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Action program of the rwandan women parliamentary forum (RWPF) in matter of promotion of the know how of the rwandan women facing vision 2020: Case of Huye District (1996-2006)

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par Frédéric TEGERA MPAMYA
National University of Rwanda - Bachelor's Degree 2007
  

Disponible en mode multipage

PERSONNAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE VERSION

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, POLITICAL
AND ADMINISTRATIVE
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND ADMINISTRATIVE
Option: Political Science

ACTION PROGRAM OF THE RWANDAN WOMEN PARLIAMENTARY FORUM (RWPF) IN MATTER OF PROMOTION OF THE KNOW -HOW OF THE RWANDAN WOMEN FACING VISION 2020.

Case of Huye District (1996-2006)

A dissertation submitted in partial

fulfillment of the academic requirements

for obtaining of Bachelor's degree in
Political Science
                                                                 

                                                                                   Presented by:


                                                                                   TEGERA MPAMYA Frederick


DIRECTOR: Professor Dr. Nicodemus BUGWABARI

ACADEMIC YEAR 2007

DECLARATION

I, Frederick TEGERA, declare that this is my original work researched and compiled for presentation in partial fulfilment of the academic requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor in Political Science by the National University of Rwanda and has not been presented for any award.

Frederick TEGERA

Signature ..............................

Date.....................................

DEDICACE

With my regretted father, Isdor MPAMYA,

A regret little brothers and sister;

With my mother;

With my older sisters;

With my brothers and sisters;

With the friends and knowledge;

We thank all those, which work for

the promotion of Rwandan women.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

As a preamble, during our studies, I make a point of addressing my sharp thanks to my regretted father MPAMYA Isdor, I say thank you for all my heart.

Firstly, the honor fall us of high gratitude to address our feelings to all the professors who contributed to our stock of general knowledge. We must express recognition to Professor Nicodème BUGWABARI, which agreed well to direct this memory, for his lighting councils, listening, patience and its perspicacious comments have characterizes our frank collaboration of a great utility for the clothes industry of our work.

Secondly, we cannot miss testifying the feelings to gratitude to all my parents who did not cease framing us as of our childhood by getting love and affection to us.

Thirdly, our thought moves to my older sister NYIRAKARINGO Pascasie for her efforts material and financier in the realization of this work.

Lastly, it would be ungrateful to recognize my older sisters and brothers, and with all the friends and knowledge which, of near or by far, has us assistances with the good walk of this scientific work.

I also hold with thanks with the many compatriots who opened their stations to me and agreed well to be interviewed, without them, anything would not have been possible.

Your integrity will remain indebted at the bottom of our heart.

TEGERA MPAMYA FREDERIC

INITIALS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ANT: National Parliament of Transition

AWEPA: Association of the European Members of Parliament for Africa

NDC: National Development council

CNLS: National Commission of Fight against AIDS

CNF: The National Council of Women

FAR: Rwandan Armed Force

FARG: Melts of Assistance of Genocide

P.W: Parliamentary Women

RPF: Rwandese Patriotic Front

RWPF: Rwanda Women Parliamentary Forum

GBV: Gender Based Violence

ICT: Information Communication Technology

IPJ: Legal police inspector

MINIJUST: Ministry for Justice

MIFOTRA: Ministry of Public office and Work

MIGEPROF: Ministry of kind and promotion of Family

MINECOFIN: Ministry for Finances and Economic Planning

MINEDUC: Ministry for Education

MINEPRISEC: Ministry for Primary teaching and secondary

MFBF: Movement of the Women and Bottom - People

MRND: National Revolutionary movement for Development

NEPAD: New Partnership for African Development

UN: United Nations

ONG: Organization Non - Governmental

SME: Small and Medium-sized Company

PL: Liberal Party

GDP: Internal Product Rough

RPPD: Network of the Members of Parliament for the Population and Development UNDP: Program of the United Nations for Development

PRSP: Poverty Reduction Strategic Policy

PVK: Prefecture of the Town of Kigali

RDF: Rwanda Defense Forces

AIDS: Syndrome of Immune Deficiency Agrees

SNRP: National Strategy of Poverty Reduction

TPIR: International Court Penal for Rwanda

$ US: United State Dollar

UIP: Interparliamentary Union

UNESCO: United Nations Education, Scientific, and Culture Organization

HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus

ABSTRACT

In Rwanda like elsewhere, much of cases show that the men generally played a part in dominating the Rwandan society, for a long time. The woman saw their civil and political rights be unawared in favour of the man privileges. The facts of not having the right take part fully in political life and generate inequalities between the man and the woman. The man believes in him only, and not in his wife. Let us illustrate it by the following proverbs: "Nta nkoko kazi ibika isake ihari" (no hen makes cock-a-doodle-doo in the presence of cock). "Nuko wabaye umugabo sha" (here you became a man).

Within this framework that the Rwandan Parliament and government in its total diary set up the RWPF in 1996, by the initiative of the female organizations, having the vision to build a society characterized by the equality and equity between the two sexes. The satisfactory results are remarkable, thus the representation of the women on the level of the Parliament is 49%, 32% in the government, 35% in the legal bodies and 32, 74% in the district.

The aim of the study was to analyse the role played by the RWPF in the change of mentality and in the reinforcement of the know-how of the Rwandan woman during the period of representativeness. We take this policy like the principal tool, which guided us in the better approaching gender and the vision 2020 like instrument of development of the policy of Rwandan government.

This is why our question of research focuses on the consequences of the policy of the RWPF on the development of the gender in the District of Huye during the period of 1996 to 2006? To achieve our objective and to answer to our question we proceeded by the following hypothese: «the policy of the RWPF constitutes one of better means of integrating the woman administrator of the District of Huye in the political life».

A country as Rwanda which aspires integrated durable development, and an equitable justice as long time cannot reach it when the components of its population do not enjoy the same possibilities and equal opportunities of developing themselves.

SOMMAIRE

Au Rwanda comme ailleurs, beaucoup de cas montrent que les hommes ont généralement joué un rôle dominant dans la société rwandaise. La femme a vu longtemps ses droits civils et politiques ignorés au profit des privilèges masculins. Le fait de ne pas avoir le droit de participer pleinement à la vie politique a engendré des inégalités entre l'homme et la femme. L'homme croit en lui seul, et pas en sa femme comme le montre par exemple les adages suivants: «Nta nkoko kazi ibika isake ihari » (aucune poule ne fait cocorico en présence du coq) «Nuko wabaye umugabo sha » (voici tu es devenu un homme). 

C `est dans ce cadre que le parlement et le gouvernement rwandais dans son agenda global a mis en place en 1996 le FFRP, sous l'initiative des organisations féminines ayant la vision de bâtir une société caractérisée par l'égalité et l'équité entre les deux sexes. Les résultats satisfaisants sont remarquables, car la représentation des femmes au niveau du parlement s'est élevée à 49%, au gouvernement à 32%, à 35% dans les organes judiciaires et à 32,74% au niveau du district. L'objectif de notre recherche était d'analyser le rôle qu'a joué le F FRP dans le changement de mentalité et le renforcement du savoir-faire de la femme rwandaise durant la période de représentativité. Nous prenons cette politique comme l'outil principal qui nous a guidés à mieux rapprocher approche  genre  (gender approach) et vision 2020 comme instrument de développement de la politique du gouvernement rwandais.

C'est pourquoi nous nous sommes questionnés sur les conséquences de la politique du FFRP sur le développement du genre dans le District de Huye durant la période de 1996 à 2006 ? Pour répondre à notre question nous sommes servis de l'hypothèse suivante : « la politique du FFRP constitue l'un des meilleurs moyens d'intégrer la femme administratrice du District de Huye dans la vie politique. » Un pays comme le Rwanda qui aspire au développement durable intégré et à une justice équitable ne peut prétendre aussi longtemps les atteindre tant que les composantes de sa population ne jouissent pas de l'égalité de chances et de même possibilités de se développer.

LIST OF TABLES

Table N 1. Degree of political representativenesses of the women to the central 26

Table N 2. Political degree of representativeness of the women to the local 28

Table N 3. Degree of the representativenesses of the officers of the Public Ministry 31

Table N 4. Numbers of legal police inspector (IPJ) 31

Table N 5. A number of parliamentary women 32

Table N 6: Current situation of the participation of the women in the process of 40

Table N 7: 6 pillars and 4 transverse fields of the vision 2020 46

Table N 8. Inscription at the primary school in 2010 will be 100% 47

Table N 9. Equality of kind to the inscription at the universities in 2020 Year............. 47

Table N10: Broad objectives of activities not realized by the RWPF 2006 56

Table No 11. Pattern of the settlement by sector 60

Tabe No 12 : Analyses of theproblems, causes and consequences of the promotion 61

Table No 13: Analyses of the forces, .................................................................. 62

Table N 14: the participation of the woman in the administration 63

Table No15: Opinions of the women leaders of District of Huye to the actions carried 65

Table N16: Opinion of the actions carried out by the F.P 71

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION i

DEDICACE ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii

INITIALS AND ABBREVIATIONS iv

ABSTRACT vi

SOMMAIRE vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ix

0. GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS 1

0.1. PROBLEMATIQUE 1

03. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 6

04. ASSUMPTIONS OF WORK 6

05. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF RESEARCH 7

06. DELIMITATION OF THE SUBJECT 7

07. SUBDIVISION OF WORK 8

FIRST CHAPTER: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK, THEORIQUE AND 9

Section 1. Conceptual framework 9

1.1. Effects: 9

1.2. Action program 9

1.2.1. Action 9

1.2.2. Program 10

1.3. FFRP 10

1.4.1. Promotion 10

1.4.2. Know-how 11

1.5. Vision 2020 12

1.5.1. Vision 12

1.6. Description of the zone of study of the District of Huye 13

1.6.1. Principal geographical characteristics 13

1.6.2. General aspect 13

1.6.3. Relief 13

1.6.4. Climate and pluviometry 13

1.6.5. Hydrography 14

1.6.6. Grounds 14

1.6.7. Fauna and flora 14

Section 1. Theoretical framework 15

1.1. The condition of the woman like political question 15

2. Methodological framework 19

2.1. Method of research 20

2.1.1. Comparative method 20

2.1.2. Historical method 20

2.1.3. Functionalist method 20

2.1.4. Analytical method 21

2.2. Population of investigation 21

2.3. Techniques of data-gathering 22

SECOND CHAPTER: HISTORY OF THE CONDITION OF THE RWANDAN 24

Section 1. The condition of the woman during the Monarchical time 25

1.1. Implication of the women in the political life 25

Section 2. The condition of the woman under colonization 27

Section 3. At 1994 Independence 28

3.1. The woman fighting in the army and the magistrate. 33

THIRD CHAPTER: THE CONDITION OF THE WOMAN IN RWANDA: 38

TEXTS OF FPR IN THE VISION 2020 38

Section 1. Texts of the condition of the woman through the project of society 38

1.1. Priority action plan of the FPR-INKOTANYI of 2003-2015 39

1.2. The engagement of the women in the armed forces 41

Section 2. Ballast texts of the condition of the woman through the constitution. 43

Section 3. Condition of the woman tests through the sectoral policy of 45

3.1. General context 45

3.2. Total objective of the MIGEPROF 46

3.3. The implementation resulting from the International day of the 47

Section 4. Texts of the condition of the woman through the vision 2020 48

4.1. The vision 2020 49

Section 5. The program of the RWPF: The promotion of the Know-how 52

5.1. The program of the RWPF 52

5.2. The promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman 53

FOURTH CHAPTER: THE RWPF AND THE DISTRICT OF HUYE: 56

4.1. Mission of the RWPF 56

4.1.1. Great Strategic achievements of the RWPF 56

4.2. Great achievements of district of Huye 61

4.2.1. Principal geographical characteristics 61

4.2.2. SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE SITUATION 61

Table No 12. Pattern of the settlement by sector 62

4.2.3. Gender and Promotion of the Woman 63

4.2.4. Identification of the priorities identified by the District of HUYE 64

4.3. POSSIBLE SOLUTION 65

4.3.1. Opinion of the women to meet risks of blocking of them 65

4.3.2. Opinions of the women leaders of District of Huye 67

4.3.3. Opinions of the Parliamentary Women Like results of changes of 72

4.3.4. The strategic means has to take to overcome these difficulties 74

4.3.4.1. To develop the capacity of plea 74

4.3.4.2. To develop the confidence of the women in themselves 74

4.3.4.3. To reinforce the will of the women to know and enjoy their .... 75

4.3.4.4. To integrate the use of the media circuits and other .............. 75

GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 76

BIBLIOGRAPHY 82

APPENDIX 87

0. GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS

The general introduction presents the problems, the interest of the subject, the objectives of research, the assumptions of work, the methods of research, delimitation of the subject as well as the subdivision of work.

0.1. PROBLEMATIQUE

Logically, it is impossible to advance in the development without releasing the woman and eradicate all the forms of discrimination practiced in its connection. But if one goes up a little in the history of the woman since antiquity and even with the Middle Ages, everywhere in the world, the woman marginalized and was regarded as absent so that one does not even consider it in the censuses. It was dedicated to the silence of the maternal and domestic reproduction (to put at the world the children, breast feeding, care of the children, preparation of the meals, washing, cleaning, etc.) always in the shade of the servant. It was considered in several fields of life (economic policy, social, educational, cultural, etc). It did not have any right of participation in the decision-making up to the level of its own goods.1(*)

With the end of the average age, the women in medieval occident were persecuted represent more than 80%, and when they are recognized guilty of sorcery, they are burned. "They were more malicious" are said some works of the time of "myths" differently.2(*)

Traditionally if one goes up a little in the history to the four corner of the world the women suffered much from discrimination and the inequalities compared to the men. This category of discrimination always occupied a more important place in the social hierarchy. Because even in the traditional society, one supported more people of male sex than those of female sex, the biological difference of the man and the woman was felt like an evil, the woman put in very not to be not a man, judges lower, was plastered with work subordinate and the tender. Let us point out that the female discrimination does not go back to yesterday, it is a situation which exists for a long time in the history, during millennia. According to saint AUGUSTIN affirm:

"It is of the natural order at the human ones that the women are submitted to the men and to the children with the parents. Because, it is a question of justice which the weakest reason is subjected to strongest."3(*)

Often, it is said it that the speech antifeminist rises partly from the statute of Eve in the bible. Indeed the bible, gives to the woman the responsibility for original fishing.

According to Hebrew PAUL in his holy Letters, known as that:

"The chief of all the man, it is Christ, the chief of the woman it is the man, and the chief of Christ it is God. It is not the man, well on; who was creates pure the woman but the woman for man. That the women are submitted to their husbands and that looks at silence in any tender during the instruction ". 4(*)

In Rwanda, the old habit holds to the woman subordination to the man, who has it, owed respect. Obedience and tender in all. The Rwandan common law held an important place with the woman, the Rwandan family was patriarchal, and never the child could not belong to his mother. Moreover, the woman did never enjoy the right of the family heritage. The man believes in him only, and not in his wife. Such as for example the proverbs such as: "Nta nkoko kazi ibika isake ihari"5(*) (no hen makes cock-a-doodle-doo in the presence of cock). "Uruvuze umugore ruvuga umuhoro." (In a hearth where the woman speaks there is discord). "Nuko wabaye umugabo sha" (here you became a man). "Umugore n' umutima w' urugo" (the woman is the heart of hearth). These above-mentioned proverbs show what the men think of the women. The men do not authorize the women with exhibit as a public.

The fact has shown clearly that in a society. A woman cannot be "Umukwe mu kuru".

(chief of delegation in celebration or in marriage). Indeed, the woman always occupied a less important place in the social hierarchy with regard to the man. She especially did not have right to the word in public and should accept all the treatments which were inflicted to him: difficulties of access to the credit, the absence of access to the heritage.

On their side, the men are consolidated in their role of the heads of household and often deceived their capacities. Indeed, for the moment the Rwandan women are responsible with play certain parts in the past reserve with the man. This assertion is all the more true as the new constitution of 2003 guarantees the equality of all in front of the law and guarantees to the women at least 30% places in the stations of decision-making. The Rwandan woman as a human being must be directly related to her participation in the process of the development in the capacity as mother, it must create the conditions most favorable to the harmonious realization of her personality. However, the participation of the Rwandan woman is not a problem of the women or a question of the claim of the women.

It is rather question of a social, political and economic development of our company. It is a question, which relates to at the same time the men and the women and the whole company.

At Rwanda, certain laws were installation to reduce their marginalization, in particular the law n° 22/1999 of 12/11/1999 bearing on the marriage settlements, Freedoms and the successions6(*). Thus laws discriminatory regard to the woman was revised, and this process currently continues. The results show that the women are able to improve the living conditions of their families; the women become increasingly responsible, are able to provide for the needs for their households and are actresses of development.

