An Evaluative Study of Communicative Competence in Conversational English among English Language Learners in the Literary Option: The Case of Rusizi and Nyamasheke Districts
par Valens NGABOYERA
Université Nationale du Rwanda - Bachelor's Degree (Licence) 2007
In our everyday life humans, like most of other divine creatures, need the others to solve various problems encountered. Therefore, there is always a need of communication between them. Here, several scholars have much to say about communication.
Revell (1979, p.1) defines communication as «An exchange, between people, of knowledge, of information, of ideas, of opinions, of feelings». Similarly, for Richards et al (1985, p.48) «Communication is an exchange of information, ideas, etc, between two or more persons». Then, Gamble and Gamble (2002, p.6) say, «Communication is the deliberate or accidental transfer of meaning.» They also present the following model to illustrate the communication process.
Noise Noise Noise
Source: Gamble and Gamble (2002, p.14)
A number of authors tried to provide a classification of essential components of communication. Their classifications are similar for some components and a bit different for the others. Those writers are mainly Gamble and Gamble (2002), DeSantis (1999) and Payne (2001). According to Gamble and Gamble (2002), there are seven essentials of communication namely: people, message, channels, noise, context, feedback, and effect.
Gamble and Gamble (2002) say that the human communication involves people, and those people are referred to as senders, persons who encode messages and receivers who decode messages during every communication event.
According to DeSantis (1999), the communication is made between two sides, the source and the receiver. For him the source, which is the creator of the message, performs four roles: determining the meaning of what is to be communicated, encoding the meaning into the message, sending the message, and perceiving and reacting to a listener's response to the message. However, the receiver decodes the messages by analysing and interpreting them. Then, the receiver has to store and recall the message, and finally, to respond to the source, message, channel, environment, and noise.
Payne (2001) has also classified this component of communication as composed of two elements namely, the sender that he considers as the initiators of the communication and the receiver which he considers as the target of the communication.
According to Gamble and Gamble (2002), the message is referred to as the content of a communication act. That is what you talk about, the words you use, the sounds you make, the way you gesture, and your facial expression during any communication act.
For Payne (2001, p.8), «The message is whatever the sender communicates to the receiver». DeSantis (1999, p.18) adds that «A message is a stimulus produced by the source. It comprises, words, grammar, organization of thoughts, physical appearance, body movement, aspects of the person's personality and self-concept, and the personal style»