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The implementation of web based system for the improvment of good governance in the development of rwandan districts.

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Herménégilde HUNDWITIRO
National University of Rwanda - Bachelor Degree 2009
  

Disponible en mode multipage

i
Dedication

To the God Almighty father
To my dad
To my dearest mom
To my beloved sisters and brothers
To my classmates, friends and relatives

I dedicate this final reeasearch.

HUNDWITIRO Herménégilde

ii
Declaration

I, HUNDWITIRO Herménégilde, hereby declare that this dissertation entitled «The implementation of web based system for the improvement of good governance in the development of Rwandan Districts» is my own work and has not been submitted anywhere for award of any degree.

HUNDWITIRO Herménégilde

Signature

iii
Acknowledgement

The District Invitation to Tender Management Information System (DITMIS) is a research, which was initiated as a final project to submit in the fulfillment of the requirements of the award of Bachelor's Degree in Information Technology Application in Management.

This work has been a result of joint effort from different persons, without whom the completion of this research would not be success. This is the time for me to acknowledge their incomparable help.

First of all, I thank the almighty God who always guide and protect me and make possible what seems to be impossible in my life.

My sincere thanks to Mr. KAGARAMA John Baptista my supervisor for his endless guidance and supervision in the achievement of this work.

A heartfelt to my parents Mr. NZABAHIMANA Jean Bosco and Mrs. MUKAMASABO Béatrice, for their great commitment and invaluable moral and material support, will always be remembered, to my beloved Teachers for their education with endless love and support during my studies.

I wish to extend my deep gratitude to my friends TWAHIRWA Jean Baptiste, KABERA Lambert and HAKIZIMANA Jean Claude for their help, advices, cooperation and encouragement, my sincere gratitude as well.

I am also grateful to my brothers, sisters, relatives and classmates for the cooperation and encouragement, my sincere gratitude as well.

The particular thanks to the Department of Management, the faculty of Economics and Management, the National University of Rwanda and the Rwandan Government. Their support made working on this project possible.

iv
Table of contents

DEDICATION I

DECLARATION II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT III

TABLE OF CONTENTS IV

LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS VI

LIST OF TABLES VIII

LIST OF FIGURES IX

ABSTRACT X

CHAPTER1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1

1.1. INTRODUCTION 1

1.2. THE PROBLEM STATEMENT 1

1.3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 2

General Objective 2

Specific Objective 2

1.4. MOTIVATION AND INTEREST OF THE PROJECT 3

1.5. THE PROJECT QUESTIONS 3

1.6. THE PROJECT HYPOTHESES 4

1.7. SCOPE OF THE PROJECT 4

1.8. METHODOLOGY 4

1.9. ORGANIZATION OF THE PROJECT 5

CHAPTER. 2. THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS 6

2.1. INTRODUCTION 6

2.2. INFORMATION SYSTEM 6

2.2.1. DEFINITION 6

2.3. DATABASE CONCEPTS 8

2.3.1. Definition and terminology 8

2.3.2. Database design principles 10

2.3.3 Normalization 11

2.3.4. Database management system 12

2.3.5. Data processing architecture 13

2.4. WEB- BASED TECHNOLOGIES CONCEPTS 13

2.4.1. Computer network 13

2.4.2. Internet and World Wide Web 17

V

3.1 INTRODUCTION 19

3.2. SOFTWARE ENGINEERING APPROACH 19

3.2.1. Software life cycle 19

3.2.2. The waterfall model 20

CHAPTER IV. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE WEB BASED SYSTEM. 24

4.1. INTRODUCTION 24

4.2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF NYAMAGABE DISTRICT 24

4.3. SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT 24

4.3.1 Analysis of the existing Information System 24

4.3.2. The proposed system. 25

4.3.3. System Requirement Specification 25

4.3.4. General Description of DITMIS 25

4.3.5. Specific Requirements 26

4.3.6. Process Modeling 28

4.3.7 Tools Used 35

4.3.8 Data Dictionary 37

4.3.9 Implementation 41

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 49

5.1 CONCLUSION 49

5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS 50

5.3 FUTURE WORK 50

BIBLIOGRAPHY 51

A) BOOKS: 51

B) WEB REFERENCES: 51

vi
List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

1.BITAM : Bachelor of Information Technology Application in Management 2.BCFN:Boyce Codd Normal Form

3.CPU:Central Processing Unit 4.CAN:Campus Area Network

5.CSS:Cascading Style Sheets

6. DB: Database

7.DBMS:Database Management System 8.DFM:Data FlowModel

9.DFD:Data Flow Diagram

10.DITMIS:District Invitation to Tender Management Information System 11.DKNF: Domain Key normal form

12.DPP:Desktop Publishing Program

13.ECMA:Europian Computer Manufacturers Association

14.ERD:Entity Relationship Diagram 15.G C : Government Citizen

16.HTML:Hyper Text Mark_up Language 17.HTTP:Hyper Text Transfer Protocol

18.ICT: Information Technology and Technology

19.I S: Information System

20.IT :Information Technology

21.ITAA: Information Technology Association of America

22.IP:Internet Protocol

23.LAN:Local Area Network

24.MAN:Metropolitan Area Network 25.MIS:Management Information System 26.N F: Normal Form

27.PAN:Personnal Area Network

vii

28.PC: Personnal Computer

29.PHP:Hypertext Preprocessor

30.RDBMS:Relational Database Management System 31.SAN:Storage Area Network

32.SVG: Scalable Vector Graphics

33.TCI IP: Transmission Control Protocol Internet Protocol 34.VPN:Virtual Private Network

35.WAN:Wide Area Network

36.WEBAPP:Web application

37.WWW:World Wide Web

38.XHTML:Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language 39.XML:Extensible Hyper Text Markup Language

viii
List of Tables

TABLE 4 .1: ACTOR GOAL LIST 26

TABLE: 4.2 .DITMIS _ LIST OF TABLES 33

TABLE 4.3. APPLICANT TABLE 38

TABLE 4.4 ANNOUNCEMENT 38

TABLE 4.5: CHAT 38

TABLE 4.6 : COMMENT 39

TABLE 4.7: PASSWORD 39

TABLE 4.8: RESULTS 40

TABLE 4.9 ATTACHFILE 40

TABLE 4.10: SCREEN GLOSSARY 42

ix
List of Figures

FIGURE 3.1: THE CLASSICAL SEQUENTIAL SOFTWARE LIFE-CYCLE MODEL 20

FIGURE 3.2. THE WATERFALL MODEL 21

FIGURE 4.1: SYSTEM OUTLINE FOR DITMIS 29

FIGURE 4. 2: DISTRICT INVITATION TO TENDER MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM CONTEXT DIAGRAM / LEVEL 0 31