However, to invest in the women does not mean to only to exempt an education and care of health them. Otherwise that means to draw aside the obstacles that prevent the women from carrying out their potential and to take measurement and to recognize of it their role like invaluable and irreplaceable members of the society. Thus in Rwanda notable progress realizes by the RWPF, much remains to be made. The policy of the RWPF in favor of the gender east does not fail to raise certain questions to which this work must answer. The principal one is of knowing how the actions realize by the RWPF were really reinstated in the women of the basic authorities. This is why our study will have to answer the following question: "Which are the consequences of the policy of the RWPF on the development of the gender in the District of Huye during the period of 1996 to 2006?»

0.2. CHOICE INTEREST OF THE SUBJECT

The interest carried on this subject lies within the scope of the process of democratization with which are currently confronted the Third World in general and the Republic of Rwanda in particular. It is important to specify that the role of the Rwandan woman in the development of the country is very important vis-a-vis with the vision 2020. Thus the subject was selected with the aim of give our contribution to the promotion of the participation of the Rwandan woman through the vision 2020.

This work is a contest with the knowledge of the effect of the action plan of the RWPF as regards promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman through the vision 2020. Thus this work was undertaken within the university framework of research in political science organized to the end of the studies of the 2nd cycle while contributing to the scientific effort of search for solution to the problems of our society. The interest of the subject was justified by triple reason:

At the individual level: does the promotion of the women in the stations of decision-making break with insulation and the sociocultural barriers, it allows broadmindedness, it makes more well informed on the legislation, it increases the confidence of the woman in itself and to have access to the control of resources and the right for the benefit.

On the level of the family: The complementarity's in the achievement of the duties of the couple, the participation of the Rwandan woman in the promotion of know-how vis-à-vis in the vision 2020, the impact on the education of the children based on the complementarity's and the respect of each one, the knowledge of the true value of the woman in the company.

At the national level: the effect of the action plan of the RWPF increases the potentialities of development based on all the sharp forces of the nation. It contributes to the effectiveness of setting work of certain projects of development, the improvement of the wellbeing due to the satisfaction of needs expressed by all the layers for the population. That causes changes of attitudes and Behaviors in the direction of the complementarities between the men and the women in the process of development durable.

Thus, the absence of the know-how of the Rwandan woman to the development of the country is likely to produce negative effect as well on the individual, family level as national.

0.3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

TOTAL OBJECTIVE

This work aims at showing the importance of the effects of the action plan of the RWPF with regard to the competence of the Rwandan woman with respect to the durable development of our country.

OBJECTIVES SPECIFIC

Our works have three principal objectives to knowing:

v To raise the inherent factors of blocking to the Rwandan women

v To show the effect of the policy of the parliamentary women on the changes of

mentality of the women administrators implied in the basic authorities,

v To release the strategic means to overcome the difficulties.

0.4. ASSUMPTIONS OF WORK

Our research has tests the assumption below:

"The policy of the RWPF constitutes one of the best means of integrating the development of the gender in the District of Huye"

0.5. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF RESEARCH

The interview technique concerning the methods, one made recourse to:

v Comparative method

v Historical method

v Functionalist method

v Dialectical method

Concerning the techniques, our study made recourse to:

v Documentary technique

v Technique of questionnaire

0.6. DELIMITATION OF THE SUBJECT

Any scientific work must be limited in time and space.

In time

This work covers the period of the creation of the RWPF since 1996 until 2006. Our study will be focused on "the effect of the action plan of the RWPF as regards promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman vis-à-vis to the vision 2020

It is during this period or one noticed changes of important action of the RWPF in favor of the women administrators of the basic instances.

In space

Means of time and financial and materials to tackle this interesting subject in its entirety, we took as field of study the levels of the women exert the public administration in Rwanda. At the national level, this work is limited to 2 bodies which knowing: parliamentary women (Members of Appoint and Members of Senators) and the women administrators of the District of Huye/ Province of the South. As a private individual , our attention to choose the District of Huye as case of study, which constitutes the space, limit of our study.

0.7. SUBDIVISION OF WORK

After the general introduction, work hereafter is subdivided in four chapters:

v The first chapter explained the theoretical framework and methodological,

v The second chapter presents the history of the condition of the woman in

Rwanda,

v The third chapter given the condition of the Rwanda Woman : the texts of FPR through the Vision 2020,

v The fourth chapter definite the RWPF and the District of Huye:

Concrete achievements.

FIRST CHAPTER: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK, THEORIQUE AND

METHODOLOGIQUE

The following chapter contains three sections with knowing: tally conceptual, tallies theoretical and tallies methodological.

Section 1. Conceptual framework

This conceptual framework defines the key terms in knowing the concept effects, action plan, FFRP, promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman, Vision 2020 and the description of the zone of study in particular the District of HUYE.

1.1. Effects:

According, to GRAWITZ. M. (1992). The effect results from a cause. The experiment of checking of an assumption. They are rather factors that causes. However, in (2006) GASORE.O, defines the effect like the impact of an action. This impact can be positive or negative. The effect represents the consequences which can have an action or the benefits of an action, one wants to say the benefit of a taken action.

1.2. Action program

1.2.1. Action

According to A. Touraine, the action indicates the linking movement of the groups or individuals in a common objective of defense of their interests, or an ideal which can profit from it without taking part in it. In general talk, large Encyclopedic Larousse, (1963), defines the Action plan like the complement of the equipment and modernization plan intended to correct geographical imbalances of the economy, supporting the economic and social expansion various areas, and more particularly those which suffers from under-employment or an insufficient economic development.

1.2.2. Program

The program term indicates the integrated whole of activities conceived to achieve a common goal or the unit of action or policy having knowledge to acquire and the techniques to be controlled.

1.3. FFRP

The Forum of the Parliamentary Rwandan Women (FFRP) is an advisory mechanism of facilitation of the integration of the gender within the Parliament which was creates in 1996. It is the organizational shape of the members of Parliament (9 senators and 39 deputies). Such organizations (drilled or networks of the members of Parliament) are recognized by the law carrying the payment of an interior nature of the two rooms of the Parliament of Rwanda (senate and House of Commons). 1.4. Promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman.

1.4.1. Promotion

According to Small famous Larousse (1998), the word promotion comes from the verb to promote, which means to push ahead, advance, rise with a dignity, a rank or a higher row. In general talk, certain authors speak about emancipation, others of promotion, but all want to mean certain release. The expressions can be used one for the other of all circumstances.

According to MUKEZAMFURA, A. (1988), emancipated can be intended itself in the direction to leave its usual reserve. In particular, it its ease to take conventions of morals and social.

1.4.2. Know-how

According to Parker and Fleishman, the expression know-how means skill to make a success of what one undertakes. Its limitation and its dependence refer to the capacity which tends to a general feature which facilitates the performance of an individual in a variety of tasks.

Indeed such or such know-how, it is for example to be able to practice a trade or an art, to carry out a work thanks to training, with a competence, the experiment, an acquired or natural skill. Know-how is also a mode of knowledge, for example a child can carry out an addition by grouping his fingers or of the tokens. Consequently, that which has knowledge can not know how to exploit them.

To arrive at the goal that one sets in advance, one must have know-how, an intelligence which enables us to order our knowledge and to choose those which are relevant. "the promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman" being as a process which consists of an awakening of its capacities, more reflected opening of spirit, but in the hand with his/her male colleague. For a long time, the Rwandan women were submitted to the man, as the general introduction clears up it.

The Rwandan woman of today must go in the direction of front of what our days call "the integration of the know-how of the Rwandan woman to the development" Know-how diffuse by the FFRP does not arrive in virgin ground in the farming community as the agents of development too often say it that it is not a question to bring know-how where reign ignorance.

1.5. Vision 2020

1.5.1. Vision

According, Jean-Marie Court and Serge Snrech (1998): "the Vision" is expressed in the form of a long-term image of the distribution of the men and their activities. It is the result of "projections" established on the basis of mechanism identified in the long retrospective and of more or less voluntarist sets of assumptions.

The term "Vision 2020" is a concept which was launched universally from Geneva in February 1999. The term rests at a vast coalition of the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness. Its objective is to eliminate the principal causes from avoidable blindness from here the year 2020, by bringing closer the governmental and nongovernmental agencies to facilitate planning, the development and the setting maneuver of programs of national and durable ocular care, based on three principal strategies, namely: fight against the disease, development of human resources and development of the infrastructures, according to principles' of care of primary health.

"The Vision 2020 of the Rwandan context" itself, means project of activity which shows the image that wants to have the Rwandan company by 2020. It plans to make Rwanda a country with average income (of 260 $ US currently with 960 $ US in 2020), it is - with - to say to leave the state of poverty by combining the economic growth targets and those of the development»

1.6. Description of the zone of study of the District of Huye

1.6.1. Principal geographical characteristics

1.6.2. General aspect

Huye is one of the eight districts which make the Province of the South; it is consisted fourteen sectors: Mbazi, Kinazi, Simbi, Maraba, Rwaniro, Rusatira, Huye, Gishamvu, Mukura, Ruhashya, Tumba, Kigoma, Ngoma, Karama.

1.6.3. Relief

The District of Huye is located on a central plate with a topographic unit of collinear type in its central part, in the East and the South. It occupies the tabular tops of the hills with an average altitude of 1700 m; it goes down up to 1450 m towards the farm from Songa. In its Western part, it rises as one moves towards the West to culminate with more than 2000 m at the top of the Huye mount. Bottoms melt marshy are located at an altitude of 1650 m.

1.6.4. Climate and pluviometry

The District of Huye is characterized by a climate of the moderate type subequatorial, with an average temperature oscillating around 20oC. Its annual average pluviometric module turns around 1160 mm of rain. As on the whole of the country, the climate is marked by 4 quite distinct seasons: a great rain season (semi February - May), a great dry season (June - semi September), a small rain season (semi September - December) and a small season dries (January - semi February). Pluviometry is characterized by abundant precipitations of 1400 mm on average per annum.

1.6.5. Hydrography

The hydrographic network of the District of Huye is consisted rivers, in the West, one notices the river of Kadahokwa which is directed North in the South; in the center, the river of Rwamamba is; in the East, there is the large valley of Rwasave drained by the river of Kihene directed of North in the South; these rivers are drained towards Migina which is the affluent of the Akanyaru river; in Western North is the river Mwogo who deverse in Nyabarongo. The District of Huye is very rich in marshy valleys along the rivers and of the brooks, which constitutes a potential to be developed.

1.6.6. Grounds

The grounds evolve/move in-depth according to their situation on the hill; the best grounds are in the marshes (they are sandy and rather humus-bearing) if those are not enables by the erosion of the hills. The grounds on the granitic dorsal are the least fertile, they are very low in humus. The grounds of the central plate are less bad, they are of the koalisol type, fertile when erosion did not degrade them, and when the humus-bearing horizon of these grounds is well preserved.

1.6.7. Fauna and flora

The natural vegetation disappeared under the pressure from the cultures and was replaced by anthropic vegetation i.e. resulting from the action of the man and it is dominated by the farming plants. The major part of the grounds is under food crops and, by order, of importance there are the banana tree, bean, the sorghum, sweet potato and manioc etc... Generally, one notes an insufficiency of forests and the little which exists requires a renewal. However, one mainly meets some afforestations made up of eucalyptus and grévillia. As for the savage animals one finds some especially in the zone of the station of the ISAR Songa to knowing, the jackal, the gazelle, rabbit, hare, etc.

Section 1. Theoretical framework

1.1. The condition of the woman like political question

The theoretical framework around the condition of the woman as political question about the gender goes and brings the light on the elements, which always cause many contradictions in particular when it is a question of integrating the approach gender and policy in the current language. Within this theoretical framework the gender refers to the social roles allot to the women respectively and to the men in particular society and particular moment while the policy refers to the guiding principle for a certain action realizes by the decision makers in order to attack a particular question.

The evolution of the woman in the political life does not date a long time; the entry of the woman in this field remains very timid. The relationship between the women and the policy is little known. This because political science was always an object to study the political life of the society, field where the women are neither numerous even today, nor truly allowed.

In the majority of the companies, the prejudices are abundantly in almost all the society of the four corner of the world, which regarded it as a weak being. These prejudices worsen its marginalization. The entry of the woman in the political life is late compared to the man. Why? Because, the women have been willing; to return from they're in policy than the men. On the one hand, because the policy; does not answer to their aspirations.

The policy claims resources, which the women do not have (availability, job security, financial ease) of other shares; these political systems are responsible for this situation because of the electoral system.

According to Jean ROSTAND, affirmed that:

"The woman is not purely female, nor the purely male; it is only more female and he more male than it" 7(*)

However the fact of being woman was the cause of restriction of rights and ridiculed freedom. In the conquest of freedoms for independence, the history proves that the women accompanied the men with the assistance and the support. However, at the time to collect the fruits of success acquired so hard, the women were often put at the variation; sometimes private of the natural reward seeing itself excluded from the honors of the victory to which came to contribute. In the underdeveloped countries, especially the woman is responsible for all the food chain since the production of the food until the preparation of meal.

According, to VADERVEKEN. M, and HERNADEZ, C, (1985) marked by TWAHIRWA Gervais:

"The Anthropologists and the archaeologists affirmed that the woman was in charge of the research of the treatment and storage with vegetable food. In logical consequence: they are the women who invented the techniques and the tools to exert this work. Today the anthropologists are also convinced that they are also the women who discovered agriculture." 8(*)

By seeking a response to the preceding quotation: The antifeminists traditional often evoked that the women in the social and economic life are the most dynamic factors of the growth and their absence in the political life reconsider the domestic and family capacity so that their statute with the hearth does not feel guilty.

In contrast the socialist feminists rejected these constant traditional, while following the texts of the United Nations adopted in 1948, and stipulates that:

"The preamble to the charter of the United Nations strongly condemned all discriminations with regard to the women and stresses that one of the goals of the organization is to ensure that the women have the same rights and the same possibilities as with the men in dignity and the value of the human person». 9(*)

The man refused to grant the same right to the woman, which it enjoys.

According to SIMON of BEAUVOIR (1945), shows it while saying:

"This world always belonged to the men" 10(*)

It still shows again while affirming:

"One is not born woman, one becomes it." 11(*)

While examining, an answer favorable to the foregoing quotations, the woman since years, was regarded as a lower being and its inferiority seem so naturally indisputable and immutable that was never concerned with the risks of this marginalization and neither the passage of times, nor the political régimes in their succession do not bring great changes to this situation.

To include/understand her marginalization, which does not go back to yesterday, Madam de Staël (1766- 1817)12(*) affirmed:

"One is right to exclude the women from the public affairs and civil; nothing is opposed any more to their natural vocation than all that would give them reports/ratios of competition with the men and glory itself could not be for a woman who mourning of happiness " 13(*)

The anti-equal ones rejected certainly this constant enracine the policy in biology, by saying for example that; by their nature the women would be carrying another political vision14(*). There is neither man, nor woman in the Republic; it is only citizen without distinction of sex. This level, the man and the woman must be considered in control, the access to employment, the services and the resources like with their division, without forget the equal treatment by the employers and suppliers of services.

Thus we agree with the idea of DROY ISABELLE (1996) in the following quotation:

"The evolution of social and political conditions has causes these last years a return of interest on the women like the object of research even if the no historical and temporal characters of the woman category makes difficult any conceptualization of their situation. The women always seem to be subordinated to the men and this dependence does not seem consequence of an event or from a future, the call with female nature, the inequalities between the sexes, one from of deduces whereas the female handicaps are eternal. Are the biological differences enough - they to explain the inequalities between the sexes? "15(*)

By seeking an answer to the preceding question we find that the Anthropologists Economists reject this constant: For the anthropologist's economists, the relationship between man and woman is to study in a context of social change rather than to study the category of the women. They say that it is necessary to seek the cause of the inequalities in the producing activities; reproductive and sexual division with work and each culture can find the things differently.

According to CORRINE Goldberger16(*) (1982) affirmed that:

«A Republic with a democracy without woman is not a democracy; the equality of the gender is also an element of good governorship.

The equal opportunity is under the heart of the democracy "article 4 of the universal declaration on the democracy, adopted in September 1997 by the council of the Interparliamentary Union stipulated:

"It would not know of democracy without true partnership between man and woman in the control of the public affairs or men and women act in the equality and the complementarity's growing rich mutually by their difference." 17(*)

In Rwanda, the present differs from last in integration from the approach kind and development. The development itself is founded on 6 pillars and 4 transverse topics of the vision 2020. While the gender; is the pillar of these transverse topics?

In this context, it is important that the women play a part fully equal to the man in all the future decisional structures of Rwanda; of which Parliament granted to the women 49% of the places in all the fields of decision-making. From now on, the Rwandan woman is considered by the Rwandan government an active partner impossible to circumvent for peace and the development, for of which Rwanda with thirst.

2. Methodological framework

According to GRAWITZ, M, (2001)"the method is the whole of the intellectual operations by which a discipline seeks to reach the truths that it continues, to show them, check them." 18(*)

2.1. Method of research

Throughout this work of study we resorted to the four methods of research taking into account the matter to study: it acts of the comparative method, the historical method, the functionalist method and the analytical method.

2.1.1. Comparative method

This method helped us to find the elements of resemblance and dissimilarity between the compared facts. Us summons itself been used for to use this method in order to see clearly if there is an interaction between the parliamentary women (member of the deputies and member of the senate) and the women administrators of District of Huye.

