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The implementation of web based system for the improvment of good governance in the development of rwandan districts.

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Herménégilde HUNDWITIRO
National University of Rwanda - Bachelor Degree 2009

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4.1. Introduction

This chapter follows the methodology phases previously described and gives the details and results of the research. The chapter has two sections; the general description of Nyamagabe District and the software development.

4.2. General description of Nyamagabe District

Located southwest of Southern Province, the new District Nyamagabe is one of 8 districts of Southern Province. It is bordered by the Karongi District and Ruhango in North Nyanza and Huye in the east south , Nyaruguru, Rusizi and Nyamasheke in the West. The District Nyamagabe is composed of former Districts Kaduha, Mushubi, Mudasomwa, City of Gikongoro and 11 sectors of the former District of Karaba and Nyamagabe .The District is divided into 17 administrative sectors, 92 cells(utugari) and 536 villages (imidugudu).

4.3. Software Development

The software development undergoes through a series of steps process from investigation of initial requirement to the last phase of maintenance. The investigation carried at Nyamagabe District provided us the useful information not only about the previous system under replacement but also the one to be constructed. Thus we undertook the activities of procurement office and specifically for the invitation to tender process.

As a result, a system for the application for a tender has been produced.

4.3.1 Analysis of the existing Information System.

The initial step while developing an application program consists exactly to find out what to be solved and what should be done. All those features help the developer to find out what are the requirements specifications that the system will use, what are the users, what is the benefit of the application, and so forth.

During the data collection, the researcher compared the existing tender system process used at Nyamagabe District, with the new proposed system, in order to better analyze the operational system.

It is noted that the existing tender system at Nyamagabe District is paper-based. Data recording and retrieving are done manually; which can result in some inconvenience such as ease loss of data, the lack of accessibility of information about tenders, the applicants, and the lack of transparency, accountability in tender delivery process.

4.3.2. The proposed system.

While analyzing the existing system, a simple, integrated tool which will provide both web based for the application to any available tender and the information such as the announcement and the details about all tenders are available online has been proposed. Access to information and all functionality will be from basically any computer with a web browser and an internet connection.

4.3.3. System Requirement Specification

On their work Programmers have to meet the users' requirements specification. It is at the phase when SRS agree both parties that the Requirement analysis is finished. During the requirements analysis, a graphical representation of an application system called Data Flow Model (DFM) is established. It shows the movement of data between external entities, data stores and processs, within a system .However, changes in requirements may occur during the program design phase and continue to change for the improvement of the system.

4.3.4. General Description of DITMIS

For security reasons and proper operation, the DITMIS will be used by different users with different privileges as it is summarized in the table below.

System Users Goals

Applicant -Read announcement

-Read the details about the tender available -Apply for a tender

Guests -Can consult the reports about the results

for the selected applicant

System Administrator - Print the announcement

-View all users

-View all comments -View all applicants -Print the results for the selected applicant

-Make reports

-Update the system and maintains security

of the system

-Create and deletes users

Table 4 .1: Actor goal list

4.3.5. Specific Requirements

In specific requirements, a net difference is established between the Functional requirements and non Functional ones.

· Functional requirements:

It is all about what the system does. Statements of services that the system should provide, how the system should react to particular inputs and how the system should behave in particular situations.

Setting to part the priorities granted to the system users, the system will operate under normal operation and consider consequences and responses due to software failure or invalid input to the system. To use the system , an applicant have to fill or submit the applicant form and the administrator must enter a login and password .In case of invalid login and /or password, an error message is displayed.

· The system shall allow the applicant to apply for a tender available.

· The system shall bring any incomplete application message to the applicant in a way that encourages them to complete missing details.

· The system shall allow retrieving all details about all applicants.

The system shall be able to store and allow maintenance of the following details for all currently and previously applicants and the following are the fields that must be filled using a form:

· Applicant_Id

· Names

· Telephone

· Occupation

· Address

· Quantity

· Price

· Duration

· Account_no

· Bank

· Date

? Non functional Requirements:

It is about how the system does in terms of performance, security, availability, user friendliness etc. Constraints on the services or functions offered by the system such as timing constraints, constraints on the development process, standards, etc.

The system must be consistent, efficient, self explanatory and flexible; to provide the basic characteristics:

· Rapid retrieval

· Availability of 24/7(24 hours over 7 days of the week)

· Availability at convenient places

· Easy data input

· Easy applicant access

· Safeguards and confidentiality

· Easily customized output interface

· The system shall be capable of being used simultaneously from several screens.