FIGURE4.3 LEVEL1 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM 32

FIGURE 4.4 E R DIAGRAM 34

TABLE 4.4 ANNOUNCEMENT 38

FIGURE 4.5: THE MAIN PAGE 43

FIGURE 4.6: ANNOUNCEMENT PAGE 43

FIGURE 4.7: END OF ANNOUNCEMENT PAGE 44

FIGURE 4.8: THE TENDER PAGE 44

FIGURE 4.9: THE DETAILS FOR TENDER PAGE 45

FIGURE 4.10: THE APPLICANT PAGE 45

FIGURE 4.11: THE PAGE FOR UPLOADING OTHER FILES. 46

FIGURE 4.12: THE ADMINISTRATOR PAGE. 46

FIGURE 4.13: THE VIEW ALL APPLICANTS PAGE 47

FIGURE 4.14: THE PAGE FOR ALL FILES UPLOADED. 47

FIGURE 4.15: THE PAGE FOR SUBMITTING A COMMENT. 48

FIGURE 4.16: THE PAGE FOR PRINTING AN ANNOUNCEMENT. 48

x

Abstract

The growth and development of information and technologies (ICT's) has led to their wide diffusion and application, thus increasing their economic and social impact. The internet undertakes a wide range of activities aimed at improving our understanding of how ICTs contribute to sustainable economic growth and social well being and their role in the shift toward knowledge based societies.

Trust among the users of ICT networks is increasing priority for business, industry and governments. Information and Communication and Technologies (ICTs) can help meet development objectives, in particular international development goals for poverty reduction, education, health and environment.

This research is conceived with the aim of providing an adequate solution that will help citizens to get information about the tenders available in the Districts, the details about those tenders and have the possibility to apply for any tender. The DITMIS uses the advantages of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) as mentioned above.

The objective of this study is to provide a web based application able to assist anyone to get information about the tenders available in the Districts, able to read the announcement for an tender and have the opportunity for the application. The web based application to develop will have a web interface where applicants can read the announcement for tender, the details about the tenders and make the application via internet.

To achieve the fixed objectives, we have used the waterfall model as a software development process model to develop the web based application. Interviews and documentation also are used as the major data collection techniques.

By the end of this document, interfaces for users are designed with PHP, and listed in the interfaces

Glossary subsection. Finally, conclusion and recommendations are made to facilitate the usage and further improvement of this application.

CHAPTER1. GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.1. Introduction

The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are being increasingly used by the governments to deliver its services at the locations convenient to the citizens. The web based system attempt to offer the services of central agencies (like district administration, cooperative union, and state and central government departments) to the citizens at their village door steps.

Information Technologies is widely used and rapidly becoming a common asset of modern socio-economic life in this new world of globalization .These technologies are opening opportunities and new avenues for all.

Our country Rwanda has a long way to reach to successful in this area .Software development and the use of automated systems, network systems development and the needs to share information within the country and with outside world , is what among other things that hold largely the degree of measure of development in the Rwandan society.

These applications utilize the ICT in offering improved and affordable connectivity and processing solutions. Several Government-Citizen (G-C) e-Governments have attempted to adopt these technologies to improve the reach, enhance the base, minimize the processing costs, increase transparency, and reduce the cycle times.

A large number of web based system, aimed at offering easy access to citizen service and improved processing of government-to-citizen transactions. Some of these have drawn international attention and have won prestigious awards for their innovative approaches.

1.2. The problem statement

In Rwandan districts like other central departments in the country, the improvement of good-governance is a key feature for the development of the country.

Besides, Rwandan districts have recognized a big problem of lacking the system which may help the easy processing of the daily activities in order to easily achieve the delivery of better services to their people.

For instance using this system will help citizens to know the information about the tenders available in the district and they will have the possibility to apply for any tender on line. They will be able to give their comments on tenders' process in order to increase the transparency and the accountability for the invitation to tender process.

The existing tender system at Nyamagabe District is paper based , the used method are media where newspapers and radios are used to announce any tender and the interested people may apply using the papers. And Data recording and retrieving are done manually; which can result in some inconvenience such as ease loss of data, the lack of accessibility of information about tenders, all applicants and the lack of transparency in tender delivery process.

It is in this context that the researcher needs to develop a web based system to help in the achievement of districts objectives like providing the better services, improving the transparency and the accountability for the invitation to tender process to its citizens.

1.3. Objectives of the study

General Objective

Development of web based system for Nyamagabe District that can be used in the improvement of good governance.

Demonstration of the need the advantages and disadvantages of using a web based system as compared to their traditional system used in Nyamagabe District.

Specific Objective

Main objectives in this project will be to:

> Study the activities of Nyamagabe District identifying and specifying the

requirements of a new web based system to be implemented.

> Model and designing the solution to meet requirements of the system.

> Design and creation of the additional databases to store relevant data of the system.

> Ensuring Security, performance and reliability of the system.

1.4. Motivation and interest of the project

The implementation of these system rises for the following interests:

Applying the knowledge acquired during academic studies and in different training fields.

This research provides invaluable source of knowledge and information for NYAMAGABE DISTRICT as it provides better understanding of using a web based system application and the way it can be a source of increasing the delivery of better services to the people.

Moreover, web based system is going to help Districts. By helping in the delivery of better services and increasing the transparency for the invitation to tender process in the district. Through this research, attempt to show how web based system application could be an invaluable tool for improving good governance.

1.5. The project questions

This research attempted to respond to the following project questions:

1) Is a web based system to improve good governance very reliable at Nyamagabe district? 2)Will the use of web based system help NYAMAGABE DISTRICT to increase the delivery of better services to the people?

3) Will the use of web based system enable NYAMAGABE DISTRICT to increase the transparency for the invitation to tender process?

4) Will the use of web based system become an answer to leaders and people for their daily activities?

1.6. The project hypotheses

«A WEB BASED SYSTEM can be delivered from the existing system in use at Nyamagabe District and used efficiently and successfully in the improvement of good governance».