2.1.2. Historical method

It is based on the analysis of the facts or the one quite precise period data or of a time delimited well in the past. By examining the facts and the events related to the kind during the recent time one calls upon the national policy of the kind as political question bases on the consolidation of a State of right related to the durable development in order to promote the equality and the equity of the gender in Rwanda.

2.1.3. Functionalist method

It goes by the idea of the promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman through the vision 2020, which is the result of durable development of the country. Consequently, we will be brought to research the causality of the changes of mentalities of the women as real phenomenon on the problems of the gender among the young people of two different sexes in the system sociopolitical in which they take part.

2.1.4. Analytical method

It helped us to analyze the data and information obtained in order to draw somewhat characterizes and is referred to our assumptions. In this scientific research task, to reach: the aims of the study and checking of the assumption we served ourselves certain techniques of data acquisition but the choice was justified by the nature of our investigation.

2.2. Population of investigation

In our population of investigation we considered it convenient to determine in advance the people likely to provide us desired information. It is within this framework that it was judged to inquire the parliamentary women representing the interest of the Rwandan women in the Parliament and the women administrators of District of Huye. However, we chose to formulate questionnaires reserved for the two bodies. Thus, we referred to the lists posted at the Parliament and the list posted at the office of town hall of District of Huye.

For better identifying these two bodies of public administration, we were interested to note the total number of the parliamentary women are than 48,8% more women appointed (either on the whole 39 whose 24 women come from the CNF and 15 women come from political parties) and 34,6% are women senators (or on the whole 9).

By after us were also interested by noting the total number of the women administrators of District of Huye, that is to say on the whole 12 responsible women in charge of various administrations. Thus, within this framework to enrich our work, we took 15 parliamentary women (that is to say 10 appointed women and 5 women senators) being given who they are very occupied in these two bodies.

On the whole our study has investigations 27 women coming from the 2 bodies (either 15 last surveyed parliamentary women and 12 women responsible for known as District). Unfortunately the total of the population was not numerous, thus, sampling was not considered to be necessary.

2.3. Techniques of data-gathering

The data-gathering was carried out thanks to the information retrieval and the technique of opinion poll, i.e. the investigation by questionnaire and interview. To put the questions, we followed a model of questionnaires, which we prepared such as it appears in appendix. The questions were made up in French and Kinyarwanda. These questionnaires are subdivided in two parts which knowing:

v Questionnaires reserved to the women administrators of District of HUYE

v Questionnaires reserved to the parliamentary women

These questionnaires were elaborate so that they can provide us the fullest information on the opinion of the parliamentary women and the women administrators of District of Huye, to clearly see the cardinal importance of the implication of the parliamentary women through the promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan women through the vision 2020. Amongst other things, this work wants to check the interaction existing between the RWPF and the women administrators of the aforesaid District; in particular by strongly checking the interaction that played the parliamentary women in the changes of mentalities and the reinforcements in the intellectual abilities of the Rwandan women lasting their representativeness from the period of 1996 in 2006.

To illustrate and distribute the questionnaires, it is asked to us to resort to the office of the RWPF where the agents of this office were given the responsibility to forward to us concerned questionnaires in order to better filling. The information received thanks to the interviews supplements the information collected via the questionnaires.

As for the women responsible for District of Huye, it was easy to us to forward it to the concerned ones. To check on all these questionnaires were answered and filled well and if all the talks available were well carried out, we envisaged a calendar, which took to us two months (July, August, 2007).

During our investigation, the major constraint met in our questionnaire and the follow-up carried out by means of telephone, to really check if our questionnaires deposited were answered, whereas financial means was always insufficient.

SECOND CHAPTER: HISTORY OF THE CONDITION OF THE RWANDAN

WOMAN

The history of the Rwandan woman in the traditional society did not follow a diagram very different from that of the other women in the world, although certain characteristics can be noted according to specific realities to each country. The Rwandan society is patrilineal; the husband is the chief of the woman and the whole family. In the old Rwandan habit the authority on the woman made it possible to the husband to beat his wife when she did not want to obey to him, when she had made a fault likely to make indignant the husband. 19(*).

According to ADRIAENSSENS, J, (1969) marked as that:

"The patriarchal system constitutes an ideology of inequality of the sexes putting the Rwandan woman in position of subordination compared to the man. The habit does not recognize the equal rights between the man and the woman. The patrilineal structure of the family gives the capacity and the richness to the men."20(*)

This preceding ideology confines the woman with the only roles of production of the family and housewife. By way of example much of proverbs sayings or insults of the Rwandan habit translate the reconsideration of the woman such as:

v Uri uwa nyoko: Does this insult want to say that the child of a foul temper inherited his/her mother;

v Umugabo umwe agerwa kuri nyina: it was for saying that if one wants to only act, one to the force not of the father but of the mother, always to insinuate that the mother could nothing produce valid die.

v Ukurusha umugore akurusha urugo:21(*) Paradoxically when a person who has a conscientious woman has a more prosperous household.

v Umugore n'umutima w' urugo: the family wellbeing depends largely on the wisdom of the woman or the woman is the heart of the whole family.22(*)

With these proverbs mentioned the Rwandan woman at the tender of the man so to speak nothing puts die valid for it. The woman is a partner, a pillar of the household, it plays a key part but discrete, it avoids contradicting her husband in public May asks him its opinion deprives some. In the patrimonial field, the woman or the girl did not have anything and could not acquire any good, which is nothing clean. Theoretically, it does not have economic rights, except certain rights exceptionally.

Section 1. The condition of the woman during the Monarchical time

In old Rwanda, certain women had an important place within the society, some could use of this capacity. Initially, the traditional royal institution obliged each new king to associate a queen-mother. This one was the mother of the new king or, failing this, one of the wives of the father of this one. The queen-mother played a paramount part. Roughly speaking, it was consults for any decision of importance. Sometimes, it assumed the regency of the mode while waiting for that the king grows and takes his responsibilities.

1.1. Implication of the women in the political life

In the old time, the political organization of the kingdom of Rwanda included/understood the administrative and military hierarchy as well as the structure of customers, which although; it was not purely political; interfered nevertheless often with the others. For the monarchical period, Rwanda was a State having a consolidated administrative organization.

The King, sovereign supreme of the country, was made help by the usual chiefs of the various provinces of the country.23(*) The woman did not miss within this throne, since already the queen-mother was the first adviser of the King her son. She assumed at the sides of her son, all the administrative responsibilities.

The queen-mother took part in the administration especially when the King very young person or was struck incapacity. Consequently, some women were distinguished by playing a great capital part in the decision-making from the course.24(*)

The last known queen-mother is KANJOGERA; it was at the origin of the coup d'Etat of RUCUNSHU26(*) in 1895: a young king appointed by his father, MIBAMBWE RUTARINDWA was laid out and the queen was to establish her own son YUHI MUSINGA this one reined of 1895 to 1931.

Another queen-mother is NYIRATUNGA mother of GAHINDIRO, controlled the country during 10 years about the years 1700. Other women also found themselves on the political scene such as for instance NYIRAKIGWENE and NYIRAKABUGA, which was assistant managers, NYAGAKECURU, wife of SAMUKENDE controlled the

"Ibisi bya Huye" and ROBWA heart of RUGANZU BWIMBA and NYIRATUNGA, which was sacrificed as a liberator so that Rwanda could not invaded by the GISAKA.

One knows others, which exerted the first military intervention such as NDABAGA,27(*) which was famous for its extraordinary character with the famous proverb:

"Ibintu byageze iwandabaga» To translate that the situation worsened with such sign that a woman NDABAGA has to intervene personally at once of battle.28(*)

Section 2. The condition of the woman under colonization29(*)

For the colonial period,30(*) Rwanda saw itself applied the texts of laws applicable to the Congo-Belgian by art 1 of the law of August 21, 1925. At that time the woman did not have a place in the administration in front of the jurisdictions as created. With the establishment of the usual tribunals, in 1926, a composition of the seat of the court was establishes having its seat with the place chief of the territory, composed of a judge and five assessors.

The chiefs and the assessors among the assistant managers, by the delegate of the resident, named the judge in consequence the women were indicated. Even in 1937 when Mwami (King)31(*) created the courts of cheffery, the woman did not have a place, nor as assessors, selected among, the notable ones of the cheffery of all the men. In addition, the Decree of July 5, 1948 on civil and repressive justice will bring there no change and the situation goes perjurer until for the post-colonial period.

Nevertheless, the arrival of the missionaries, although it was at the origin of some changes of mentality perpetuated the political discrimination of the women. Schools were initially created only for the boys and the religion condemned rather than it encouraged the participation of the women in the political life.

The aspect to be held in consideration on the reinforcement of the inequalities of instruction is that in our country the large schools of secondary studies were created by the catholic church, they all was managed by priests or brothers and categorically excluded the presence from girls: one can quote all the schools seminars, in particular that of (Kabgayi, Karubanda, Nyundo, St Andre, Byumba, Save, Official Collège of Kigali, Christ King, School complex of Butare, Musanze, etc.)32(*)

A little liked late, it was open domestic schools whose roles were to promote the role of the girl and housewife, to the fur of the years later they took names: domestic school, social hearths, family schools and social school of which that of Karubanda currently.

Section 3. At 1994 Independence

At 1994 Independence, the roles of the woman in the policy miss. It is into 1965 that the woman could take part in the seminars and of congers organize for the promotion of the woman. The first constitution of November 24, 1962 granted the Rwandan woman to take part in the policy of the country by electoral way, right to article 9 which lays out: "are entitled to vote, under the conditions determined by the electoral law, all the major Rwandan nationals of two sexes, enjoying the plenitude of their civic rights and political"

In spite of the provisions of article 16 to 30 which guarantee the equality of the sexes, consequently article 54 of the first constitution prohibited to the woman to stand as candidate to the presidency of the Republic, with the policy of the MRND of July 5 1973 which morally supports the emancipation of the woman through its constitutions and its legislation 33(*) to join the other women at the international level.34(*)

In the first years of independence, the girls were especially directed towards the dies of formation, which the country needed: Instructresses, social assistances, nurses, etc. The weak representation of the woman in policy preached mainly low level of female elimination of illiteracy and the role of the woman remained impossible to circumvent.

From the years 1975, the first time in the history of Rwanda, a woman was recruited as a soldier within the gendarmerie and of the army. The women engaged as officers or privates. They became thus targets as well as the men. About the years 1980, the representation of the women became more important at the Parliament and in the services of the administration. 35(*) In the central government,36(*) since 1962 until the events of 1994, the post offices occupied by the women are very tiny. The Presidency, the vice-presidency, premature, 1st ministers, the ministry and the secretariat of State. While on the level of the local government, the key political stations occupied by the women since independence until 1994 are in particular the prefect, the sub-prefect, the burgomaster or mayor. Amongst other things the parliamentary women, had a considerable evolution since 1982.

In contrast, it is since 1994, that even certain women were elected parliamentary candidates since 1980 thanks to the financial intervention of party-State MRND, that the situation strongly developed, to not only be victim of violence's but also to be active in violence against humanity.37(*) The tables' hereafter put in account of their manpower. 39(*)

Table N 1. Degree of political representativenesses of the women to the central

Government for the post-colonial period.39(*)

Year

Post offices

Total of the women

Presidency

v/Presidency

Primature

1est minister

Ministers

Secretary of state

M

W

M

W

M

W

M

W

M

W

M

W

1962

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

0

0

0

0%

1964

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

13

1

0

0

6,6%

1965

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

11

1

0

0

7,6%

1968

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

0

2

0

0%

1969

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

0

2

0

0%

1970

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

2

0

0%

1972

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

3

0

0%

1973

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

0

0

0

0%

1975

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

0

0

0%

1977

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

0

0

0%

1978

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

0

0

0

0%

1981

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

17

0

0

0

0%

1982

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18

0

2

0

0%

1985

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18

0

0

0

0%

1990

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

19

1

0

0

4,5%

1993

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

17

2

0

0

4,5%

1994-95

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

19

2

0

0

4,3%

Source : HAGURUKA, la femme rwandaise et l'accès à la justice, 2000, p.66

MINEPRISEC, Histoire du Rwanda, IIème partie, 1989, p.59

Since independence until 1994, we account only four women of the ministers knowing: Madeleine AYINKAMIYE who was Minister for the social affairs, his mandate was stopped one year after (1964 to 1965). After that we saw reappear the woman within the government for the period of multi-party system after 199040(*).

This moment, the women were named, not by the will of the leader but by designation of the political parties. And it is at this time that a woman UWIRINGIYIMANA Agathe41(*) saw herself allots the post of Prime Minister, unforgettable historical fact.

This one controls for one difficult period of political disturbances and made goes up of political force and the exceptional capacities, thus defending the equality of the man and the woman in particular. Unfortunately it was assassinated at the beginning of the genocide of 1994. Let us recall that before, Agathe UWIRINGIYIMANA was Minister for the primary education and secondary education of 1990 to 1993. Mrs. Pauline NYIRAMASUKO42(*) was Minister for the family and the female promotion of 1990 to 1994 and Mrs. Agnes NTAMABYARIRO, Minister for justice43(*).

Table N 2. Political degree of representativeness of the women to the local

Government for the post-colonial period.

Year

Post offices

Total of the women

Prefect

Sub-prefect

Bourgomaster- Mayor

M

W

M

W

M

W

1962

10

0

21

0

143

0

0%

1964

10

0

26

0

143

0

0%

1972

10

0

22

0

143

0

0%

1976

10

0

34

2

143

0

1,1%

1982

10

0

47

1

143

0

0,4%

1983

10

0

46

2

143

0

0,9%

1986

10

0

55

1

143

0

0,5%

1990

11

0

60

1

145

0

0,5%

1994-95

10

1

0

3

0

0

7,6%

Source : HAGURUKA, la femme rwandaise et l'accès à la justice, 2001, p.69

MIFOTRA, recensement des agents de l'Etat, décembre, 1998, p. 12

With the table above, the presenter room shows that since 1962 until 1975, no woman reached the station of responsibility at this level, it is only into 1976 that the 1st women were appointed sub-prefect. It acts Mesdames Victoire BALINDA, NYIRARENZAHO and Marguerite MUKANKWAYA, being a representativeness of 1, 1%.

This progress is due to the awakening by the government of former president HABYARIMANA on the importance of the contributions of the women to the development of the country. Dancila MUKARUSHEMA originating in rural Kigali, appointed, occupied then the same functions in the same prefecture of Byumba in 1989. Stations occupying, nevertheless stations more administrative than political.

Unfortunately, in 1982 until 1990, there was a regression of representativeness to 0,5%. In 1983 the woman sub-prefect named NYIRABIZEYIMANA Immaculée sub-prefect of the sub-prefecture of Rwamagana control of the 20/01/1983 to the 8/01/1984 it was appointed of 1984 to 1994, named by the central committee of the MRND.

With her departure no other woman was appointed sub-prefect of sub-prefecture, only excludes the sub-prefect with the prefecture. Acting of the woman prefect one had to wait in 1994 a woman prefect of the prefecture of the town of Kigali (PVK).44(*)

3.1. The woman fighting in the army45(*) and the magistrate.46(*)

At the time of former president KAYIBANDA and HABYARIMANA, the army was exclusively male irrevocability, the majority are the men who convey and control the army47(*). Admittedly, some women in the army start to emerge themselves, but its representativeness is obvious.

The gendarmerie and the police force be male, the woman nevertheless is some gone away. As for the legal organization it is in 1962, that the government adopting the law-instituted courts of canton replaces courts of the chefferies48(*) of them; with this change the situation remains precarious.

In front of the ordinary jurisdictions and the military jurisdictions the woman as magistrate did not have any more a place. The first woman at the Supreme Court49(*) was named in 1999, acting of the military court any woman neither military listener, nor substitute was not named. Mutatis-mutandis and Citeris Paribus; in 1994 one counted 81 women legal police inspectors.

The impact of this female absence is extremely regrettable, since times, certain women can have problems to see even the fear of being addressed to the officers of the public Ministry of male sex. Description hereafter shows us how much the woman was for a long time isolated of the officer of the public Ministry and the police inspector.

Table N 3. Degree of the representativenesses of the officers of the Public Ministry

close the ordinary jurisdictions.50(*)

general

Year

Parquet floor close the supreme court

General Parquet floors close the Courts of Appeal

Parquet floor of the Republic

General

prosecutor

1st Prosecuting attorney General P

General

Attorney

Prosecuting attorney General

General Prosecuting

Substitutes

Prosecutors

1st Substitute

Substitute

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

1991

1

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

2

0

5

0

10

0

12

0

50

0

1994

0

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

4

0

8

0

11

0

12

0

103

18

Source: MINIJUST Supreme Court

Table N 4. Numbers of legal police inspector (IPJ)

Year

Man

Woman

1994

24

0

Source: MINIJUST Supreme Court

Before the promulgation of the law n 3/97, bearing creation of the lawyer office in Rwanda51(*), there were legal agents, times not-lawyers, which practice with any degree of procedure52(*). One estimates at that time which ago discrimination except that other trades carried the women. Today, contrasts about it the preceding law stipulates that any holder at least license in right, has right to be a lawyer, which gives right to plead with any degree of procedure, whereas the not-lawyer, called legal defenders cannot plead in first authority.

