socio-economic status of this community constitutes another source of vulnerability. The social economic status of households is an important factor in assessing their vulnerabilities to disasters (Wisner, et al. 2004:12). Almost all people of the community in the study area depend on agriculture. The interview reveals that the main source of income for the assessed households are agriculture activities (crop production) 90% and 7.2 % of respondents who do not have agriculture as main activities have it as secondary activities. 65.05% of the total respondents depend solely on agriculture activities. Most of the surveyed households have a limited livelihood options, for most of them indicate having no secondary livelihood sources. Those who have a secondary activity mention second livelihood sources such as trading, breeding, fishing, hunting, palm oil production.

The marital status of household head played an important role in determining the livelihood strategy. Those who are married have a diversity of livelihoods as opposed to singles, and widowed household heads "figure ".

Figure 13: Livelihood Strategies by Marital Status of Heads of Households

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