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Class struggle in in dubious battle (1936) by John Steinbeck and Devil on the cross (1982) by Ngugi wa Thiong'o


par Ndiaga SYLLA
Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar - Maitrise 2009
  

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Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar

251658240

Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines

Département de Littératures et Civilisations des Pays de langue anglaise

Mémoire de maîtrise d'anglais

Class struggle in In Dubious Battle (1936) by John Steinbeck and Devil on the Cross (1982) by Ngugi wa Thiong'o

Présenté par Sous la direction de :

Ndiaga SYLLA Dr Oumar NDONGO,

Docteur d'Etat ès Lettres

Année académique 2009/2010

Université Cheikh Anta Diop de Dakar

251662336

Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines

Département de Littératures et Civilisations des Pays de langue anglaise

Mémoire de maîtrise d'anglais

Class struggle in In Dubious Battle (1936) by John Steinbeck and Devil on the Cross (1982) by Ngugi wa Thiong'o

Présenté par Sous la direction de :

Ndiaga SYLLA Dr Oumar NDONGO,

Docteur d'Etat ès Lettres

Année académique 2009/2010

Dedication

This piece of work is dedicated to my parents whose contributions I value dearly. May God grant them long life and fulfillment for their ambitions.

This is also an opportunity to salute the dedication of my two departed teachers (Mr. Diakham, History and Geography teacher, and Mr. Mbodj, French teacher). Both of them taught me at Louga Malick Sall high school.

May Allah grant them eternal peaceful rest.

Acknowledgements

I would like first of all to express my heartfelt thanks and gratefulness to my supervisor Professor Oumar Ndongo for having accepted to supervise this research project.

I must admit that I am highly indebted to him for his benevolence, understanding, and willingness to supervise my work even though everybody knows that supervising M.A theses while performing international responsibilities is not an easy task.

Through the process of writing this MA thesis, I have learnt so many valuable things from him which I hope have contributed positively to enriching the work.

My gratitude to all those who opened my mind to the world, from primary school to university through secondary school.

I would thank Professors of the English department for their enlightened courses and dedication despite the daunting task of serving a community of more than six thousand students.

Finally, I thank my classmates who took time to proofread my text.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

I Introduction

I. Social contexts in both novels

1. Critical social backgrounds and the reasons for the commitment of John Steinbeck and Ngugi wa Thiong'o

2. The protection of the downtrodden in a world of exploitation

II. Class divisions

1. Confrontation between the working and the dominant classes

2. The victimization of the working class

III. Resistance to oppression

1. Emergence of a new leadership

2. The outcome of the struggle as illustrated in both novels

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