Today the numbers of the women lawyer evolve/move of the day at the day although the law itself does not make any distinction related to the sex with the occupation of lawyer. As for the legislative assembly, the presence of the woman be unimportant, at the time of accession being studied of a law, the position of the woman be always minority. In addition, the National assembly of 1962 until 1994, to show that there is enough the manpower of the parliamentary women. The following table shows the change of manpower.53(*)

Table N 5. A number of parliamentary women54(*)

Year

1962

1969

1982

1984

1989

1994

M

44

47

60

62

59

59

F

0

0

4

8

11

11

Source: National Parliament, 1994

One notice that the table above shows that, the evolution of the woman is carried out already in 1982 or four women were elected members of the Parliament. Its representativeness somewhat opened the political sphere but under well defined periods and conditions.

In the council of Rwanda of after independence no woman appeared. In the same way, the revolution of 1959 did not make it possible any of them to emerge. The national assembly de facto installation by the national council joined together on January 28, 1961 at GITARAMA did not comprise women. The 3rd legislature of 1969 did not renew the experiment. The National Assembly of Transition (ANT) resulting from the supposed agreements of Arusha to put an end to the war of 1993. Among 70 deputies named by the 15 competent parties only three women appeared coming from political parties (FPR, PL and MFBP).55(*)

THIRD CHAPTER: THE CONDITION OF THE WOMAN IN

RWANDA: TEXTS OF FPR IN THE VISION 2020

Section 1. Texts of the condition of the woman through the project of society

of the FPR-INKOTANYI

The genocide of 1994, the massacres and the war had left the country in a very critical situation, have regard with this particular situation of the country and other challenges which Rwanda knows, within this framework the project of society under consideration by FPR-Inkotanyi56(*) with an aim of improving the condition of the women and that of the society in general are multiple, to identify, here some priority:

v The leveling division of the capacity and responsibilities;

v The fight counters poverty;

v Improvement of the access of the woman to the social services (education, health,

Management of the environment, etc.)

v The promotion of peace and the fight against the violence made to the women;

v Improvement of the legal statute of the woman;

v The promotion of the woman through the media;

v The support with the women in the particular situations;

v Reinforcement of the mechanisms of promotion of the woman;

v Promotion, protection and development of the small girl;57(*)

With an aim of supporting the Rwandan women FPR-Inkotanyi contributes to the development of project made by MIGEPROF having the goal to record the constraints which prevent the Rwandan women from opening out and to take part in the wellbeing of the society. Within this framework, the committed projects and the introduction of the communal funds of the women have the basic seat in the district.

These funds constitute to allocate with the women in order to reinforce their economic capacity in the exercise of the generating activities of the incomes and to help them to solve their problems in order to facilitate moreover the access of women to the bank credit. Moreover, one has to open guarantee funds near the institutions wanting to support the women in the Small sector and Medium-sized companies (SME).

1.1. Priority action plan of the FPR-INKOTANYI of 2003-2015

To encourage the best participation of the women in the process of the durable development, the FPR- Inkotanyi must give the chance to the women to take part fully in the decision-making and to ensure the responsibility. In prospect, BOSERUP Ester (1975), the watch by saying that:

"The integration of the woman in the effort of the development means that one has the statutory duty to reach the means which exist and which allow the individual or the company to progress. The development itself will be slows down if the woman does not take part of advantage in employment in all the fields and all the levels. Certain governmental services and other suitable organizations should establish standards and objectives to just like encourage the employment of women in the public sector in the private sector. It is important that the women, they also take share with the formulation and the execution of the projects. It is thus imperative to grant a more important place to the woman in all the fields of planning and the execution as regards the development, on all the levels of the local government, regional, national and international."58(*)

Thus, under the mandate of FPR-Inkotanyi here some paramount actions of the integration of the woman; in the years 2003-2015:

v To reinforce the capacities of the women implied in the authorities of decision-making on all the levels by the formations on several occasions, the training courses, the camp of solidarity, the trips studies as regards civic education, leadership, gender and development;

v To create the environment necessary to support the education of the girls and the women;

v To increase social services related to reproductive health;

v To develop the mechanisms and to multiply the formations and seminars aiming at encouraging the women able to take part in the electoral process and the other political activities and fields of the leadership;

v To promote generating activities of incomes for the reinforcement of the capacities of the women from the economic point of view and the activities of fight against poverty;

v To organize the inclusive public awareness campaigns to support the evolution of mentalities with regard to the roles traditionally allocated with the men and the women and to fight the stereotypes, by reinforcing patriotism;

v To pay an attention particular to the education of the women especially country-women, not educated;

v To work out suitable laws and legislations to protect the woman from the exploitation and discrimination of which it is victim on behalf of the company and to offer a legal support to them. 59(*)

A priori, FPR-Inkotanyi roughly speaking, A contributes on the revision of the code of the family, the significant constitution kind of which one of the principles is that for all the stations of decision-making the women occupy 30%. Thus, the law n 22/99 of the 12/11/1999, instituting the fifth part relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and the successions was promulgated. In the part relating to the division of ascending, the law stipulates this in its articles 42 and 43.60(*)

Article 42: "the division going down is the act achieved by parents of their alive, by whom share their inheritance between their children or their descendants which become about it, each one for the reserved position him, owners. This division is worth achievement of the duties of the parents to educate and give a specific inheritance to their children."

Article 43: "All the children without discrimination no, between those of male sex and those of female sex still in life or failing this, the descendants of those deceased before their parents, other than the deposed children due to misconduct or ingratitude, have right to the divisions made by their descendants".

1.2. The engagement of the women in the armed forces

As one explained the marginalization of the woman in the second chapter, traditionally the woman did not take part in the war, which reserved with the men; the woman could not be victim of revenge nor to help with the avenger actions. The popular, saying called "umukobwa agira inzara ntagira inzigo" (the girl knows the hunger, it does not know resentment).61(*)

In 1990 already, the women are stopped for complicity with the FPR - Inkotanyi. Generally "RDF" (Rwanda Defense Forces), currently is greets like an action aiming at establishing the equality between the man and the woman. Within old army FPR certain women were also committed as soldiers, the so fundamental importance, we can say on the line of face in 1990 until 1994, the Rwandan woman marked a solved revolution; it took the initiative! Rwanda had never known similar women hero, since the long one and long dates.

The women devoted incredibly are illustrated in the category of "super hero" solemnly recognized during the ceremonies commemorative of National Release. About fifteen the women were crowned medals in 2007, at the time of 7th ceremony of National Release, that is to say five civil among the groups of Supers Hero's, which stopped the genocide. By way of example: ZURA KARUHIMBI62(*) of old the province of GITARAMA, saved more than 100 people during the genocide. Sergeant Angelica NIYONSHUTI and his colleague Berthilde MUKANDEGEYA RUKUTANA, all perished at once of battle after having struck the enemy in the Park of the KAGERA in 1991. Berthilde MUKANDEGEYA was killed after a large baited combat with RWEMPESHA in the old province of UMUTARA. 63(*)

A posteriori, FPR-Inkotanyi affirmed that, the implication of the woman in the authorities of decision-making breaks the sociocultural barriers, opens the spirit among women to have the ambition to reach the stations of responsibility and to give their effective contribution to the development of the country.

Section 2. Texts of the condition of the woman through the constitution of

2003.

Current opportunities in favour of the women are registered in the active of achievements of the constitution of 2003. This one entirely integrates the kind in its provisions. Thus, this fundamental instrument gives an opening strategic for the setting of the quotas to the level of three capacities (executive, legislature and legal)64(*) of the Rwandan citizen.

The whole text of the new constitution of Rwanda of 2003 seeks to promote and share the equal opportunity and social justice. However, the core even of the rights of the person and women's rights is in the preamble to the constitution of Rwanda of 2003. This preamble65(*) states with force how Rwanda foresees its past and which its vision of the future is. It is a good place to explore the place of the women and men in the Rwandan company. The preamble to the constitution of Rwanda is read as follows:

"Us, Rwandan people [...] engaged to ensure the equal rights between

the Rwandan one and the men and the women, without bear prejudice

of the principle of the approach gender."

In addition, article 9 stipulates:

"Rwandan State begins to conform to the following fundamental principles and to make them respect: (...) the equality enters the men and the women reflected by the attribution of at least thirty percent of the stations to the women the Authorities of decision-making."

These provisions very clearly show a formal engagement as regards the rights of the person and rights to the equality of the woman. Precisely this engagement, article 11 envisages this expressly:

"All the Rwandan ones are born and remain free and equal in rights and duties."

The same article prohibits the discrimination based on the sex. This limitation is heavy consequences for the women who, often are with the catches with forms of discrimination and multiple oppression in the private sphere.

The constitution of a 2003 reflected unambiguous engagement to promote the equality of the women and men. Actually a good number of provision of the new constitution of 2003 were conceived in the best interest of the woman, on the other hand, the women in rural medium, are distant from all the governmental apparatus, they are really invisible as participating active on the political scene.

The new Rwandan government played a part in the facilitation of the improvement of the condition of the woman. Its engagement as regards the inclusion of the woman seems authentic.66(*)

Table 6: Current situation of the participation of the women in the process of

decision-making.

Year 2006/2007

Manpower

%

%

Men

Women

Men

Women

Parliament

House of Commons

41

39

51,25

48,8

Room of the senate

17

9

65,38

34,6

Government

19

9

67,85

32,14

Supreme Court

7

5

58,33

41,7

Source: Worked out by us - same (September 2007)

This table above shows that, since 2003, the government accounts to 32,14% women; the government thus created a ministry for the promotion of the equality of the sexes which must play a key part in the promotion of the equality of the woman to the country. The Rwandan Parliament counts to 48,8% women, and this percentage with the senate amounts to 34,6%.

As regards the Supreme Court, the women account for 41,7% of the judges, including the presidency. With 48,8% of the parliamentary seats, Rwanda and become country with the highest number of the parliamentary women in the world. The women in Sweden currently occupy 45, 3% of parliamentary seats, 38%au Denmark, 37%, in Finland and 36, 7% in Holland.67(*)

Admittedly, the Rwandan women have a rate of representation higher than that of the women in good of other richer democracies and places from there for a long time, like Canada and the United States. However, there is yet no badly way to make in Rwanda in order to increase the representation of the women in the local government. Currently, the representation of the Rwandan women on this level is only 9,1% in the provinces and 1,9% with the town hall of District. In the executive rows, one finds 37% women.

Section 3. Condition of the woman tests through the sectoral policy of

the MIGEPROF

3.1. General context68(*)

The Ministry for the gender and promotion of the family was creates in 2003 in charge of the promotion of the equity of the gender in the process of development of the country. This ministry; mainly endeavor to promote the equality between the gender and to ensure the full participation of the women the social economic life and policy of the country.

The coordination of all the activities in connection with the promotion of the woman also falls on this ministry. To carry out its mission, the MIGEPROF assigned two principal objectives with knowing integration of dimension kind in all the fields and the promotion of the woman. In more of that, a committee of follow-up of the conference of Beijing was set up in this ministry.

3.2. Total objective of the MIGEPROF69(*)

The ministry for the kind and promotion of the family has as a general objective of founds a general framework of blooming and development of the woman. The great mandate of the MIGEPROF is of:

v To coordinate the integration of the problems men women in all the sectors and all the entities of the State,

v To integrate a concerned step of equality of the kinds in the development of the legislative provisions, the policies and the programs of general interest;

v To produce and provide data and the information broken down by sexes for purposes of planning and evaluation.

To reach this mandate, the MIGEPROF uses the various tools like the folders, the posters, the streamers, launching of the booklets, the meeting holding various always on the woman and the decision-making, the behavior of the formation on the leadership, the preparation of the day of reflex ion each year.

Besides that, the MIGEPROF materially supports the women by giving a financial support to that who have the goodwill to take part in the process of decision-making of the country but which does not have financial means like by facilitating them transport at the time of the election campaigns. By way of example, at the time of the elections of 2003, MIGEPROF A frees for each district 300.000 frw to help the women to carry out election campaigns.

3.3. The implementation resulting from the International day of the

Woman 70(*)

8 March of each year, since 1975 the MIGEPROF celebrating at famous the international day of the woman. This day was restored for an awakening of the roles of women in the process of development, so that the stake of the development of Rwanda, peace and social justice takes consideration.

The MIGEPROF under its mandate has the responsibility of integrate the woman in the process of the development and to improve the positive changes of the woman, her attitude, its behavior and to encourage it, integrate it in the organizational structure into Community base.

Under the initiative of the MIGEPROF, the National assembly adopted an amendment of the civil code in order to eliminate the discrimination which weighs with regard to the women with regard to the heritage and the rights of ownership. This amendment covers the marriage settlement, the succession and the heritage. Moreover, old laws as the fair labor standards act were also amended in order to eliminate this discrimination.

Moreover, under the initiative of the MIGEPROF, the planners and the organizations of development Endeavour to make so that the needs for women are taken into account at the various stages for a process of planning and in particular at the stage for the design and project assessment. The MIGEPROF under its mandate tries to encourage the informed actors at the base and to be formed on the importance of the saving - credit in order to be caught gradually gives the responsibility some in order to avoid the culture of begging of the Rwandan women rise from free services.

Multiple programs are in the development process by MIGEPROF to support the specific actions of the women in order to raise the constraints which weigh on them, to reinforce their competence71(*) (to know, to know to be and know-how) with dynamic the organizational country-women to enable them to develop proposes strategy in the organizations to them and to assert their own strategy in the organizations and to assert their rights in all the spheres of the national life. Among, the achievements of the MIGEPROF, it is necessary to quote: the creation of the funds of appropriations and of guaranteed in favour of the women and the development of the national five-year plan of the kind (Gender Maintaining).

Section 4. Texts of the condition of the woman through the vision 2020

4.1. The vision 2020

According to Jean-Marie Court and Serge Snrech (1998)71(*) see the first chapter in the conceptual frame work "The vision" is expressed in the form of a long-term image of the distribution of the men and their activities. It is the result of "projections" established on the basis of mechanism identified in the long retrospective and of more or less voluntary sets of assumptions.

While, the expression "Vision 2020" in Rwanda context, is a document set up by Rwandan government considering a long-term prospect aiming at devotion for the country and having objectifies it and the indicators that the countries have need in order to envisage its long-term blooming and having the goal to support underdevelopment and to fight against poverty by reaching the annual average rate of 8,5% of the GDP and planning to make Rwanda a country with returned of 200$ US currently with 960$US in 2020."72(*)

The engagement of the vision 2020 preaches out of the 6 transverse pillars and 4 fields. The vision 2020 of the know-how of the Rwandan woman is of:

v To reinforce the capacity73(*) of the women as regards family planning in close cooperation with the health services of reproduction;

v To increase the access of the girls in primary education teaching with an aim of reaching primary education universal end 2010;

v To decrease the risks for the mothers with the childbirth and to encourage the antenatal consultations, that in collaboration with the humane organizations and ONG, to improve the access of the women to the services of information on the suitable choice of methods;

v To encourage the programmers of functional elimination of illiteracy for the adult girls in order to set up of the formal discussions on family planning;

v To reinforce the capacity of the women in the reduction of poverty;

v To raise the inequality enters the sexes on the level of the higher education and the national university and the other institutions of higher educations in 2020.

Table N 7: 6 pillars and 4 transverse fields of the vision 2020

Pillars of the vision 2020

Transverse Fields of the vision 2020

1. The rebuilding of nation,

2. The State effective, resemble and

Mobilizing,

3. The development of human

resources in conformity with our

objective on the knowledge and the

knowledge to make,

4. The regional planning and

infrastructures basic,

5.. The development of the

entrepreneurial and the private sector

6.. The modernization of agriculture and

the breeding.

1. Problems of gender

2. Environmental protection

3. Science and technology

(ICT)

4. Regional integration

Source: MINECOFIN, Indicators of development of Rwanda: towards vision

2020, Kigali, July 2001, p. 13

MINECOFIN, Indicators of development of Rwanda: Reduction of

poverty, Kigali, Printing works of Kigali, 2000, p. 6

The objective of the Rwandan Government about 2010 and 2020 is to provide primary education teaching to all is equivalent to 100%. The description hereafter shows how teaching primary education will be in 2020.

Table N 8. Enrollment at the primary school in 2010 will be 100%

 

Year

Year

Year

Year

Year

enrolment

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

%

75

85

100

 
 

Source: MINEDUC quoted by Indicating MINECOFIN of development of

Rwanda, Kigali, July 2001, p.30

This foregoing table shows that since 2000, the percentage was 75% in 2005 one counts 85% is in 2010 one counts an assertion of 100% of the children registers at the primary school. Thus the description below evokes how equality will be at the universities in the close relations years 2020.