1.7. Scope of the project

Due to the complexity of operations and multiplicity of tasks done at NYAMAGABE DISTRICT, the project may be focusing only on GOOD GOVERNANCE for the following: Develop a web site allowing citizens to know all information about the invitation to tender process in the District and help easily to apply for those tenders online to the District without being obliged to go to the Districts' seat.

Help people to obtain accurate information on tenders available in the district, increase the transparency and the accountability during the whole process of delivering the tenders.

By using PHP/MYSQL, HTML and other tools the tasks mentioned above, will be accomplished.

1.8. Methodology

In order to meet objectives, the following methods and research techniques are used: 1. Research methodology

> Consult course materials.

> Consult books that elucidate basic concepts and terminologies that will be used in this project.

> Internet.

2. Software development process methodology

1.9. Organization of the project

This project is organized in five chapters

The chapter 1: General introduction, describes

The problem statement, states the scope of the project, its objectives, the hypothesis and the methodology to be used.

The chapter 2: Theoretical concepts and definitions.

The chapter 3: Methodology deals with the methodology used in this project.

The chapter4: Development and Implementation of the web based system deals with the design and implementation of the web based system for Rwandan District.

Finally, chapter 5: Conclusion and recommendations will give the general conclusion and recommendations of the research.

CHAPTER. 2. THEORETICAL CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS

2.1. Introduction

This Chapter focus the theoretical concepts on which this project is based. The aim of this part is to give the description of the terms and concepts that are used in the development. Briefly it provides the required knowledge that will help in understanding technologies related issues and concepts.

2.2. Information system

2.2.1. Definition

2.2.1.1. System

A system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities real or abstract, forming an integrated

whole. (Retrieved March 21. 2009. from http:// en .wikipedia.org/wiki/system)

The concept of an "integrated whole" (Retrieved March 21. 2009. from http:// en .wikipedia.org/wiki/system) can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships which are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime.

2.2.1.2. Computer system

A complete, working computer. The computer system includes not only the computer, but also

any software and peripheral devices that are necessary to make the computer function. Every computer system, for example, requires an operating system. (Retrieved March 21. 2009. from http:/ www .webopedia.com/ TERM/C/Computer system.html/).

2.2.1.3. Information system

In a general sense, the term information system (IS) refers to a system of people, data records

and activities that process the data and information in an organization, and it includes the
organization's manual and automated processes. In a narrow sense, the term information system
(or computer-based information system) refers to the specific application software that is used

to store data records in a computer system and automates some of the information-processing activities of the organization. Computer-based information systems are in the field of information technology. The discipline of business process modelling describes the business processes supported by information systems.

The related components which make up information systems are:

People, Procedures, Softwares, Hardwares, Data and Environment. (Retrieved March 21. 2009. from http; // www.wikipedia.org/wik/information system).

2.2.1.4. Management information system

Management Information System (MIS) is a computer system, usually based on mainframe or microcomputer designed to provide management personnel with up -to -date information on organization's performance ; ex: inventor and sales .These systems output information in a form that is useable by managers at all levels of the organization :strategic , tactical and operational.

2.2.1.5. Information technology (IT)

Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is "the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and securely retrieve information. (Retrieved March 21.2009.from; http// www.wikipedia.org/wik/information technology).

Today, the term information technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term has become very recognizable. The information technology umbrella can be quite large, covering many fields.

IT professionals perform a variety of duties that range from installing applications to designing complex computer networks and information databases.

A few of the duties that IT professionals perform may include data management, networking, engineering computer hardware, database and software design, as well as the management and administration of entire systems.

2.3. Database concepts

2.3.1. Definition and terminology 2.3.1.1 Definition

A database is a collection of information related to a particular subject or purpose.( RIHARD, T. WATSON,» DATA MANAGEMENT : Databases and Organization « , 3rd edition .p25) .

Data refers to pieces of information or facts usually collected as the result of experience, observation or experiment, or processes within a computer system, or a set of premises.

( Retrieved March 21.2009.from; http// www.wikipedia.org/wik/data)

Information is data that has been processed in a way that it makes it meaningful. Databases are designed to provide meaningful information .This information can only be provided if appropriate data exists in the database and the database is structured in such a way to support that information(PRESCOTT,M,& ALL « Modern Database Management»,5 edition, Addison Wesley Lonman , Inc, May 1999.p 4.)

2.3.1.2. Terminology

A. Entities and Relationships

The very basics of what we are trying to model are entities and relationships. Entities are things in the real world that we will store information about in the database. Relationships are the links between these entities. Relationships come in different degrees. They can be one-to-one, one-tomany (or many to one depending on the direction you are looking at it from), or many to many. (GERAL V .POST «Database Management Systems, Designing and Bulding Business Applications 1st edition P34.)

Note that the entities, the relationships, and the degree of the relationships depend on your environment and the business you are trying to model. When you are coming up with a database design, you must take these rules into account for the system you are modeling .No two systems will be exactly the same.

B.Relations

In the relational model of databases, a set of tuples (also called rows), otherwise known as a table.

C. Columns or Attributes

An attribute represents the basic abstraction of a database table column. In database tables each column or attributes describes some piece of data that each record in the table has .The terms column and attributes are used fairly interchangeably, but column is really part of a table, whereas an attribute relates to the real - world entity that the table is modeling.

(RetrievedMarch21.2009.from; http://publib.Boulder./ bm.com/inforcenter/db2/MW/V8/index.jsp ?topic=/com./bm.db2.vdb.olap.doc/cmd attribute.htm.)

D. Rows, Records, Tuples

In the context of a relational database, a row also called a record or tuple represents a single, implicitly structured data item in a table. Each row in a table represents a set of related data, and every row in the table has the same structure. (Retrieved March 21.2009.from; http// www.wikipedia.org/wik/row).

E. Keys

i) Primary key:

A primary key is a field or combination of fields that uniquely identify a record in a table, so that an individual record can be located without confusion. (Retrieved March 21.2009.from; http:// databasev.co.uk/ primary- foreign-key-constraints.html ,).

ii) Foreign key

A foreign key (sometimes called a referencing key) is a key used to link two tables together. Typically you take the primary key field from one table and insert it into the other table where it becomes a foreign key (it remains a primary key in the original table).

(Retrieved from March 21.2009.from,http://databasev.co.uk/ primary- foreign-keyconstraints.html ,)

2.3.2. Database design principles 2.3.2.1 Redundancy

Data redundancy is a data organization issue that allows the unnecessary duplication of data within your database. (Retrieved March 21.2009.from http://databasev.co.uk/ primary- foreignkey-constraints.html).