4.3.6. Process Modeling

The most common model used to present functions or processes that capture, manipulate store and distribute data between a system and its environment is the Data Flow Diagram.DFDs are the corn stones of structured analysis and design because they show the flow of data or information around the system. System outline

The role of a system outline is to show how input data are moving into process in order to get output data. Those outputs generate, files, and files generate outputs. The input are listed at the top left, Processes at the top right, And Files at the bottom left.



1: Read the announcement

2: Application for a tender

Applicant reports



Telephone Occupation

Address Quantity Price

Duration Account_no





Applicant file

Not analysed applicants file Analysed applicant file

Users file

Announcement file

Selected applicant file

Comments file

Figure 4.1: System outline for DITMIS Source: Own drawing Context Diagram / Level 0

The context diagram represents the entire system under investigation. It is used to clarify and agree to scope of the investigation The system under investigation is represented as a single process, connected to external entities by data flows and resource flows.On the following pages detailed higher level DFDs are elaborated in DITMIS logical system.

Level 0 district invitation to tender management information system (DITMIS)

Figure 4. 2: District invitation to tender management information system context Diagram / Level 0

Source: own drawing


File downloaded

Print announcement

Successfully printed

Admin page displayed

Account created

Details printed

Print details for tender


Download file






Login 4 DITMIS

Print details for tender


Upload files





Tender file



Administrator's account



Announcement file

Files uploaded

Upload files

Announcement result

Read announcement



Display applications

View applications




Application accepted

Comments file


Apply for atender





Application file

Display selected appliants

View selected applicants

Session closed

Session_close request

D3 Administrator's account



View appications




View comments



Application for tender file




Apply for a tender

View selected applicant

D10 selected applicant file

Figure4.3 Level1 Data flow diagram Source Own drawing DITMIS List of Tables


Announcement_id Announcement_Name Announcement Announcement_Date


Tender_id Tender_Name Tender Tender_date


Comment_id Name


Address Comment


User_id First_name Last_name Password Access_level Level_number E_mail





User_id First_name Last_name Password Re_enter pas sword



Names Address Quantity Price

Details Date




Applicant_id Announcement_id Names

Telephone Occupation\ Address



Duration Account_no Bank


Table: 4.2 .DITMIS _ List of Tables Source: Own drawing ER-Diagram

Figure 4.4 E R Diagram Source: Own drawing

4.3.7 Tools Used

+ HTML (Hypertext Mark-up Language)

HTML, an initialism for Hypertext Mark-up Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document by denoting certain text as links, headings, paragraphs, lists, etc. and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images, and other objects. HTML is written in the form of "tags" that are surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code (such as JavaScript) that can affect the behavior of Web browsers and other HTML processors.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from t + CSS (Cascading Style Sheets)

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation (that is, the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language. Its most common application is to style web pages written in HTML and XHTML, but the language can be applied to any kind of XML document, including SVG and XUL.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from ) + Php

PHP is a scripting language originally designed for producing dynamic web pages. It has evolved to include a command line interface capability and can be used in standalone graphical applications.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from ) + Java Script

JavaScript is a scripting language used to enable programmatic access to objects within other
applications. It is primarily used in the form of client-side JavaScript for the development of
dynamic websites. JavaScript is a dialect of the ECMAScript standard and is characterized as a

dynamic, weakly typed, prototype-based language with first-class functions. JavaScript was influenced by many languages and was designed to look like Java, but to be easier for non-programmers to work with.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from + Mysql

MySQL is a relational database management system (RDBMS) which has more than 6 million installations. The program runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases.(Retrieved June 19.2009 from

+ Adobe Flash

Adobe Flash (previously called Macromedia Flash) is a multimedia platform originally acquired by Macromedia and currently developed and distributed by Adobe Systems. Since its introduction in 1996, Flash has become a popular method for adding animation and interactivity to web pages. Flash is commonly used to create animation, advertisements, and various web page components, to integrate video into web pages, and more recently, to develop rich Internet applications.(Retrieved June 19.2009 from

+ Adobe Photoshop

Adobe Photoshop, or simply Photoshop, is a powerful graphics editing program (also known as a DPP, Desktop Publishing Program) developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is the current and primary market leader for commercial bitmap and image manipulation software, and is the flagship product of Adobe Systems. It has been described as "an industry standard for graphics professionals and was one of the early "killer applications" on the PC.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from )

+ Adobe Dreamweaver

Adobe Dreamweaver (formerly Macromedia Dreamweaver) is a web development application originally created by Macromedia, and is now developed by Adobe Systems, which acquired Macromedia in 2005.

(Retrieved June 19.2009 from

+ Apache

The Apache HTTP Server commonly referred to as Apache, is a web server notable for playing a key role in the initial growth of the World Wide Web. In 2009 it became the first web server to surpass the 100 million web site milestone.

(Retrieved August 7.2009 from

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