Table N 9. Equality of kind to the inscription at the universities in 2020 Year

 

Year

Year

Year

Year

Enrolment of girls

1996/97

2005

2010

2020

%

27

33

38

50

Source: MINEDUC quoted by Indicating MINECOFIN of development of

Rwanda: towards vision 2020; July 2001, p. 30

The table above shows that into 1996/97 the equality of kind in the higher education was 27% of the women, in 2005 one counts 33% when in 2010 the rate of the women is more 38% almost in 2020 one counts a rise in 50% between the two sexes.

Section 5. The program74(*) of the RWPF: The promotion of the Know-how

of the Rwandan Woman

5.1. The program of the RWPF75(*)

The RWPF is an advisory mechanism of facilitation of the integration of the Gender within the Parliament, which was, creates in 1996. It is the organizational shape of the Rwandan members of Parliament specifically the parliamentary women (9 Senators and 39 Deputes).

It gathers like effective members all the parliamentary women coming from various political parties, in order to be able to reinforce the unit and their role within the Rwandese society in general and within Rwanda in particular. The RWPF collaborates with the Parliament to integrate the gender into all the levels by various actions:

v Sensitizing, Reinforcement of the capacity of action of the women;

v Integration of the kind in the laws, the policies, the programs, the projects and budgets at the central level and centralizes.

In its action plan,76(*) the RWPF illustrates the strategic axes to raise the challenges of the kind whose women were traditionally victims, to surmount, the equality and equity is taken into account in the annual budgets of the Rwandans government.

5.2. The promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman

According, to PARKER and FLEISHMAN, quoted by RAK, I., and LARRIEU.P. (1994.),77(*) the term "know-how, means the knowledge of the means which allow the achievement of a task". This term is equivalent in English "Know - how to do" regularly used to facilitate the performance of an individual in a variety of tasks. Thus the empirical base of our work is thus not exclusive.

Today the parliamentary women affirm that the Rwandan women are omnipresent in the work of design as a practitioner the management of the small projects, marketing of the products, distribution of small appropriations, the formation of generating activities of incomes, etc. With 48%, of the women parliamentary on the level of the Parliament: to such sign that the whole world makes a blow of hat in Rwanda. The parliamentary women although they are represented their colleagues on the level of the Parliament, they must plead their colleagues as they promised during their election campaign that it will raise their living condition.

This assertion primarily does not allow it to cross the arms in the seats of the Parliament without saying a word on the inequality made to the women. They must rent their colleagues to manage in the abstract sectors as solution of fight against poverty in terms of trade especially in our country. In accordance with the resolutions of the world conference on the women of Beijing 199578(*) one of the strategic objectives of the parliamentary women in the promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan women is of:

v To provide the Rwandan women, in particular to those with low income, of the professional services, formation, access to the market, information and technology;

v To work out programs of the possibilities of formation and recycling;

v To take measures to guarantee to the women equal access to the formation continues at work, to ensure a formation to prepare the women and girls;

v To create a system of tutorial for the women who did not acquire an experiment yet, in their offering a formation to learn how to them to direct, learn from decisions, to speak in public;

v To work out mechanisms and to ensure a formation, which encourages the women to take part in the electoral process, the political activities and the decision-making;

v Sensitizing of the woman to combat the poverty and to create generating activities of incomes.79(*)

In order to correct the errors of the master key, in its mandate, the RWPF must devote much more time to the women rural and urban, by multiplying formations for the reinforcement of their intellectual ability, in addition to it also must, to multiply the meetings on ground of sensitizing at the place of all the layers of the company, while having good agreement and working conditions so much at the family level, Community and at the national level.

They should not interpret the notion of the gender like the inversion of the roles between the two sexes not to give the chance to its detractors. On the other hand, the State in its policy of education must integrate the girl to give them know-how to be more suited in the political life, thus a frank collaboration must be constant on all the levels of decision-making and various institution.

Lastly, very conscious nap that the Rwandan women have the firm will to be integrated in the sociopolitical life of the country. It seeks with better discharging their task to be made listen at the national, regional and international level.

FOURTH CHAPTER: THE RWPF AND THE DISTRICT OF HUYE:

CONCRETE ACHIEVEMENTS

4.1. Mission of the RWPF

The mission of the RWPF is to contribute to build a society leveling, equitable, inclusive and participative by playing the part of influence as regards the gender counts held of the mission of the Parliament.

4.1.1. Great Strategic achievements of the RWPF

The great strategic achievements of the RWPF extend known the two periods from its existences: the period of Assembles Transition (November August 1996-, 2003) and the period Post-Transition (October 2003-October 2006)

4.1.1.1. The plea, the Positive influence and the Partnership

During the transitional period (November 1996 - August 2006), the achievements of the RWPF were mainly focused on the role of plea in favor of the Rwandan women and on the reinforcement of the capacities as of the members.

Indeed, the RWPF made the plea and pressure so that the organic law punishing the genocide regards the rapes with the women lasting the genocide as crime tells humanity. Thus, the authors of sexual tortures appear in the first category as well as the thinkers and the planners of the genocide.

The RWPF played an important part in the development and the adoption of law supplementing the book first civil code and instituting the fifth part relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and successions, law which gives the girls and boys to succeed by equal shares. To influence the Parliament to take into account the aspects kind in its mission, its structure, its policies and programs, the RWPF took the initiative to propose creation, on the level of the Parliament, the standing committee kind, proposal which at summer approved by the plenary meeting.

4.1.1.2. Information and formation for exchanges

On the integration of the gender on all the levels and the reinforcements of the capacities of the members of the RWPF, the formation has reinforced the capacities of analysis and influence of the members in their role of Parliament and representation of the people.

It is in June 2001, the RWPF organized a seminar on "the process of integration of the kind in the new constitution of Rwanda." With the exit of this seminar a memorandum containing all the aspirations and ideas of the women as collected at the time of the popular consultations carried out by the RWPF was submitted to the Legal Affairs Committee and constitutional which; was charged to write the draft constitution. Moreover, it organized several seminars of formations for its members.

4.1.1.3. The research and dissemination of best practice gender

In the participation in research by the researchers preparing their work of control, doctorate or other in-depth studies especially after the great success of Rwanda which, according to the Interparliamentary Union,

Rwanda is the first country with 48% of the parliamentary women. Research was concentrated to prepare it presentations in the national and international conferences. Of another research were concentrated on the participation in the studies initiated by the civil company, the private sector or other partners as regards the kind or action of reinforcement of the capacity of action of the woman. The participation of the RWPF international conferences to vigorously show the experiment of Rwanda as regards the political participation of the Rwandan woman and other relevant experiments of democratization.

4.1.1.4. The setting in networks in favour of the gender in the laws and

Governmental action

The RWPF was regularly invited in various bases aiming at the setting in networks of the members of the Parliaments of the various States by the initiative of the Interparliamentary union, AWEPA (Association of the European Members of Parliament for Africa), Canadian Centre Members of Parliament, etc.

It contributed moreover in formalization dimension kind to the level of the countries of large lakes for peace and safety, the fight against the corruption, the population and the durable development. For the levels national and decentralizes, the RWPF freed a satisfactory step for better a collaboration with the companies civil in particular the punts forms (trade unions, collectives of the women and networks working for the rural development), the National Council of the Women was started too. In addition, this collaboration is to be consolidated to familiarize these structures with its being useful effectively of the institutions of which they are the voters.

4.1.1.5. Reinforcement capacity institutionary and organization of

the RWPF

During the period when started the RWPF until 2006, the reinforcement of the FFRP is base above on the activities:

v The RWPF organized study trips and exchanges in the strange countries such as: Travel to South Africa, to Europe, to China, to England and in Canada;

v It brought up to date the statutory texts and worked out the payment of an interior nature of the RWPF in collaboration with basic partner UNDP and other financial backers;

v The RWPF, worked out and to integrate the strategic plan of the RWPF in the strategic plan of the Parliament;

v It organized and takes part in the meetings sets of themes in connection with the critical fields of the kind within the framework of the setting in local area networks, regional and international in collaboration with the partner GACACA,80(*) punt forms BEIJING, NEPAD, CNLS/SIDA, AMANI, PPPD etc. The RWPF organizes international conferences on the strategies of control of the coordination of the aspects kind and on "Stop with GBV (Gender Based Violence)";

v It organized seminars on the forms of the violence's based on the sex and their causes and consequences like the AIDS and poverty. The contents of this topic be concern on the countryside against the violence's based on the kind and their consequence

Table N10: Broad objectives and the activities not realized by the RWPF 2006

Objectives 1: to reinforce the FFRP institutionary by giving him instrument legal and of management

Activities in court not realize

Indicator of evaluation

Observation

To form on the leadership and communication

Action of plea

Not realizes

To form on the tool of plea

The contents reflect, contact Harvard University

Not realizes

To work out and integrate the strategic plans of the FFRP in the strategic plan of the Parliament

Effective contents to relate to the framework of sensitivity on the gender to the Parliament

Not realizes

To take part in the regional forum member of Parliament and with the local area networks as regards integration of the kind

To integrate dimension in the parliamentary networks and the principle gender in the new constitution and the aspect of Gacaca

Not realizes

Objectives 2: To develop the capacity of analysis of the laws; strategies of the policies

within the framework of the vision 2020

Activities in court not realize

Indicator of evaluation

Observation

To organize a seminar centered on the techniques of communication with the basic authorities and the private sector and to negotiate the "hot line for the gender"

Program council (Inama Njyanama), to identify the operation of the Parliament and the RWPF;

Not realizes

To document itself on the Web site of the Parliament on the progression of the gender in Rwanda

The text of the FFRP is not put on the Web site

Not realizes

To organize seminars and other frameworks of discussed and exchanges with the CNF, the public sector, the civil company and other partners

Meet with the committee of the CNF and the civil company

Not realizes

To integrate dimension gender in the plans of the RWPF and budget of the Parliament

The contents reflect the comparative impact of the men and the women

Not realizes

Objectives 3: Development of the laws sensitive to the gender

Activities in court not realize

Indicator of evaluation

Observation

To analyze according to the gender, bills' initiated by the government

Laws sensitive to the gender, respected on all the levels

Not realizes

To organize executives of experience sharing with the members of Parliament of the other countries on the analysis of the laws and the policies in a perspective gender,

The contents reflect in particular the regional forum of the members of Parliament as regards integration of the significant gender;

Not realizes

Objectives 4: Control gender of the governmental action and budget

Activities in court not realizes

Indicator of evaluation

Observation

To apply the tools for analysis gender in the budgetary analysis;

The budget of the central government and those of the authorities decentralized in the integration of the aspect gender,

Not realizes

To control the budget of the gender in the implementation of the constitutional provisions

The contents reflect the new constitution in its entirety in particular by respecting article 9

Not realizes

To analyze the inventory of fixtures genders of various reports/ratios present at the Parliament

Institutions having transversely gender like the office of Ombudsman, commission of Humans right, commission of the unit and reconciliation

Not realizes

To collaborate with the RWPF in the plea to make a thorough academic training in gender,

The present reflects the expertise in kind available for the men and the women

Not realizes

Source: Resulted from investigations (September 2007), works out to report/ratio of strategic plans of the RWPF (Septembre2005)

4.2. Great achievements of District of Huye

Our study with target the medium locates on the named geographical part "District of Huye" as was determined by the law No 29/2005 of the 23/12/2005 modifying and fixing the administrative structures of Rwanda, such as precise in the Official Journal special number of the 23 /12/2005. The District of HUYE is composes of 4 sectors is 16 cells by the known as law mentioned.

The socio-demographic aspects of the District of HUYE are of 500 habitants/km2. The male population is higher compared to the female population. In June 2007 the District of HUYE gave the figure of 290677 people on the whole including 131033 and 159644 men. However female manpower is lower than that of the men. In 2002 the general census of the population and the inhabitant with shown that the women were 36306 against 40911 men81(*). While in December 2003, the total staff complement were 77217 people whose 36106 women and 41343 men. 82(*)

4.2.1. Principal geographical characteristics

4.2.1.1 General aspect

Huye is one of the 8 Districts which make the Province of the south; it is consisted 14 sectors: Mbazi, Kinazi, Simbi, Maraba, Rwaniro, Rusatira, Huye, Gishamvu, Mukura, Ruhashya, Tumba, Kigoma, Ngoma, Karama. The general characteristics of the District are gathered in table No 11

4.2.2. SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE SITUATION

The socio-economic situation is presented under these aspects: the sector of the human development

4.2.2.1. Sector of the human development

4.2.2.1.1. Demographic data

The total population of the District of Huye is of 290 677 inhabitants who are divided in the sectors as table No 12 shows it below.

Table No 11. Pattern of the settlement by sector

SECTOR

TOTAL POPULATION

MALE SEX

FEMALE SEX

% FEMALE SEX

1. MBAZI

25 525

10 544

14 981

58.6

2. KINAZI

18 450

7 948

10 502

56.9

3. SIMBI

22 876

10 822

12 054

52.7

4. MARABA

22 595

10 942

11 653

51.6

5. RWANIRO

21 290

9 814

11 476

53.9

6. RUSATIRA

27 017

13 464

13 553

50.2

7. HUYE

19 392

8 508

10 884

56.1

8. GISHAMVU

11 955

5 185

6 770

56.6

9. MUKURA

15 963

7 332

8 631

54.1

10. RUHASHYA

18 156

7 960

10 196

56.1

11. TUMBA

23 666

11 033

12 633

53.4

12. KIGOMA

18 557

 8 477

10 080

54.3

13. NGOMA

13 465

5 558

7 907

58.7

14. KARAMA

31 770

13 446

18 324

57.7

 TOTAL

290 677

131 033

159 644

54.9

Source: Data produced by the Sectors (June 2007

This table shows that, in the pattern of the settlement of the District of Huye by Secteur, Karama is the sector more populated with 11% of the total population of the District, Gishamvu being less populated with 4%. In addition, one notices through all the sectors, which there are more women than men.

4.2.3. Gender and Promotion of the Woman

In the field of the gender and Promotion of the family, the District of Huye already crossed a remarkable step because one lays out, at all the levels (cells, sectors and Imidugugu), of organizational structures of the women who exploit a great part in the mobilization of the women the national policies in progress; in addition, the women are integrated in the institutions of decision-making. They are organize in associations of mutual aid and promotion of generating activities of incomes such as the small trade, the breeding of the smaller live-stock, the craft industry, especially the manufacture of the carpets, the manufacture of bricks and agriculture.

4.2.3.1. Analyze of problems, causes and consequences

Tableau No 12: Analyses of problems, causes and consequences of the Promotion of the

Woman

ANALYZES OF THE PROBLEMS ATTACHED TO THE

DISTRICT

PROBLEMS

CAUSES

CONSEQUENCES

· Financial inaccessibility,

· Geographical inaccessibility to the care of primary health of part of the population,

· Insufficiency of the quality of the women sensitizes formation trainer

· Lack of information and training of the majority of the women,

· Resistance to change of mentality,

· Insufficient family income

· Insufficiency of the budget allocated with the women,

· Bad planning and family management of the persons in charge for the structures,

· Increase in the rate of fruitfulness by the woman.

· Increase in the rate of morbidity and maternal and infantile mortality,

· Reduction in the life expectancy to the birth,

· A high number of the population which dies following paludism, the infections of the respiratory tracts and the diarrheas diseases,

· Increase in the number of the infected people of the VIH/SIDA and tuberculosis

· Increase in the number of the children,

· A high number of the women who are confined in residence.

Source: Results of investigations of district of Huye (September 2007)

Table No 13: Analyses of the forces, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of

the promotion of the woman in the sector

ANAYSES OF THE PROBLEMS ATTACHED TO

SECTORS

FORCES

FAIBLESSES

OPPORTUNITES

MENACES

· Existence of the organizational structures of the women

· Existences of the laws on the protection of the women

· Political good-will in the fight against violence

· Existence of associations of the promotion of the woman

· Existence of a forum of the women leaders,

· Existence of the funds of the women

· The organizational Structures of the women are not functional;

· Decentralization of financial means no effective

· A great number of the proportion of the women

· Educational level

Very low

· Consequences of

Genocide

· Pandemic of

VIH/SIDA

Poverty

Source: Results of investigations of district of Huye (September 2007)

4.2.4. Identification of the priorities identified by the District of HUYE

On the basis of the analysis and taking into account the priorities identified by the district like their potentialities and constraints; the promotion of the women of the aforesaid district was identified like below:

v To reinforce the capacities of the responsible women;

v To ensure does the protection of the woman against the rape and any form of discrimination practice with the regard;

v To reinforce the capacities of the organizational structures of the women;

v To reinforce the financial capacities of the women;

v To organize seminar aiming at reinforcing the know-how of the women in the decision-making.

4.3. POSSIBLE SOLUTION

4.3.1. Opinion of the women to meet risks of blocking of them

Table N 14: the participation of the woman in the administration

Factors handicap the responsibility for the woman

Women of Huye District

Parliamentary women

Frequencies

%

Frequencies

%

Are there social currently rules in connected with the gender?

12

100%

15

100%

As do you hear by the national policy?

10

83%

15

100%

Does your family statute cut have certain incidence?

6

50%

12

80%

Are there actions carried out by the women for the monarchical period?