A change or modification, to redundant data, requires that you make changes to multiple fields of a database.

2.3.2.2 Anomalies

Anomalies present a slightly more complex concept. Anomalies are problems that arise in the data due to a flaw in the database design. There are three types of anomalies that may arise:

A. Insertion Anomalies

It is a failure to place information about a new database entry into all the places in the database where information about the new entry needs to be stored.

(Retrieved March 21.2009.from , http://www.dbnormalization.com /database-anomalies,)

In a properly normalized database, information about a new entry needs to be inserted into only one place in the database, in an inadequately normalized database, information about a new entry may need to be inserted into more than one place, and human fallibility being what it is, some of the needed additional insertions may be missed.

B. Deletion anomalies

needs to be deleted from only one place in the database, in an inadequately normalized database, information about that old entry may need to be deleted from more than one place.

(Retrieved March 21.2009.from , http://www.dbnormalization.com /database-anomalies,)

C .Update Anomalies

An update of a database involves modifications that may be additions, deletions, or both. Thus «update anomalies» can be either of the kinds discussed above.

All three kinds of anomalies are highly undesirable, since their occurrence constitutes corruption of the database. Properly normalized database are much less susceptible to corruption than are un-normalized databases. (Retrieved March 21.2009.from , http://www.dbnormalization.com /database-anomalies,)

2.3.2.3 Null Values

A final rule for good database design is that we should avoid schema designs that have large numbers of empty attributes.

2.3.3 Normalization

Normalization is a method of organizing your data to prevent redundancy. Normalization involves establishing and maintaining the integrity of your data tables as well as eliminating inconsistent data dependencies. (Retrieved March 21.2009.from , http://www.databasev.co.uk/ data-redundancy.html,)

Normalization requires that you adhere to rules, established by the database community, to ensure that data is organized efficiently. These rules are called normal form rules.

The rules are defined as follows:

(Retrieved March 21.2009.from , http://en. wikipedia.org/wiki/Normal forms ,)

2.3.3.1. First normal form (1 NF)

Table faithfully represents a relation and has no "repeating groups".

2.3.3.2. Second normal form (2NF)

No non-prime attribute in the table is functionally dependent on a part (proper subset) of a

candidate key.

2.3.3.3 .3rd normal form (3NF)

Every non-prime attribute is non-transitively dependent on every key of the table.

2.3.3.4. Boyce-Codd normal form (BCNF)

Every non-trivial functional dependency in the table is a dependency on a superkey.

2.3.3.5. Fourth normal form (4NF)

Every non-trivial multivalued dependency in the table is a dependency on a superkey.

2.3.3.6. Fifth normal form (5NF)

Every non-trivial join dependency in the table is implied by the superkeys of the table.

2.3.3.7. Domain/key normal form (DKNF)

Every constraint on the table is a logical consequence of the table's domain constraints and key

constraints.

2.3.3.8. Sixth normal form (6NF)

Table features no non-trivial join dependencies at all (with reference to generalized join

operator).

2.3.4. Database management system

A database management system (DBMS) is computer software that manages databases. DBMS's may use any of a variety of database models, such as the network model or relational model. In large systems, a DBMS allows users and other software to store and retrieve data in a structured way.

(Retrieved March 22.2009. from, http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Database-management-system,)

2.3.5. Data processing architecture

Data architecture describes the data structures used by a business and/or its applications. There are descriptions of data in storage and data in motion; descriptions of data stores, data groups and data items; and mappings of those data artifacts to data qualities, applications, locations etc. (Retrieved March 22.2009. from , http://wikipedia.org/wiki/Data-architecture).

Essential to realizing the target state, Data Architecture describes how data is processed, stored, and utilized in a given system. It provides criteria for data processing operations that make it possible to design data flows and also control the flow of data in the system.

2.4. Web- based technologies concepts

2.4.1. Computer network

A computer network is a group of interconnected computers. Networks may be classified according to a wide variety of characteristics.

(Retrieved March 22.2009. from , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-Network/).

Based on their scale, networks can be classified as Local Area Network (LAN), Wide Area Network (WAN), Metropolitan Area Network (MAN), Personal Area Network (PAN), Virtual Private Network (VPN), Campus Area Network (CAN), Storage Area Network (SAN).

2.4.1.1. LAN (Local Area Network)

A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small physical area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings, such as a school, or an airport. Current wired LANs are most likely to be based on Ethernet technology, although new standards like ITU-T G.hn also provide a way to create a wired LAN using existing home wires (coaxial cables, phone lines and power lines).

2.4.1.2. WAN (Wide Area Network)

A wide area network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area (i.e. any network whose communications links cross metropolitan, regional, or national boundaries. Less formally, a WAN is a network that uses routers and public communications links. Contrast with personal area networks (PANs), local area networks (LANs), campus area networks (CANs), or metropolitan area networks (MANs), which are usually limited to a room, building, campus or specific metropolitan area (e.g., a city) respectively.

The largest and most well-known example of a WAN is the Internet. A WAN is a data communications network that covers a relatively broad geographic area (i.e. one city to another and one country to another country) and that often uses transmission facilities provided by common carriers, such as telephone companies. WAN technologies generally function at the lower three layers of the OSI reference model: the physical layer, the data link layer, and the network layer.

2.4.1.3. MAN (Metropolitan area network)

A metropolitan area network (MAN) is a network that connects two or more local area networks or campus area networks together but does not extend beyond the boundaries of the immediate town/city. Routers, switches and hubs are connected to create a metropolitan area network.

2.4.1.4. PAN (Personal area network)

A personal area network (PAN) is a computer network used for communication among computer devices close to one person. Some examples of devices that are used in a PAN are printers, fax machines, telephones, PDAs and scanners. The reach of a PAN is typically about 20-30 feet (approximately 6-9 meters), but this is expected to increase with technology improvements.

2.4.1.5. VPN (Virtual private network)

A virtual private network (VPN) is a computer network in which some of the links between nodes are carried by open connections or virtual circuits in some larger network (e.g., the Internet) instead of by physical wires. The link-layer protocols of the virtual network are said to be tunneled through the larger network when this is the case. One common application is secure communications through the public Internet, but a VPN need not have explicit security features, such as authentication or content encryption.

VPNs, for example, can be used to separate the traffic of different user communities over an underlying network with strong security features.