11

92%

8

53%

How have you reaches the stations occupy before?

10

83%

7

47%

Source: Results of investigations of District of Huye and RWPF, (September 2007)

According to the results obtained in table above; have remark that in general, 100% of the Women of District of Huye and 100% of the parliamentary women; answering affirm that currently rules social handicap the woman always exist. Carried out surveys majority marked that in much of family, that only the husband makes the decision by saying that the husband is the chief of the hearth and that the opinions of the woman is not effective.

These investigations show that no woman can make a decision without having consults her husband, which shows "Nta nkokokazi ibika isake ihari" (no hen makes cock-a-doodle-doo in the presence of cock), answering them of the women of the aforesaid district and the W.P always show how these rules social are still very complied with in the Northern center of Rwanda and the Southern of Rwanda.

All these expensive actions put the woman at the beginning in a situation of inferiority in the decision-making within its hearth and confer ipso facto to the man. Concerning family statutes related to the woman, 100% of the women of District and 100% of the parliamentary women affirm that their family statutes do not cause problems with the social services. For more share of answering of the aforesaid District often point the Parliament or 48, 8% of its members, are women.

In more they affirm that female associations were created in high manpower. To the question of knowing the principal causes how the W.P. elected with the last elections of 2003 have arrived to occupy the parliamentary places, 47% of our answering affirm that more of them were pushed by the political good-will, political party etc.

Probably the women leaders of district affirm that 83% of them made contests at the stations currently occupy, nevertheless 17% affirm that they were named according to the national policy of the gender, which wants the equality of right between the two sexes. Acting an action of know-how carried out by the women during the old monarchical time, 50% of our answering of Huye District, and 80% of the W.P show that before the King, sovereign supreme of the country, in the administration was made help by the usual chiefs of the various provinces of the country.

The woman did not miss within this administration, since already the Queen-mother was the first adviser of the King her son, they assumed at the sides of her son, all the administrative responsibilities. Inquired carried out, prove that the women in general affirm that NDABAGA and NYAGAKECURU are figures in a list of ten women Abatware (Den mothers) and Ibisonga.

However our answering affirmed us that at the time contemporary, Rwanda expressed its will to follow the political lines such as were recommended by the fourth conference of Beijing. They have show that the woman in all the fields must have same the chances and the same possibilities as those offered to the man to reach a certain level of development as well as an integrated and equitable justice. This stage will involve then the change of mentality of know-how to crosspiece the vision 2020.

4.3.2. Opinions of the women leaders of District of Huye

Table No15: Opinions of the women leaders of District of Huye to the actions carried

out by the parliamentary women

Problems meetings

principales Causes

Frequencies

Percentages

01

Miss sufficient information and formation on the national policies, laws and payment

6

50%

02

Resistances to change of mentality

4

33%

03

Existence or increase in a number of cases of violence's sexual servants of the women in particular

8

67%

04

Miss equity in the management of the family inheritance

9

75%

05

The concept kind included/understood not yet well by the community and even of most of the woman

7

58%

06

Economic capacity of the women limited

10

92%

07

Incompetence of intellectual mentality

11

83%

08

The organizational structures of the women are not functional

11

92%

Source: Results of investigations (September 2007)

The investigation into table above shows that 6 women, i.e. 50% finds that the lack of information and formation constitute an obstacle of instruction to face the challenges of the durable development of their country. Finally it would fall on the W.P to develop the topic of the networks of information.

It is by these sources of information and formation that the women will learn the rights which theirs are devoted by the law, the inequalities which they undergo and if need be there is, to claim the improvements in the first case, and of suppressions in the second case in order to found the best conditions of access to justice.

However the majorities of the women interviewed by questionnaires 4 women, I.e. 33% acknowledged that the resistance of change of mentality of the old Rwandan habit involved such a design that the man believes himself higher and that the woman remains subjected to the yoke of the man.

Woman who wants to be released called Igishegabo83(*) (shameless woman which behaves like a man) and the man who wants to be made release with equal from his wife will be called Inganzwa (husband subjected to the authority of the woman).

From where the saying Nta jambo Ry' umugore (the woman does not have has to say) must be cleaned in the mentality of the men.84(*) By the way for instance, the women during the family ceremonies, themselves seating with the corner or the withdrawn room, whereas the man took the place with the living room, in the same way the woman to lie down, to put itself more towards the side of wall and that the man puts himself just, towards the side of the door. All this undervaluation must be cleaned in their mentality, which maintains it in a state of complex of inferiority.

From here we notice that the W.P must sensitize the Gender for the promotion of equity and equality. The lack to encourage it with spoken as a public while discussing with men and other women, access to information, ignorance and socialization prevented these last to be taken an active part in the public assemblies, because they were accustomed has to speak indirectly by the means of another person preferably as a man.

These obstacles mentioned continued to slow down the achievement of the objectives of the RWPF. Through this table above, the surveyed women of the aforesaid District, the existence or increase in the number of cases of violence's domestic and sexual rapes of the women in particular, 8 women, is 67% show that sexual violence's are very serious in the spheres of District.

They explained the case of certain violated women thus chose not to be made examine by a doctor, of fear of discovering that they had caught the virus of the AIDS.85(*) Indeed the women of District could encourage their colleagues to put it together to break insulation, of frustration and trauma, to fight about it against domestic violence; they in particular planned to continue the efforts of popularization of the laws and formations of the agents of District in charge of the application.

Indeed the law recognizes violence as can be physical, sexual, psychological, economic or sociocultural. The lack of justice and the fact of not punishing what have violated the human rights were the major cause, which is, repeats of 1962 to 1994. By the initiative of the RWPF the legal system revises the organic law punishing the genocide regards the rapes made with the women lasting the genocide as crime against humanity. Thus the authors of sexual tortures appear in the first category as well as the thinkers and the planners of the genocide within the framework to be a judge in front of the TPIR and the national jurisdictions and the Gacaca jurisdictions. 86(*)

In addition, 9 surveyed women, i.e. 75% show that equity in the management of family inheritance misses it continue to be a problem, but the law which regularizes the inheritance of the hearth is in force, law which gives the girls and the boys to succeed by share equal, law supplementing the book first civil code and instituting the fifth part relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and successions. Moreover, our investigation with questioned or interviewed 7 women, i.e. 58% affirm that the concept gender is not yet well understood by the population and even of a great part of the woman.

With the process of the development the women must take part and to draw the same advantage from it that the men, support in it the engagement of the national policy of the kind which is articulated around the vision 2020, of the national strategy of reduction of poverty (SNRP) and the policy of decentralization. It is noticed that in spite of their bad understandings the women provided the hand of work and for the first time in the history of Rwanda, they are ridden on the roofs of the houses.

Some ventured to make this kind of work for the first time by pure determination and need to follow. A questioned woman of District in charge of department of gender and promotion of the family, they us affirms that the women currently exert work that the men made, sensitizing continue encourages the women of sectors to invest themselves in multiples work with equal of the man, most remarkable is that the women test carried out the tasks hard that the men are not in measurement.

Indeed, 9 women, i.e. 75% people interviewed, proven that the Rwandan legislation before 1994, did not seem to protect the women's rights relating to the economic87(*) capacity, a woman of District in charge of the social affairs has declared that certain parents die without leaving will. In this case, the female theirs test difficulties in defining the priority successors.

Moreover, the children born out of the marriage have problems of successions after the death of their parents. All things considered in the event of conflict it recommends to note the legal authority, now it is clear is well-clarified new law in force.

Other problems meetings, 10 questioned women, i.e. 83% affirm that the mechanisms snuffed by the government are not sufficient in the reinforcement of the know-how of the Rwandan woman, they affirm that the State must allocate the budgets for facilitate with the forum parliamentary women sensitized the women with the experiments of their life and plan what it is necessary to do in the next years. Finally according to the investigation, 11 women i.e. 92% testify that the organizational structures of the women of District are not functional.

The difficulties which are observed has such declare the people interviewed, whom the women must change the marital status so that to be competitive in all the fields with the generating activities of income in the regional integration of the Community of the East Africa.

4.3.3. Opinions of the Parliamentary Women Like results of changes of

Mentalities of the women implied in the basic authorities

Table N16: Opinion of the actions carried out by the F.P

Mission of the FFRP

Actions stratégiques menées par FFRP

Frequencies

Percentages

01

To imply in the revision and the abrogation of the laws which still contain exclusions and of discrimination against the women,

14

93%

02

Sensitized the Parliament so that the budget of the women in particular in the reinforcement of their intellectual ability was voted,

15

100%

03

To reinforce the capacities of the parliamentary women on the level of the Parliament,

13

87%

04

To identify the lived problems in particular women in bringing solutions there;

14

93%

05

Follow-up of the resolutions and recommendations with regard to the women in particular with the adoption of legislation suitable

12

80%

Source: results of investigation (September 2007)

In the above table 14 women, i.e. 93 % acknowledged that the revision and the abrogation of the laws, which contain exclusions, and of discrimination against the women, more these laws were revises by the Parliament. In addition to the, RWPF organized seminar on the development of bills. It is true of saying that one of challenges with which the women are confronted is the threat of physical violence, sexual, emotional and psychological or traumatism based on the patriarchate.

All things considered of other seminars launched by the RWPF88(*) were to integrate the female gender in the new constitution of Rwanda. RWPF has organizes another seminar in frank collaboration with the interparliamentary union under the financial support of the United Nations. The above table, 15 women, i.e. 100% affirm that the budget is voted annually by the government basically it's the mechanism taken lastly for the reinforcement of the capacity of the know-how of the Rwandan women.

In all the undertaken activities, 14 parliamentary women, i.e. 93% have us affirm that the FFRP did many the satisfactory things bring to the women solutions such as:

v Allocated funds of assistance to genocide (FARG);

v Ensures the school fees the orphans, the contribution of the residences for, supports the generating activities of income, given trainings on the resolution of the conflicts in the four provinces of the country;

v Does plea and to make the political pressure so that the organic law punishing the genocide, the crime against the rape pass from the fifth category to the first gathering the thinkers and from the planners of the genocide;

v In does collaboration with the MIGEPROF, it a work out a bill relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and the successions, adopted by the Parliament in June 1999;

v Other facts, it has form the provincial directors and the secretaries in charge of the kind as well as the technicians of the province on the planning of the gender, it made pressure in the sensitizing of the Parliament in end that it is voted the annual budget allocated with the good being of the women in the reinforcement of their capacity although the women represent 52%de the national population, this justifies their best representativeness national in the Parliament.

All things considered in the reinforcement of capacity of the parliamentary women on the level of the Parliament, 13 parliamentary women, i.e. 87% affirm to be able to apprehend the budget in the development process, and are actively with the control of the action governmentally.

Amongst other things, they affirm to have the capacity to communicate with the population in order to transmit to him and collect information useful for the accompaniment of their mission. In end, their gained experience allows it to use Internet in the communication and the search for suitable information.

These percentages mentioned are the best results implying itself in the NEPAD, on the vision 2020 etc. Possibly, 12 questioned W.P, i.e. 80% show that they have were imply in the resolution of conflicts, able to take part in the development of the bills aiming at equity and the equality on the gender. They have us affirm that they collaborated with the institutions of promotion of the woman within the framework of the taking into account of the gender in various laws.

4.3.4. The strategic means has to take to overcome these difficulties

4.3.4.1. To develop the capacity of plea

v To create a framework of partnership enters the RWPF and the women of district and other structures of CNF sitting sectors;

v To create a direction in each district charged with "Forum of the promotion of GENDER"

v To support the RWPF to create with each district a network ICT in all the provinces of Rwanda.

4.3.4.2. To develop the confidence of the women in themselves

v Allocated funds with the W.P better organized formations on the development of personal optics for the women who are in the decision-making;

v To organize the study trips inside and country,

v To sensitize periodic meetings, with the women of district in order to cause an exchange of the experiments.

4.3.4.3. To reinforce the will of the women to know and enjoy their right

v To diffuse convention on the elimination of any form of discrimination with regard to the woman;

v To carry out a public awareness campaign on the law, relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and successions;

v To sensitize the women to follow the application of reduction of poverty, in end of makes sure that the prospects for kind lead to the concrete results;

v To encourage the women to take measures to eliminate the traditional ways of thinking which, make obstacles with the education of girls and the women in particular; to sensitize in did the State and the political party with the capacity, to continue urgently reinforce the importance that increase education as that right of the person and means for the women of taking their destiny in hand;

v To conduct a campaign to the government and RWPF to take care that the rural and urban women can profit from the projects of various types and that the most vulnerable women in particular forming part of various ethnic groups To sensitize the government in order to install special mechanisms aiming to eliminate any obstacle handicaps the woman of access to justice and to take special measures in collaboration with the commission of the humans right and of administrative justice to inform the women on their rights etc.

4.3.4.4. To integrate the use of the media circuits and other services of

Information

The use of the media circuits and other sources of information remain crucial tools for the action of promotion of the women's rights Rwandan, the problem remains the access of the woman to these tools. The W.F should be interested in the communication networks which theirs are offered such as the media means which their allow a broad diffusion of information like newspapers whose they are the object. And well, let us agree us that currently almost all the Rwandan media opened a space for the woman where they analyze her situation and plead her cause.

GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

GENERAL CONCLUSION

This research task had as a principal objective to show a retrospective glance finally clearly the objectives laid down at the beginning were reached. Our objective was of analysis the part, which the RWPF during their representativeness played since 1996 until 2006, in particular in the change of mentalities and the reinforcement of intellectual ability of the Rwandan women in particular the women administrators of District of Huye. Like specific objectives, our study, tested these following objectives, it acted of:

v To raise the inherent factors of blocking to the Rwandan women,

v To show the effect of the policy of the parliamentary women on the changes of mentality of the women administrators implied in the basic authorities

v To release the strategic means to overcome the difficulties.

To arrive there, we needed to make a research centered on the following question: "Which are the consequences of the policy of the RWPF on the development of the gender in the District of Huye during the period of 1996 to 2006" To undertake our study well, we used like discussion thread of the ideas, through the following assumption: "does the policy of the RWPF constitute one of the best means of integrating the development of the gender into the District of Huye"?

v To check our assumption, we have been used for of various methods and techniques of research previously speak within the theoretical framework. However, the data of research collected come from the investigations to carry out near 15 parliamentary women (that is to say 10 appointed women and 5 women senators), surveyed by questionnaire, and carried out differently accommodated 12 women administrators of District of Huye exerting various functions. On the whole our study has investigations 27 women coming from the 2 bodies (either 15 last surveyed parliamentary women and 12 women responsible for known as District).

v However, it is quite imperial show that the results of the investigation have show that, 80% of the women affirmed that "the policy of the parliamentary women is one of better means of the changes of mentalities of the women implied in the basic authorities". These results are:

Ø Firstly during the ten last years, the women of the basic authorities expressed like exemplary leaders as well at the political level Community.

Ø Secondly, parliamentary women as the representative undertook concrete activities such as carrying assistance to the orphans, to adopt them and provide a support for the victims of famine and flood and to have the unit like their ultimate goal?.

Ø Thirdly, the parliamentary women could together make pressure and influence the promulgation of laws.

Ø Fourthly, they still could make pressure the pleading for the women's rights and the equality between the two sexes.

Ø Fifthly, they have shows the capacity to set up bodies of the women who were later known under the name of adviser National of the Women known in the new constitution of 2003.

Ø In end, they could contribute to the national policies such as the vision 2020, PRSP, the national policy on the gender and much of other fields of capital interest such as the new constitution.

The strategic means to release to overcome its difficulties is:

On the level of District it was creates a department in charge of the problems of the gender, however the public awareness campaigns must be especially to reinforce and organized to encourage a strong participation of the women in the basic authorities, for this purpose, the national university and the private universities offer also to courses of the evening attended by a significant number women, to enable them to acquire a formation making them able to contribute for stations of decision-making, Finally, it was created in July 2002, a committee of follow-up of Beijing +5 for the promotion of the woman.

Acting of challenges which to decrease successes of the parliamentary women our assumption tested the following:

Through the answered questionnaires, one noted that the women certainly achieved or contributed much of meetings on ground in the sensitizing of the women administrators of the basic authorities for the reinforcement of their intellectual ability; but much of challenges remain to surmount so that they can exploit their full potential and become the agents of a lasting peace in the area of large the lakes on the development of gender.

The challenges on the development of gender which one identified can be grouped in various categories, which are allotted to the women themselves, and their environment. In general terms, the challenges are underline below:

v The insufficiency of the personnel currently in place in regard with the activities planned by the RWPF; the insufficiency of funds to carry out the activities planned by the RWPF puts in an uncomfortable situation and of uncertainty.

v The feminization of poverty; the low level of Community education in particular the woman;

v The low level of education of the women; the increasing incidence of the HIV; the risk of instability political in the area of large the lakes;

v The unfavorable sociocultural environment characterizes by the slow evolution of mentalities and the resistance to change at some, compared to the equality and the equity of gender;

v The no voluntary omission of the respect of the equality and equity according to the constitutional provision (article 9, subparagraph 4), due to the tradition and the patriarchal system;

v The institutional mechanisms and technical capabilities still little develop as regards analysis gender and of integration of the gender in the national laws, the policies, the programs, the action plan and the budgets;

v The action plan and diary of the National Council of the Women no known and not disseminated for knowledge and application with the limits as for the provisions relating to operations and no just in and the diary action plans of the Cells, the sectors, the districts, the provinces and ministries.