A VPN may have best-effort performance, or may have a defined service level agreement (SLA) between the VPN customer and the VPN service provider. Generally, a VPN has a topology more complex than point-to-point.

A VPN allows computer users to appear to be editing from an IP address location other than the one which connects the actual computer to the Internet.

2.4.1.6. Campus area network

A campus area network (CAN) is a computer network made up of an interconnection of local area networks (LANs) within a limited geographical area. It can be considered one form of a metropolitan area network, specific to an academic setting.

In the case of a university campus-based campus area network, the network is likely to link a variety of campus buildings including; academic departments, the university library and student residence halls. A campus area network is larger than a local area network but smaller than a wide area network (WAN) (in some cases).

The main aim of a campus area network is to facilitate students accessing internet and university
resources. This is a network that connects two or more LANs but that is limited to a specific
and contiguous geographical area such as a college campus, industrial complex, office building,

or a military base. A CAN may be considered as of MAN (metropolitan area network), but is generally limited to a smaller area than a typical MAN.

This term is most often used to discuss the implementation of networks for a contiguous area. This should not be confused with a Controller Area Network. A LAN connects network devices over a relatively short distance. A networked office building, school, or home usually contains a single LAN, though sometimes one building will contain a few small LANs (perhaps one per room), and occasionally a LAN will span a group of nearby buildings. In TCP/IP networking, a LAN is often but not always implemented as a single IP subnet.

2.4.1.5. Network Topology

Computer networks may be classified according to the network topology upon which the network is based, such as bus network, star network, ring network, mesh network, star-bus network, tree or hierarchical topology network. Network topology signifies the way in which devices in the network see their logical relations to one another. The use of the term "logical" here is significant.

That is, network topology is independent of the "physical" layout of the network. Even if networked computers are physically placed in a linear arrangement, if they are connected via a hub, the network has a Star topology, rather than a bus topology. In this regard the visual and operational characteristics of a network are distinct; the logical network topology is not necessarily the same as the physical layout. Networks may be classified based on the method of data used to convey the data; these include digital and analog networks.

2.4.2. Internet and World Wide Web

(Retrieved March 24.2009.from; http// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet). 2.4.2.1 Internet

The Internet is a global network of interconnected computers, enabling users to share information along multiple channels. Typically, a computer that connects to the Internet can access information from a vast array of available servers and other computers by moving information from them to the computer's local memory.

The same connection allows that computer to send information to servers on the network; that information is in turn accessed and potentially modified by a variety of other interconnected computers. A majority of widely accessible information on the Internet consists of inter-linked hypertext documents and other resources of the World Wide Web (WWW). Computer users typically manage sent and received information with web browsers; other software for users' interface with computer networks includes specialized programs for electronic mail, online chat, file transfer and file sharing.

2.4.2.2 Web browser

A Web browser is a software application which enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music, games and other information typically located on a Web page at a Web site on the World Wide Web or a local area network. Text and images on a Web page can contain hyperlinks to other Web pages at the same or different Web site. Web browsers allow a user to quickly and easily access information provided on many Web pages at many Web sites by traversing these links. Web browsers format HTML information for display, so the appearance of a Web page may differ between browsers.

2.4.2.3. Web application

application that is coded in a browser-supported language (such as HTML, JavaScript, Java, etc.) and reliant on a common web browser to render the application executable.

2.4.2.4 .WWW (World Wide Web)

The World Wide Web (commonly abbreviated as "the Web") is a very large set of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a Web browser, one can view Web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them using hyperlinks.

CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGIES USED

3.1 Introduction

This chapter puts in relief the different approaches that were used to optimally get the best solution to the users' needs .This part describes in details the Software Engineering methodology used and finally the tools used to implement the chosen approaches.

3.2. Software engineering approach

3.2.1. Software life cycle

A software life cycle model depicts the significant phases or activities of a software project from conception until the product is retired.

(Retrieved April 18.2009.from;http// softpanorama.org/SE/tware_life_cycle_models.shtml,).

It specifies the relationships between project phases, including transition criteria, feedback mechanisms, milestones, baselines, reviews, and deliverables.

Typically, a life cycle model addresses the phases of a software project: requirements phase, design phase, implementation, integration, testing, operations and maintenance. Much of the motivation behind utilizing a life cycle model is to provide structure to avoid the problems of the "undisciplined hacker" or corporate IT bureaucrat (which is probably ten times dangerous then undisciplined hacker). As always, it is a matter of picking the right tool for the job, rather than picking up your hammer and treating everything as a nail.

Software life cycle models describe the interrelationships between software development phases.

Figure 3.1: The classical sequential software life-cycle model

 

Problem

 
 

System Specification

System and Component Design

Operation and Maintenance

System Test

Implementation and Component Test

 

Requirement Analysis

Source: Own drawing

3.2.2. The waterfall model 3.2.3.1 General Description

The waterfall model was developed in the 1970 by Royce. The waterfall model is a sequential software development process, in which progress is seen as flowing steadily downwards (like a waterfall) through the phases of Conception, Initiation, Analysis, Design (validation), Construction, Testing and maintenance.

(Retrieved April18.2009.from; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model,).

It should be readily apparent that the waterfall development model has its origins in the manufacturing and construction industries; highly structured physical environments in which after-the-fact changes are prohibitively costly, if not impossible. Since no formal software development methodologies existed at the time, this hardware-oriented model was simply adapted for software development. Ironically, the use of the waterfall model for software development essentially ignores the 'soft' in 'software'.

It provides for varidation of the phase outputs in the software life cycle. This approach modifies the strictly sequential approach prescribed by classical life-cycle model and advances an incremental development strategy. Incorporating a stepwise development strategy for the system specifications and the system architecture as well as phase - wise validation helps to better manage the effects of poor decisions and to make the software development process more controllable.

Requirement

Design

Implementation

Verfication

Maintenance

Figure 3.2. The waterfall model Source: (Retrieved April.18 .2009

from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Waterfall_model.svg )

3.2.3.2. Limitation of Waterfall model (RetrievedJune11.2009.from; www.site.uottawa.ca/school/research/lloseng/supportMaterial/slide s-edition1/htmlSlides/Chapter11/tsld009.htm).

The model implies that you should attempt to complete a given stage before moving on to the next stage

? Does not account for the fact that requirements constantly change.

· It also means that customers can not use anything until the entire system is complete.

· The model makes no allowances for prototyping.

· It implies that you can get the requirements right by simply writing them down and reviewing them.

· The model implies that once the product is finished, everything else is maintenance.

3.2.3.3. The strength of Waterfall model

The waterfall model provides the following strengths:

+ Enabling tracking of project progress more accurately and uncovering possible slippages early.

+ Focusing the organization that develops the software system to be more structured and manageable.

+ Well defined user

+ Development and design standards

+ Tolerates changes in MIS

3.2.3.4. The model consist of six distinct stages, namely

1) In the requirements analysis phase

a) The problem is specified along with the desired service objectives (goals)

b) The constraints are identified

2) In the specification phase the system specification is produced from the detailed definitions of (a) and (b) above. This document should clearly define the product function.

Note that in some text, the requirements analysis and specifications phases are combined and represented as a single phase.

3) In the system and software design phase, the system specifications are translated into a software representation.

The software engineer at this stage is concerned with:

· Data structure

· Software architecture


· Algorithmic detail and

· Interface representations

(Retrieved June 18.2009 http://www.softpanorama.org/SE/software_life_cycle_models.shtml )

The hardware requirements are also determined at this stage along with a picture of the overall system architecture. By the end of this stage the software engineer should be able to identify the relationship between the hardware, software and the associated interfaces. Any faults in the specification should ideally not be passed `down stream'

4) In the implementation and testing phase stage the designs are translated into the software domain

· Detailed documentation from the design phase can significantly reduce the coding effort.

· Testing at this stage focuses on making sure that any errors are identified and that the software meets its required specification.

5) In the integration and system testing phase all the program units are integrated and tested to ensure that the complete system meets the software requirements. After this stage the software is delivered to the customer. Deliverable - The software product is delivered to the client for acceptance testing.

6) The maintenance phase the usually the longest stage of the software. In this phase the software is updated to:

· ?Meet the changing customer needs

· ?Adapted to accommodate changes in the external environment

· ?Correct errors and oversights previously undetected in the testing phases

· ?Enhancing the efficiency of the software

Observe that feed back loops allow for corrections to be incorporated into the model. For example a problem/update in the design phase requires a `revisit' to the specifications phase. When changes are made at any phase, the relevant documentation should be updated to reflect that change.

CHAPTER IV. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF THE WEB BASED
SYSTEM.

4.1. Introduction

This chapter follows the methodology phases previously described and gives the details and results of the research. The chapter has two sections; the general description of Nyamagabe District and the software development.

4.2. General description of Nyamagabe District

Located southwest of Southern Province, the new District Nyamagabe is one of 8 districts of Southern Province. It is bordered by the Karongi District and Ruhango in North Nyanza and Huye in the east south , Nyaruguru, Rusizi and Nyamasheke in the West. The District Nyamagabe is composed of former Districts Kaduha, Mushubi, Mudasomwa, City of Gikongoro and 11 sectors of the former District of Karaba and Nyamagabe .The District is divided into 17 administrative sectors, 92 cells(utugari) and 536 villages (imidugudu).

4.3. Software Development

The software development undergoes through a series of steps process from investigation of initial requirement to the last phase of maintenance. The investigation carried at Nyamagabe District provided us the useful information not only about the previous system under replacement but also the one to be constructed. Thus we undertook the activities of procurement office and specifically for the invitation to tender process.

As a result, a system for the application for a tender has been produced.

4.3.1 Analysis of the existing Information System.

The initial step while developing an application program consists exactly to find out what to be solved and what should be done. All those features help the developer to find out what are the requirements specifications that the system will use, what are the users, what is the benefit of the application, and so forth.

During the data collection, the researcher compared the existing tender system process used at Nyamagabe District, with the new proposed system, in order to better analyze the operational system.

It is noted that the existing tender system at Nyamagabe District is paper-based. Data recording and retrieving are done manually; which can result in some inconvenience such as ease loss of data, the lack of accessibility of information about tenders, the applicants, and the lack of transparency, accountability in tender delivery process.

4.3.2. The proposed system.

While analyzing the existing system, a simple, integrated tool which will provide both web based for the application to any available tender and the information such as the announcement and the details about all tenders are available online has been proposed. Access to information and all functionality will be from basically any computer with a web browser and an internet connection.

4.3.3. System Requirement Specification

On their work Programmers have to meet the users' requirements specification. It is at the phase when SRS agree both parties that the Requirement analysis is finished. During the requirements analysis, a graphical representation of an application system called Data Flow Model (DFM) is established. It shows the movement of data between external entities, data stores and processs, within a system .However, changes in requirements may occur during the program design phase and continue to change for the improvement of the system.

4.3.4. General Description of DITMIS

For security reasons and proper operation, the DITMIS will be used by different users with different privileges as it is summarized in the table below.

System Users Goals

Applicant -Read announcement

-Read the details about the tender available -Apply for a tender

Guests -Can consult the reports about the results

for the selected applicant

System Administrator - Print the announcement

-View all users

-View all comments -View all applicants -Print the results for the selected applicant

-Make reports

-Update the system and maintains security

of the system

-Create and deletes users

Table 4 .1: Actor goal list

4.3.5. Specific Requirements

In specific requirements, a net difference is established between the Functional requirements and non Functional ones.


· Functional requirements:

It is all about what the system does. Statements of services that the system should provide, how the system should react to particular inputs and how the system should behave in particular situations.

Setting to part the priorities granted to the system users, the system will operate under normal operation and consider consequences and responses due to software failure or invalid input to the system. To use the system , an applicant have to fill or submit the applicant form and the administrator must enter a login and password .In case of invalid login and /or password, an error message is displayed.

· The system shall allow the applicant to apply for a tender available.

· The system shall bring any incomplete application message to the applicant in a way that encourages them to complete missing details.

· The system shall allow retrieving all details about all applicants.

The system shall be able to store and allow maintenance of the following details for all currently and previously applicants and the following are the fields that must be filled using a form:


· Applicant_Id

· Names

· Telephone

· Occupation

· Address

· Quantity

· Price

· Duration

· Account_no

· Bank

· Date

? Non functional Requirements:

It is about how the system does in terms of performance, security, availability, user friendliness etc. Constraints on the services or functions offered by the system such as timing constraints, constraints on the development process, standards, etc.