RECOMMENDATION

To reach, this finality, we make a point of making these recommendations:

The Rwandan woman as the pillar impossible to circumvent of the development of the vision 2020, must have the same chances and the same possibilities as those offered to; the man to be able to reach a certain level of development as well as an integrated and equitable justice.

To arrive at its full legal blooming and to tear off certain rights of which it missed since beautiful period, it must encounters a great number of obstacles is natural related to the habit and with the practice which disadvantaged always it, that is to say with an ignorance and a poverty, which has it characterizes and maintain it in a situation lower than that that the man in the company occupies and this, in all the fields of the life. For an effective political participation of the women, we formulate recommended to the place of the following people:

WITH THE PARLIAMENTARY WOMEN

Ø To organize public awareness campaigns of formation,

Ø to develop mechanisms of seminar in multiple recoveries encourage the women of stand as candidates to the political activities and other fields of leadership,

Ø To improve the communication system supporting the free expression in front of the public, to be worthy and exemplary in all their daily activities for their subordinate clauses, to note that this will support it has to have the intellectual ability to fight the stereotypes allocated with the men and the women.

WITH THE POLITICAL PARTY FPR-INKOTANYI AND THE RWANDAN

GOVERNMENT

Ø To reinforce the positive values of the Rwandan culture, such as for example bravery, patriotism, the direction of the honor, etc;

Ø To organize and finance formation in favour of the woman;

Ø To create an environment making it possible to the women to ensure their family and professional responsibilities, of the social infrastructures and essential equipment for their full participation in the political, social and economic life;

Ø Assume so that women are sufficiently represented in the local structures and the key authorities of the central government, the Parliament, the legal apparatus, and other layers of the population, so that the legislation and the decisions have suddenly founded it the concept gender in the changes of mentalities and the activities from the Rwandan company.

WITH THE OTHER RESEARCHERS

Work has a presentiment of does not claim to exhaust the subject in connection with the role of the RWPF in the promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman through the vision 2020. No matters what we thought of having achieved our goals in a satisfactory way? This is why for fulfilling our study, we propose like prospect with the other researchers while treating in particular on:

v The Effects of Evaluative study of the contribution of the Rwandan women parliamentary in the promotion of the know-how of the rural woman."

v The role of the woman, in the process of reconciliation and consolidation of peace in Rwanda".

Thus, like encloses recommendation, peace and the reconciliation will guide the high authorities to achieve their total goals, fixed through the vision 2020

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GENERAL WORKS

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du 1 Octobre 1961.

3. BENSANDON, N., Les droits de la femme des origines à nos jours, Paris, 1980.

4. BIGIRUMWAMI. A., Imihango n'imiziririzo, Bruxelles, Tervuren, 1964 

5. BOSSERUP, E., Intégration de la femme au développement : pourquoi, quand, Comment, New York, 1975.

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7. DE BEAUVOIR, S., Le deuxième sexe I. Les faits et les mythes, paris,

Gallimard, 1945.

8. D'HERFELT, A., Les anciens royaumes de la zone inter lacustre méridionale

Rwanda, Burundi, Bohai, Bruxelles, Tervuren, 1962.

9. Y, G. & PERROT. M., Histoire des femmes, Vol 1, 2, 3, 4. Paris, 1991.

10. FPR-INKOTANYI, Imigambi y'umurango, Kigali, 2003.

11. FIERENS. J., & NTAMPAKA. C., Femmes et génocide : le cas Rwandais,

Bruxelles, Rue guimard, 2003,

12. FRANCE, Q., La femme avenir, Paris, 1972.

13. GRAWITZ, M., Méthode des sciences sociales, Paris, Dalloz, 2001.

14. GUILLAUME, H., Peuplement indigène, institutions familiales et régime des

biens au Rwanda Urundi, Paris, Athenaion, 1956.

15. HAGURUKA, La femme rwandaise et l'accès à la justice, 2001

16. HAGURUKA, Dix ans d'existence du 16 juillet 1981 - 16 juillet 2001 : bilan et perspectives, Kigali, 2001.

17. DROY. I, Femme et développement, Paris, Karthala, 1996.

18. COUR.J. M., & SERGE, S., Préparer l'avenir de l'Afrique de l'Ouest : une

vision à l'horizon 2020, Paris, 1998.

19. MIFOTRA, Recensement des agents de l'Etat, Kigali, Décembre 1998

20. MINICOFIN, Indicateur du développement : Direction de statique, kigali,

2001

21.. MINECOFIN, Indicateurs de développement du Rwanda : Réduction de la

pauvreté, Kigali, Imprimerie de Kigali, 2000.

22. MINECOFIN, Indicateurs de développement du Rwanda : vers vision 2020,

Kigali, juillet 2001.

23. MINEPRISEC, Histoire du Rwanda, IIème partie, Kigali,1989

24. NTAMPAKA, C., Droits des personnes et de la famille, manuels de droit

rwandais, Kigali, Printer set, 1992.

25. NTAMPAKA, C., La place de la coutume dans la législation rwandaise. Etat

actuel, RJR., n 199, Kigali, 1997.

26. CREPEAU.P., & S. BIZIMANA, Les proverbes du Rwanda, MRAC,

Bruxelles, Tervuren, 1 979, n 3461.

27. QUEMENER, J.M., et BOUVET, E., Femmes du Rwanda, Paris ,Cattleya,

1999.

28. RAK, I., et LARRIEU, P., Des mots pour le savoir, évolution et pédagogie

dans les enseignements généraux et techniques,

Paris, Fouchet, 1994.

29. SADIK.N, Le droit de choisir, Paris, Presse universitaire, 1997

MEMOIRES AND THESES

1. GASANABO.J. D., Mémoire et histoire scolaire : le cas du Rwanda de 1962 à 1994, thèse de doctorat en science de l'éducation, faculté de psychologie et des sciences de l'éducation, thèse No 341, Geneve, 2004

2. HAVUGIMANA, D., La compétence d'attribution des juridictions de l'ordre

judiciaire en droit rwandais, thèse de doctorat, Antwerpen, 1989.

3. MUKAMUGENZI, M, C., Rôle de la femme dans le processus de leadership

Politique rwandais, UNR, 1998.

4. MUHAWYEZU, A., La capacité jurididique des enfants mineurs dans le droit

coutumier et écrit rwandais, mémoire de licence, UNR, Faculté de Droit, Butare, 1978

5. MUSWAHILI, Freins à l'intégration de la femme rwandaise au développement, UNR, 1980.

6. TAWHIRWA, G., Identification des obstacles à la participation des Femmes

rwandaises aux instances de prise de décision, UNR, 2004.

REPORTS/RATIOS

1. ABIYINGOMA Olive, Rapport de stage effectué sur la structure et le fonctionnement des associations féminines dans la province de Butare, UNR, 2003).

2. ASSEMBLEE LEGISLATIVE, Projet de constitution, document n6, Séance

3. FFRP, Rapports de Plan stratégiques du Forum des Femmes Rwandaise

Parlementaires (FFRP), Kigali, Septembre 2005.

4. KOMISIYO Y'IGIHUGU ISHINZWE IBARURA, Kigali, 2005.)

5. MIGEPROF, Politique Ntionale du genre, kigali, version 2003

6. NATIONS UNIES, La condition de la femme, Rapport et document, N 64, New York, 1986.

7. THE UNITED NATIONS, Report/ratio of the 4th world conference of the

woman, Beijing in September 1995, Brussels, 1996

8. UNION INTERPARLEMENTAIRE, Rapport et document N 41, Genève,

2002.

LEGAL TEXTS

1. Loi du 24 août 1962 portant organisation et compétence judiciaire en J.O. Kigali, 1962.

2. Loi n 03/97 du 19 mars portant création de bureau d'avocat au Rwanda, J.O.No8, Kigali, 1997.

3. Communique de presse de l'Union Interparlementaire N 175, Kigali, du 22 Octobre 2000.

4. La loi no 22/99 du 12/11/1999 complétant le livre premier du code civil et instituant la cinquième partie relative aux régimes matrimoniaux, aux libéralités et aux successions, J.o., 1999.

5. INteko Magazine, J.O. No 35, Avril 2007

6. La nouvelle Relève NO 376, Kigali, juillet 2006.

7. Agreement of peace of Arusha between the Government of the Rwandan

Republic and the Patriotic Face Rwandan, J.o., 1993.

NATIONAL LEGISLATION

1. La nouvelle Constitution de la République du Rwanda, du 4 juin, 2003.

2. la première constitution de la République Rwandaise du 24 Novembre 1962.

INTERNET SITES

1. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journ%C3%A9e_internationale_des_Femmes du

11/Septembre/2007,( octobre 2007)

2. http://webetab.acbordeaux.fr/Etablissement/SudMedoc/ses/1999/parit_00.htm

(13 /septembre/ 2007)

3 http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syndrome_d%27immunod%C3%A9ficience_acquise#_note-0 du (15 Septembre 2007)

APPENDIX

* 1 George Duby & Michelle Perrot, F Histoire des femmes, Vol 1, 2, 3, 4, Paris 1991, P.234.

* 2 France, Q, La femme avenir, paris, 1972, p.26

* 3 France, Q, Id. P.27

* 4 France, Q, id., P.27

* 5. According to A. Bigrumwami, imihango imiziririzo, Tervuren, Brussels, 1964; I Jacob, Dictionary Rwandan-French, volume 3, Vo gutsinda, 1965, p.393; quoted by FIERENS. J. & Ntampaka. C, femme et génocide: le cas Rwandais, Street guimard, Brussels, 2003, p.65, affirmed that, "Nta nkoko kazi ibika isake ihari (no hen makes cock-a-doodle-doo in the presence of cock)," In the olden days, the respect due to the woman in the traditional company was often conditioned by its morals qualities, by the numbers of his/her children, its integration in its new family and by the tender with the husband. In theory the woman personally carries out the acts essential with the life such as: raise the children, plows, harvest, prepares food and communicates its power fertilizing with the seeds which it plants (..), in theory it is to him prohibited with the woman to jump, to span a brook, to go up on a stool to collect the coffee, to climb on the roof of the hut. In the everyday life of the rules, a woman could never pronounce the name of the parents-in-law, the father, of the mother, uncles and aunts of her husband. In reality the woman was not unaware of the name of beautiful - parents. Vis-a-vis to her superiority, the woman followed in practice gestures without saying a word. Its ways of thinking entered the traditional logic of the women which obliged with the last of draft a subject in round in ensuring itself not to wound anybody.

* 6 The law n° 22/1999 of 12/11/1999 bearing on the marriage settlements, Freedoms and the successions on the women's right and of the girl to Rwanda established the equality between the sexes as regards succession. The Rwandan ones started to fight to make it respect. Thus they reclaimed today high and strong the heritage of their parents, succession of their husband or the management of the family inheritance that the law recognizes to them. While having from now on of her inheritance or her heritage, the woman is not exclusively any more subjected to the will of her husband consider like her only safety, it has already understood that where necessary it can manage her goods and live in peace.

* 7 Bensandon, N, les droits de la femme au développement : pourquoi, Quand, Comment, 1980, P.3.

* 8 According to VADERVEKEN, M., and HERNADEZ, C, (1985), quoted by TWAHIRWA G, Identification of the obstacles to the participation of the Rwandan Women in the authorities of decision-making, UNR, 2004, p.40

* 9 NATIONS UNIES, la condition de la femme, Rapport et Document, Numéro 64, New York, 1986, P.3.

* 10 Simon de Beauvoir, le deuxième sexe I, les faits et les mythes , 1945, p.109

* 11Simon de Beauvoir, idem, p.45.

* 12 Madame Staël was born in France-Paris in April 22, 1766 - died at July 14, 1817. She was the daughter of the prominent Swiss statesman Jacques Necker.

* 13 Ney Bensandon, les droits de la femme au développement : pourquoi, Quand, Comment New York, 1980, p.18.

* 14 According to: ``The Latin Americana Women' S Group (1983), quoted by AYESHA. M. I., et AMINA.M., sexe, genre et societé, paris, 1997, p.259, confirmed that: In the fight for the reductionism of the oppression of the woman, to believe that by changing world of production, one destroys not only the oppression of the women, but all the design of world, the State, the capacity, the women, the children, education returns to... while reducing it to a rough form economism not to have has to pose the problem, first of all capacity, hierarchy and vertical structure of our political organizations..., and the capacity that our dear comrades men have throughout the histoire'

* 15 Isabelle D, Femme and development, Paris, karthala, 1996, p.82-83

* 16 http://webetab.ac-bordeaux.fr/Etablissement/SudMedoc/ses/1999/parit_00.htm (13 September 2007)

* 17 Interparliamentary Union, Report/ratio and document, Number 41, Geneva, 1995, P.7.

* 18 Grawittz, Mr., Methods of social sciences, 11th edition, Paris Dalloz, 2001, p.351.

* 19 Bourgeois, R.; Banyarwanda et barundi, t.z, la coutume, Bruxelles, 1954, p.146

* 20 ADRIAENSSENS, J., la parenté, le mariage, la famille au Rwanda, Butare, 1964, p.148

* 21 FIERENS. J and NTAMPAKA.C, idem. p.84, quoted that, the Rwandan ones are convinced that the force of a family comes mainly from the capacity of the woman to manage it and to make it prosperity. Generally, no decision of some importance is made without its opinion being necessary as a preliminary. Nothing obliges the husband to do it, but that depends on its relationship with his wife and the confidence which they have one in the other.

* 22 QUEMENER, J.M. et BOUVET, E., Femmes du Rwanda, éd. Paris, Catlleya, 1999, P. 16.

* 23 D'HERTEFELT, A., Les anciens royaumes de la zone interlacustre méridionale au Rwanda, Burundi Boha, Bruxelles Tervuren, 1962 p.62

* 24 25 D'HERTEFELT, A., idem, p.63

* 26 In 1896, King Musinga Yuhi V replaced King Mibambwe IV Rutalindwa in the famous coup

d'Etat of Rucunchu.

* 27 NDABAGA, girl of NYAMUTEZI, born in Bwishaza in 1700, which went to replace his/her father

in the camp of field-of-battles

* 28HAGURUKA, Ten years of existence of July 16 1981, July -16, 2001; assessment and perspectives, Kigali, 2001, pp.44-67

* 29 HAVUGIMANA, D., La compétence d'attribution des juridictions de l'ordre judiciaire en droit

rwandais, thèse de doctorat, Bruxelles, Antwerpen, 1989, p.52

* 30 According to KAGAME, A. (1975) quoted by GASANABO. J D., Mémoire et histoire scolaire : le cas du Rwanda de 1962 à 1994, thèse de doctorat en science de l'éducation, thèse No 341, Geneva, pp. 64-65, 2004, known as that, Jean-Paul Harroy was a general Vice-governor of Ruanda-Urundi (1955-1962) and Colonel Guy Logiest was Resident special of Ruanda (1959-1962). It is on July 1 1962, which the Belgian flag was brought and the Rwandan flag hoists. Rwanda thus covered its independence "temporarily put out of night light, arbitrarily confiscated, by the coloniser" Indeed, the European administration with exchange neither the name nor the borders of the country.

* 31 The mwami (KING) played a part of saver of the nation, particularly at the time of the crises: political wars, competitions or internal conflicts. It was frequent that the king sacrifices himself while going ahead of the danger; at the time of battles for example, but also while committing suicide or while letting themselves "assassinate" and replace by another if Abirus, the ritualists of the Court, decided that it was necessary to the safeguard of the kingdom.

* 32 Haguruka, la femme rwandaise et l'accès à la justice, Kigali, 2001, p. 88

* 33 The Rwandan State by its constitutions of 1962, 1978 and 1991 recognizes equality of the man and the woman in front of the law and consequently the same rights with regard to the electorate and eligibility for the political stations. It is what confirms article 16 of the constitution of November 24, 1962 (J.o of December 01, 1962); article 16 of the constitution of December 20, 1978 (J.o. 1978, No 24 (a), article 16 of the constitution of June 10, 1991 (J.o, 1991).

* 34 The first Rwandan constitution of Republic of November 24, 1962 quoted by Muswahili, freins à l'intégration de la femme rwandaise au développement, Butare- UNR, 1980, p.20

* 35 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA C, idem, p.65, quoted some women be qualities are: Mrs. Pascasie Masengesho, Miss Félicula Nyiramutarambirwa, Mrs. Béatrice Ntahobari, Sister Agnes Twagiramariya, Miss Athanasie Nzacahinyeretse, Miss Janvière Baziyaka, Mrs. Stéphanie Nsengiyunva Kankundiye, Victoire Balinda Nyirarenzaho, Gaudence Nyirasafari, Consolata Nyiraminani, Immaculée Nyirabizeyimana... They also appeared under representing "integrated movement" of the militant women for the development, (Urunana rw' abanyarwandakazi driven majyambere) [URAMA], caused tardily by single party MRND in 1988.