The system must be consistent, efficient, self explanatory and flexible; to provide the basic characteristics:

· Rapid retrieval

· Availability of 24/7(24 hours over 7 days of the week)

· Availability at convenient places

· Easy data input

· Easy applicant access

· Safeguards and confidentiality

· Easily customized output interface

· The system shall be capable of being used simultaneously from several screens.

4.3.6. Process Modeling

The most common model used to present functions or processes that capture, manipulate store and distribute data between a system and its environment is the Data Flow Diagram.DFDs are the corn stones of structured analysis and design because they show the flow of data or information around the system.

4.3.6.1. System outline

The role of a system outline is to show how input data are moving into process in order to get output data. Those outputs generate, files, and files generate outputs. The input are listed at the top left, Processes at the top right, And Files at the bottom left.

INPUT

PROCESSES PR

1: Read the announcement

2: Application for a tender

Applicant reports

Applicant_Id

Names

Telephone Occupation

Address Quantity Price

Duration Account_no

Bank

OUTPUT

Date

FILES

Applicant file

Not analysed applicants file Analysed applicant file

Users file

Announcement file

Selected applicant file

Comments file

Figure 4.1: System outline for DITMIS Source: Own drawing

4.3.6.2. Context Diagram / Level 0

The context diagram represents the entire system under investigation. It is used to clarify and agree to scope of the investigation The system under investigation is represented as a single process, connected to external entities by data flows and resource flows.On the following pages detailed higher level DFDs are elaborated in DITMIS logical system.

Level 0 district invitation to tender management information system (DITMIS)

Figure 4. 2: District invitation to tender management information system context Diagram / Level 0

Source: own drawing

4.3.6.3.Level1DataflowDiagram

Admin

File downloaded

Print announcement

Successfully printed

Admin page displayed

Account created

Details printed

Print details for tender

Create

Download file

Login

administrator's
account

DITMIS

2

Print
announcement

Login 4 DITMIS

Print details for tender

6 DITMIS

Upload files

D1

files

1

DITMIS

Tender file

3

DITMIS

Administrator's account

D2

D4

Announcement file

Files uploaded

Upload files

Announcement result

Read announcement

D9

Applicant

Display applications

View applications

8

D7

 
 

Application accepted

Comments file

 
 
 
 

Apply for atender

DITMIS

10

Admin

Applicant

Application file

Display selected appliants

View selected applicants

Session closed

Session_close request

D3 Administrator's account

file

5 DITMIS

View appications

D5

7

DITMIS

View comments

DITMIS

Logout

Application for tender file

9

DITMIS

 

Apply for a tender

View selected applicant

D10 selected applicant file

Figure4.3 Level1 Data flow diagram Source Own drawing

4.3.6.4 DITMIS List of Tables

Announcement

Announcement_id Announcement_Name Announcement Announcement_Date

Tender

Tender_id Tender_Name Tender Tender_date

Comment

Comment_id Name

E_mail

Address Comment

Password

User_id First_name Last_name Password Access_level Level_number E_mail

 
 

Users

Results

 
 

User_id First_name Last_name Password Re_enter pas sword

E_mail

Id

Names Address Quantity Price

Details Date

District

 
 
 

Applicant2

Applicant_id Announcement_id Names

Telephone Occupation\ Address

Quantity

Price

Duration Account_no Bank

Date

Table: 4.2 .DITMIS _ List of Tables Source: Own drawing

4.3.6.5 ER-Diagram

Figure 4.4 E R Diagram Source: Own drawing

4.3.7 Tools Used

+ HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language)

HTML, an initialism for Hypertext Mark-up Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document by denoting certain text as links, headings, paragraphs, lists, etc. and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images, and other objects. HTML is written in the form of "tags" that are surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code (such as JavaScript) that can affect the behavior of Web browsers and other HTML processors.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from t http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTML) + CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation (that is, the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can be applied to any kind of XML document, including SVG and XUL.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets ) + Php

PHP is a scripting language originally designed for producing dynamic web pages. It has evolved to include a command line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from http://www.php.net/ ) + Java Script

JavaScript is a scripting language used to enable programmatic access to objects within other
applications. It is primarily used in the form of client-side JavaScript for the development of
dynamic websites. JavaScript is a dialect of the ECMAScript standard and is characterized as a

dynamic, weakly typed, prototype-based language with first-class functions. JavaScript was influenced by many languages and was designed to look like Java, but to be easier for non-programmers to work with.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript) + Mysql

MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) which has more than 6 million installations. The program runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases.(Retrieved June 19.2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MySQL)

+ Adobe Flash

Adobe Flash (previously called Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform originally acquired by Macromedia and currently developed and distributed by Adobe Systems. Since its introduction in 1996, Flash has become a popular method for adding animation and interactivity to web pages. Flash is commonly used to create animation, advertisements, and various web page components, to integrate video into web pages, and more recently, to develop rich Internet applications.(Retrieved June 19.2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash)

+ Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop, or simply Photoshop, is a powerful graphics editing program (also known as a DPP, Desktop Publishing Program) developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is the current and primary market leader for commercial bitmap and image manipulation software, and is the flagship product of Adobe Systems. It has been described as "an industry standard for graphics professionals and was one of the early "killer applications" on the PC.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Photoshop )

+ Adobe Dreamweaver

Adobe Dreamweaver (formerly Macromedia Dreamweaver) is a web development application originally created by Macromedia, and is now developed by Adobe Systems, which acquired Macromedia in 2005.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Dreamweaver/)

+ Apache

The Apache HTTP Server commonly referred to as Apache, is a web server notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. In 2009 it became the first web server to surpass the 100 million web site milestone.

(Retrieved August 7.2009 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apache)

4.3.8 Data Dictionary

Data dictionary is that part of database management system that defines the structure of user data and how they are to be used.