* 36 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA C, idem, p.66, in the central government, under the first Republic, only one woman reached the rank of minister in January 1964. Madeleine Ayinkamiye, and directed the ministry for the socials businesses. Transform in ministry for health in November 1965, it yielded it... to her husband, Sixte Butera. Let us announce that this eminent woman, originating in Ruhengeri, was the sister of colonel extremely important Bonaventure Ntibitura.

* 37 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA C, idem, p.66, quoted that, Mrs. Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, old Minister for the family, is accused of participation in the Genocide in front of the TPIR, Mrs. Agnès Ntamabyariro, ex-minister of justice, was kidnapped in Zambia and was transferred to Rwanda by the services from safety, it held in Kigali to be accused in the genocide. Mrs. Kamatamu adviser of the Muhima sector, was condemned on July 17, 1998 by the court of Kigali to the death penalty and perpetual and total civic degradation; to also see court of the first authority of Gitarama; MP C BIZIMANA R.P.73/GT/CH.S/2/99; November 5, 1999; Court of first authority of Gitarama, MPc/MUKANGANGO; 24/05/1999, R.PNO 35/GT/CH.S/1/98; Court of Appeal of Ruhengeri, MP c/MUKANTAGARA, June 30 1998

38NTAMPAKA, C., La place de la coutume dans la législation rwandaise : Etat actuel, RJR, Numéro 199, Kigali, 1997, P.20

* 39 Presidency of the Republic, organization of the Rwandan Police headquarters of 1960 to our days, July 1983, idem, by MUKAMUGENZI, M. C Rôle de la femme dans le processus de leadership politique rwandais de 1962 à 2002, licencié en science politique ,UNR, 2002,p .45

* 40 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA. C, idem, p.172, the advent of the multi-party system integrate three women in the ministerial cabinet of April 16, 1992: Agnes Ntamabyariro, member of the party liberal and originating in Kibuye; Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, member of the MRND and originating in Butare; Agathe Uwiringiyimana, member of the MDR (Republican Democratic Movement) and originating in Butare. In the 2nd government of transition from July 1993, Agathe Uwiringimana reached the functions of Prime Minister and was assassinate as we said, April 7, 1994 in the morning, from the very start of the phase of massacres which followed making an attempt it against the presidential plane.

* 41 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA. C idem Agathe UWIRINGIYIMANA, professor of secondary education and president of the MDR in Butare, knew an extremely fast political ascendance. It was named Minister for primary education Teaching and secondary on April 16, 1992 in the first pluri part government, it became Prime Minister on July 18, 1993. Its personal engagement, its frankness, its simplicity of its contact with the population introduced a rupture with the usual characteristics of the experienced national politicians

* 42 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA. C ibidem, Pauline NYIRAMASUHUKO, Prime Minister for the MRND and president of the MRND originating in Butare, in the businesses national policy it was inexperienced completely unknown of the public and of policies circle, much caused was renewed in the government on July 18, 1993, then named in the government of transition to widened base, envisaged by the agreements of peace of Arusha. It was rival of Agathe uwiringiyimana of the opposition of the South.

* 43 NTAMPAKA, C., Droits des personnes et de la famille, manuels de droits rwandais, Printer set, Kigali, 1992, P. 34

* 44 FIERENS. J, et NTAMPAKA.C, idem, p.173, quoted that, Major Rose KABUYE in the history of Rwanda was named prefect of the prefecture of the town of Kigali (PVK) of November 05, 1994 to December 12, 1997. It could show that the equality of the man and the woman as regards public administration was possible.

* 45 FIERENS. J, et NTAMPAKA.c, idem, pp.17-18, In occident, it is only start at the First World War that the women started to take share with the hostilities in a systematic way. By the way one example, in Germany, since 1943, more than one million women were used in the factory of armament. At the same time, 300.000 women formed part of the army of reserve (20.000 in the navy, 130.000 in the Air Force).

In England, at the end of 1943, the female units of the army included/understood 450.000 women, accounting for 9, 39% of the total of the armed forces. During the Second World War, one counted, among the female units of the army: 624 killed, 98 disappeared, 744 wounded and 20 captured. In sovietic Republic, the women took part directly in the conflict, they carried all the weapons, and taken a share direct with all the engagements, as a shooter, marksman, pilot, artillery, etc. It is supposed that nearly a million women fought during the Second World War, including 800.000 in the armed forces and 200.000 in resistance, accounting for 8% of the total of the armed forces. One notices that in a great number of countries, the woman asserted the right to engage ideologically or politically; that implies the harbour due the weapons

* 46 NTAMPAKA, C., idem, p.36.

* 47 In the Rwandan army, the recruitment of the women officers was late; the first three women who integrated the Military Higher School belong with the 16th promotions of the years 1975-77. Symbolically, they came from the three prefectures of the North, in which the originating ones controlled the central capacity. The 17th promotion did not comprise any more that two, including one originating in Gitarama, dominated prefecture of the South In 1994, none of these women officers had not exceeded the rank of major nor did not occupy of function of operational command or a decisional station. The Law of 24 bearing August 1962 organisations and juridiction.

* 48La loi du 24 août 1962 portant organisation et compétence judiciaire

* 49 FIERENS.J, & NTAMPAK.C, ibidem, p.157, affirmed that the current woman from now is thus authorized to take place and to chair the Gacaca courts. In addition, hitherto the participation of the women as "magistrates" in strongly increased and was accepted by the Rwandan company which before had never conferred some capacity to them that it is.

* 50 Haguruka, dix ans d'existence du 16 juillet 1991- 16 juillet 2001, bilan et perspectives, Kigali, 2001, p.50

* 51 La loi No 3/97 journal officiel portant création du bureau d'avocat au Rwanda, kigali, mars 1997, p.42

* 52 NTAMPAKA, C., idem, p.36, quoted that, the only women to have occupied the decision-making jobs within the sitted magistrature are Mukandamage M. Josée vice-president with the supreme court and president of the Court of Auditors since 1999, CYANZAYIRE Aloysie, vice-president of the supreme court and president of the section Gacaca jurisdictions. Since 2000, MURARA Odette, president of the Court of Appeal of Kigali of 1995 to 1999, currently adviser at the supreme court, NTAMABYARIRO Agnes, vice-president of the Court of Appeal of Nyabisindu of the 1985 and MUKANGANGO Auréa vice-president of the court of the first authority of Kigali.

* 53 Legislative Parliament, project of Constitution, documents Number 6, meeting of October 10 1961.

p.50

* 54 FIERENS. J, ET NTAMPAKA.c, idem, pp.177-178. During years 1970, Agathe KANZIGA marry ex-president HABYARIMANA in writing pad was attached to structure "the Rwandan movement female". In its mandate a small group of women eminent established in relation to it in the social school of Karubanda with butare was attached to it, which contributed to the political organization among them appears: NYIRAKAROMBA Beatrice originating in butare, appointed of 1982 to 1989; MASENGESHO Pascasie, originating in Kigali; appointed of 1982 to 1989, Immaculate NYIRABIZEYIMANA, originating in byumba, appointed 1984 to 1994, vice president of the CND, member of the central committee of the MRND, Mukamusoni Catherine, sister of Agathe KANZIGA and Bararengana Séraphin soeur of Habyarimana ex-president.

* 55 Agreement of peace of Arusha, between the government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandan Patriotic Front, Official Journal, Kigali, 1993, p. 25

* 56 FPR- Inkotanyi (Rwandan Patriotic Front - Inkotanyi) is the name given to the political party which engaged the war of October 1990 against the political regime in place of the Former president Juvénal Habyarimana in Rwanda which organized and perpetrated the genocide in Rwanda. The FPR - Inkotanyi currently is on power with the capacity won elections of 2003 by the vote for all.

* 57 FPR-INKOTANYI, Imigambi y'umuryango, Kigali, 2003, p.33

* 58 Bosserup, E, intégration de la femme au développement, pourquoi, quand, comment, New York, 1974,

p.4

* 59 FPR-Inkotanyi, idem, p.34

* 60 After having seen the injustice made to the women the Rwandan government promulgated the Law no22/99 of the 12/11/1999, law, supplementing the book first civil code and instituting the fifth part relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and the successions, J.o., 1999, p.7

* 61 P. CREPEAU et S. BIZIMANA, les proverbes du Rwanda, Bruxelles, MRAC- Tervuren, 1979,

p. 3641

* 62 According to the la Nouvelle Relève No 576, Kigali, from the 03 to July 10, 2006, p.1, Mrs. Zura Karuhimbi, an old woman of District of Ntongwe, in the old province of Gitarama, was acclaimed high and strong to have saved the life of more than 100 pesonnes pursued by Interahamwe and Ex-FAR at the time of the genocide of Tutsi of 1994.

* 63 La Nouvelle Relève, N 376, Kigali, 2006, p.1-2

* 64 In the executive powers, legislature and legal, the government of the national unit , its will to

grant to the women confidence and the respondability to rebuild the nation by naming them at

stations of leardership and respondability in the Rwandan society.

* 65 Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, Kigali, of June 4, 2003, p.

* 6610 the new constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, Kigali, June 4, 2003, p.

* 67 Communicate of press of the Union Interparliamentary, Number 175, Geneva, of October 22

2003.p.9

* 68 MIGEPROF, la politique nationale du genre , version 2003, p.5

* 69 MIGEPROF, idem, p.6

* 70 http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Journ%C3%A9e_internationale_des_Femmes of (11/10/2007), the international day of the women is celebrated on March 8 and finds its origin in the demonstrations of women at the beginning of the XXth century in Europe and in the United States, claiming better working conditions and the voting rights. It was officialized by the United Nations in 1977, inviting each country of planet to celebrate one day for the women's rights. It is one day of demonstrations throughout the world: the occasion to assert the equality, to make an assessment on the situation of the women. Traditionally the groups and associations of militant women prepare demonstrations everywhere in the world, to make succeed their claims, to improve the situation of the women, to celebrate the victories and the projections. The creation of an "international Day of the women" was proposed for the first time in 1910, at the time of the international 2econférence of the socialist women, by Clara Zetkin, (was teaching, journalist and political woman Marxist German. It is a historical figure of feminism. It was born on July 5, 1857 in Wiederau, in Saxony and died in Arkhangelskoïe, close to Moscow, June 20 1933.) and fitted then in a revolutionary prospect.

* 69. According to ARDOINO.J. et BERGER. G., quoted by RAK, I., et LARRIEU, P., des mots pour le savoir, évaluation et pédagogie dans l'enseignement généraux et techniques, Foucher, Paris, 1994, p.24 affirmed that, competence is the together knowledge, know-how, knowledge-to be making it possible to an individual to carry on with effectiveness a given activity. Thus with the general direction, competence is the complex whole of asset, fruits of the experiment is of formation received, bringing up to date natural provisions, allow to achieve tasks and dealt with the problems effectively resulting

* 71 JEAN, M., & SERGE, S., préparer l'avenir de l'Afrique de l'Ouest : une

vision à l'horizon 2020, Paris, 1998, p.65

* 72 MINICOFIN, Indicateurs de développement du Rwanda, Direction de statistique, Kigali, Juillet

2001, p.13

* 73 According to RAK.I, et LARRIEUX.P, des mots pour le savoir, évaluation et pédagogie dans l'enseignement généraux et techniques, Foucher, Paris, 1994, p.19: the Capacity is the whole of acivities to achieve a common goal, in addition to, it an actualization of the aptitude which keeps a very general character in opposition to the competence and which translates concretely into situation.

* 74 According to Grand la Rousse Encyclopédique, Tome 8, Paris, 1963, p.4734,

"The program is the whole of activities to achieve a common goal. In the general direction the definite program is

together the instructions and information necessary with the given execution of operation»

* 75 Report of strategic Action plan of the Rwanda Parliamentary Women Forum (RPWF), Kigali, September

2005, p.29

* 76 According to J.O. Inteko Magazine No 35, April 2007, p.19. City by the RWPF in collaboration

With the Parliament of Rwanda, organized an importance international conference February the 22 and 23 2007 on topics "KIND AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Role of the Parliaments ". With this conference was accommodated Its Excellence Paul Kagame President of the Republic of Rwanda and was honored by the presence with Its Excellence Ellen Johnson Sirleaf the president with Liberia; the very first African woman with being elected by the vote for all. The conference knew the participation of more than 400 delegues, whose only members of Parliament, come from all the corners of the world, Cook islands of the Pacific Ocean and in particular in the area of the Large Lakes.

* 77 RAK, I., et LARRIEU.P., Des mots pour le savoir, évolution et pédagogie dans les enseignements

Généraux et techniques, Paris - fourcher, 1994, p.67

* 78According to the declaration of Beijing, 4 2nd world conference on the women of 1995, paragraph 16 city by SADIK.N, le droit de choisir paris, 1997, p.53, quoted that: the participation of the women in the economic and social development, makes the equality and the full participation, on an equal footing, women and men, as profit agents of a durable development to the service of the individual are conditions essential with the elimination of poverty by means of a constant economic growth of the social development, environmental protection and justice social.

* 79 The United Nations, Report of the 4th world conference of the woman, Beijing (China) in

September 1995, Brussels, 1996, p.86.

* 80 The "Gacaca" meaning public place of meeting, in general on a flat ground with greenery makes agacaca (grass), or the men could discuss the conflicts interesting their village and slice the disagreements between members of the families.

* 81 KOMISIYO Y'IGIHUGU ISHINZWE IBARURA, Kigali, 2005, p.77-79

* 82 ABIYINGOMA Olive, rapport de stage effectué sur la structure et le fonctionnementdes associations

féminines dans la province de Butare, UNR, 2003, p.9

* 83 According to MUHAWEYEZU, A., la capacité juridique des enfants mineurs dans le droit coutumier et écrit rwandais, mémoire de licence, UNR, Faculté de Droit, Butare,

1978, p.25. Announced that the Rwandan common law considered that the woman could never be chief of family. She could not think or to act by itself, it still assimilates to a minor and more humiliating still always an incompetent.

* 84 Indeed, altogether we're conscious that, this traditional design must be entrained in the mentality of the women current; often it was constant that a man either could be president, governor of province, mayor of District or adviser of Sector why not a woman cannot do it? However in time, certain women have been proved their capacity in the exercise of the supreme authority of the country. We stated previously that the Queen-mother could ensure the capacity while the King was a minor, that certain women were a chief of provinces and that they were obeyed by the men, and that a woman was a prefect of prefecture, without complex none. One wonders why these precedents were not observed. This is worth until at our day's well, if one sticks to the results of the elections of the local authorities organized in March 2001. Although many women's had gone as candidates to the elections, little were elected, until the point or the new constitution of June 4, 2003 could eliminate this injustice completely and guaranteed to the woman 30% in all the fields of decision-making.

* 85 According to the http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Syndrome_d%27immunod%C3%A9ficience_acquise#_note-0 of (September 15, 2007) the syndrome of the acquired immunodeficiency, more known under its acronym AIDS or AIDS, is the name of a whole of consecutive symptoms to the destruction of several cells of the immune system by a retrovirus. The AIDS is the last stage of the infection by this virus and finishes by the death of the infected organization of the opportunist continuations of diseases. It is noted that after the events war of 1994 and the genocide, the women or girls do not dare to tell in public their problems, especially in the case of rapes, which often involve in desires pregnancies or convey infections, by fear of betraying their traditional decency under penalty of being banished or being relegated. Consequently this attitude reserve formerly with the girl or the woman is currently reflected in the spheres of Rwanda.

* 86 D'après, GASABO.J. D, op.cit, p.62 « Les juidictions Gacaca » signifie à peu près « justice sur le

Gazon » Created by the organic Law No 40//2000 of bearing 26 January 2001 creation of the Gacaca Jurisdictions and organization of the continuations of the infringements constitutive of the crime of genocide or crimes against the humanity, made between October 1, 1990 and on December 31, 1994 It is in June 1999 that the Rwandan government published a project concerning the jurdiction of Gacaca having the principle of bringing together all the protagonists of the drama: , supposed criminals and having the objective of debate from what occurred, in order to establish the truth, to draw up the list of the victims and to designate the culprits. The debates are framed by "Judges" professional No "Inyangamugayo" elected among the men and the just women of the community, which will have to pronounce the sorrows against culprits.

* 87 The traditional socio-economic structure granted the capacities and the richness to the men. We pointed out that the women or girls were deprived of straight of propriety, they could not inherit nor to acquire goods by an other means. "The question of the equality of kind in our company deserves to be evaluated objectively to be able to stop the strategies necessary for the future development in which the men and the women will be truths actors and recipients. According to us the kind is a question of good governorship, good economic management and respect of right of the person ".

* 88 The traditional socio-economic structure granted the capacities and the richness with the men. We pointed out that the women or girls were deprived of straight of property, they could not inherit nor to acquire goods by, an other means. "The question of the equality of kind in our company deserves to be evaluated objectively to be able to stop the strategies necessary for the future development in which the men and the women will be truths actors and recipients. According to us the gender is a question of good governorship, good economic management and respect of right of the person ".











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