Data dictionary of our system is represented in the following tables. 1) Applicant2

Field Type Collation Attributes Null Default Extra

Applicant_Id Int(2) - No - Auto_increment

Tender_id Announcement_Id Names

Telephone Occupation Address

Quantity

Price

Int(11)

Int(2) Varchar(50 Varchar(50 Varchar(50 Varchar(50 Varchar(50 Varchar(50

 
 

No

-

-

 

-

No

 
 

Lattin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ci

 

No No No No No No

 
 

Duration Varchar(50) Latin1_general_ci No

Accoumt_no Varchar(50) Latin1_general_ci No

Bank Varchar(50) Latin1_general_ci No

Date Date Latin general ci No

Table 4.3. Applicant table Source Own drawing

2) Announcement

Field Type Collation Attribute Nul Defaul Extra

s l t

Announcement_id Int(2) No Auto_increme

nt

Announcement_Na Varchar(5 Latin1_general_ No

me 0) ci

No

Announcement Varchar(5 Latin1_general_

0) ci No

Announcement_Dat

e Varchar(5 Latin1_general_

0) ci

Table 4.4 Announcement
Source: Own drawing

3) Chat

Field Type Collation Attributes Null Default Extra

User_id Int(2) No Auto_increment

Name Varchar(50) Latin1_general_ci No

Message Varchar(50) Latin1_general_ci No

4) Comment

Field Type Collation Attributes Null Default Extra

Comment_id User_id

Name

E_mail Address Comment

Int(2)

Int(11) Varchar(20) Varchar(20) Varchar(20) Varchar(20)

Latin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ci

No No No No No

Auto_increment

 

Table 4.6 : Comment Source: Own drawing

5) Password

Field Type Collation Attributes Null Default Extra

User_id First_name Last_name Password Access_level Level_number E_mail

Int(2) Varchar(20) Varchar(20) Varchar(20) Varchar(20) Varchar(20) Varchar(20)

Latin1_swedish_ciLatin1_swedish_ciLatin1_swedishl_ciLatin1_swedishl_ciLatin1_swedishl_ciLatin1_swedishl_ci

No No No No No No No

Auto_increment

Table 4.7: Password Source: Own drawing

6) Results

Field Type Collation Attributes Null Default Extra

Id

Names Address Quantity Price Details Date District

Int(2) Varchar(20) Varchar(20) Varchar(20) Varchar(20) Longtext Date

Varchar(20)

Latin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ci

Auto_increment

 

Table 4.8: Results Source: Own drawing

7) Attachfile

Field Type Collation Attributes Null Default Extra

Attach_id

Applicant_id Bordereau

Lettre

Photocopie

Le_delaiAttestation

Icyemezo_ko_nta_mwenda Icyemezo_ko_yaguze Icyemezo_cy'_ingwate Date

Int(11) Int(11) Text Text Text Text Text Text Text Text date

Latin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ciLatin1_general_ci

No No No No No No No No No No No

None None None None None None None None None None None

Auto_increment

4.3.9 Implementation 4.3.9.1 Screen Glossary

Screen number Screen name Purpose

MAIN PAGE

1.1 Login area This area, allow to login in account as

administrator.

1.2 Home area Informs about the district invitation to tender

management information system (DITMIS).

1.3 Announcement Informs about the announcement on tenders

area available in the district.

1.4 Tender area Informs about the details about the tenders

and it allows also to apply for any tender.

1.5 Contact us

1.6 Login here area

1.7 Register here

1.8 Chat area

1.9 Add comment area

Informs about the contact of the district.

Allows to login as an existing user.

Allows to register as a new user.

Allows members and users of the system to send each other message.

Allows sending any comment about the system and tenders.

SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR INTERFACE

2.1 View all applicants

2.2 View all comments

2.3 View all users

2.4 Print announcement

2.5 Print tender

2.6 Create Account

2.7 View attached file

2.8 Logout Allows viewing all applicants.

Allows viewing all comments.

Allows viewing all users.

Allows printing announcement for any tender.

Allows printing the details about the tender available.

Allows to create accounts

Allows to view other additional files attached by applicants.

Allows to quit the administrator interface.

Table 4.10: Screen Glossary Source: Own drawing

4.3.9.2 Sample Interfaces

In this section, sample interfaces are displayed. And the main functionalities of the system are shown .We displayed the interfaces for the users in general and also the interface for an administrator to accomplish their activities.

43

Figure 4.5: The main Page

Figure 4.6: Announcement page

Figure 4.7: End of announcement page

Figure 4.8: The tender page

Figure 4.10: The applicant page

Figure 4.9: The Details for tender page

Figure 4.12: The administrator page.

Figure 4.11: the page for uploading other files.

47

Figure 4.13: The View all applicants page

Figure 4.14: The page for all files uploaded.

Figure 4.15: The page for submitting a comment.

Figure 4.16: The page for printing an announcement.

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion

This research aimed at showing the importance of using the web based system in the improvement of good governance. Based on results of our research, the goals and the scope of the project it have deduced the conclusion below:

During the investigation it was found that even if there is use of ICT in Rwandan Districts, they do not maximize the benefits of ICTs for their daily activities .Some activities are still not automated because they have been made manually.

That is why the use of ICT need to be improved through a web based system that facilitates to keep people get informed on tenders processes in Rwandan Districts.

Beyond investigation research system development methodologies were used:

· Context diagram

· System outline

· Data flow diagram

· Entity relationship diagram and

· Data dictionary.

This method helped us to clarify how data are treated in the current system and how the new system would be .By implementing the application, it has been found that problems of getting information online on tenders available in Rwandan Districts and the opportunity for application have been attended via the use of system called District Invitation to Tender Management Information System.

DITMIS design has got the benefits as it facilitates citizens to get all information on tenders available in Rwandan Districts and the opportunity to apply for any tender.

5.2 Recommendations

Based on experiences, investigation carried out and some constraints accoutered, to finish this research the following recommendations are mentioned, for the great success of the present system:

.. The project ended with software product .The wisdom of software engineering teaches that software is never completed .Thus; we suggest this software to be considered as «prototype».

.. Some imperfections must be revised and corrected before the deployment and functionality of DITMIS.

.. The Districts must sensitize the citizens on the use of the new technology with the aim of improving this system.

.. The districts should provide adequate computer tool, including the internet to citizens in order to allow them to use the DITMIS.

5.3 Future work

Lastly, the further research should also be done on the selection of applicants in order to found out the selected applicant based on the requirements for the application and the contract signed between the District and the selected applicant.

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16. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet. 18. http://www.softpanorama.org/SE/software_life_cycle_models.shtml .

20. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waterfall_model.

21.www.site.uottawa.ca/school/research/lloseng/supportMaterial/slidesedition1/htmlSlides/Chapter11/tsld009.htm 22. http://www.softpanorama.org/SE/software_life_cycle_models.shtml. 23. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HTML. 24. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cascading_Style_Sheets . 25. http://www.php.net.

26. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/JavaScript. 27. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MySQL.

28. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Dreamweaver. 29. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apache. 30. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Flash. 31. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Photoshop .






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