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Zinc and Chromium removal mechanisms from industrial wastewater by using water hyacinth, eicchonia crassipes

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par John Gakwavu Rugigana
National University of Rwanda - Master's in WREM (water resources and environmental management) 2007
  

précédent sommaire suivant

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Appendices

Appendix I: Initial fresh weight and final fresh weight vs relative growth

Exposure time

Initial water

Final water

Relative growth

(week) with Zn & Cr

hyacinth fresh

hyacinth fresh

 

concentrations

weight (g)

weight (g)

 

1 wk, 1 mg/L

32.33

96.91

3.00

1 wk, 3 mg/L

34.50

85.23

2.47

1 wk, 6 mg/L

26.38

50.07

1.90

2 wks, 1 mg/L

19.23

39.96

2.08

2 wks, 3 mg/L

29.75

55.92

1.88

2 wks, 6 mg/L

42.90

80.18

1.87

4 wks, 1 mg/L

41.15

90.17

2.19

4 wks, 3 mg/L

43.21

93.05

2.15

4 wks, 6 mg/L

45.09

96.16

2.13

Appendix II: pH, zinc and chromium concentrations remaining in blank samples during 4 weeks of experiment

Time (hr)

pH

Blank,1mg/L Zn2+ Cr6+

Blank, 3mg/L pH Zn2+

Cr6+

pH

Blank, 6mg/L Zn2+ Cr6+

start

6.70

1.000

1.000

6.70

3.000

3.000

6.70

6.000

6.000

1 hr

7.07

0.062

0.006

7.04

0.068

0.080

7.11

0.070

0.118

3 hr

7.24

0.062

0.084

7.16

0.158

0.107

7.20

0.058

0.081

6 hr

7.23

0.050

0.108

7.17

0.022

0.090

7.21

0.019

0.077

10 hr

7.29

0.032

0.074

7.23

0.065

0.039

7.29

0.018

0.029

15 hr

7.45

0.008

0.000

7.35

0.000

0.000

7.46

0.030

0.000

21 hr

7.49

0.000

0.000

7.43

0.000

0.000

7.50

0.024

0.000

33 hr

7.82

0.021

0.000

7.68

0.007

0.000

7.82

0.000

0.000

57 hr

7.90

0.004

0.000

7.72

0.040

0.000

7.89

0.000

0.000

105 hr

7.64

0.016

0.000

7.86

0.000

0.000

7.65

0.004

0.000

177 hr

8.03

0.014

0.000

7.93

0.006

0.000

7.72

0.024

0.000

273 hr

6.6

0.005

0.012

7.37

0.015

0.079

7.60

0.032

0.021

393 hr

8.01

0.023

0.000

8.14

0.008

0.000

7.75

0.011

0.000

537 hr

7.12

0.000

0.016

7.73

0.000

0.061

7.25

0.000

0.001

705 hr

8.61

0.000

0.012

8.37

0.000

0.000

7.5

0.000

0.000

total

 

0.297

0.312

 

0.389

0.456

 

0.290

0.327

Appendix III: Variations in pH, zinc and chromium concentrations after 4 weeks of experiment with water hyacinth plants.

Time (h)

1 mg/L

Initial concentrations

3 mg/L

6 mg/L

pH Zn2+ Cr6+

pH Zn2+ Cr6+

pH Zn2+ Cr6+

start

6,70 1.000 1.000

6,70 3.000 3.000

6,70 6.000 6.000

1 hr

6,90 0,022 0,087

7,01 0,176 0,112

6,96 0,084 0,085

3 hr

7,07 0,012 0,115

7,13 0,062 0,080

7,09 0,023 0,098

6 hr

7,13 0,015 0,076

7,17 0,002 0,088

7,11 0,071 0,083

10 hr

7,23 0,002 0,001

7,42 0,000 0,000

7,34 0,014 0,000

15 hr

7,33 0,005 0,000

7,55 0,006 0,000

7,45 0,034 0,000

21 hr

7,46 0,024 0,000

7,61 0,013 0,000

7,52 0,000 0,000

33 hr

7,49 0,000 0,093

7,51 0,000 0,000

7,34 0,000 0,000

57 hr

7,48 0,000 0,000

7,53 0,000 0,000

7,34 0,004 0,000

105 hr

7,57 0,000 0,000

7,75 0,000 0,000

7,51 0,000 0,000

177 hr

7,19 0,003 0,000

7,58 0,001 0,000

6,97 0,004 0,007

273 hr

6,15 0,000 0,006

7,58 0,000 0,000

6,88 0,000 0,000

393 hr

6,61 0,009 0,000

7,6 0,000 0,000

5,67 0,006 0,007

537 hr

5,31 0,000 0,049

7,35 0,000 0,000

4,47 0,004 0,053

705 hr

4,93 0,000 0,000

7,27 0,000 0,000

4,43 0,000 0,000

total

0,092 0,427

0,26 0,28

0,244 0,333

Appendix IV: Adsorption variability of zinc during experimental period.

 
 

Zn2+, 1 week

 

Zn2+, 2 weeks

 

Zn2+, 4 weeks

 

Time for
desorption

1 mg/L

3mg/L

6 mg/L

1 mg/L 3 mg/L

6mg/L

1 mg/L 3 mg/L

6 mg/L

5 min

0.036

0.026

0.016

0.046

0.051

0.079

0.110

0.134

0.018

10 min

0.023

0.034

0.006

0.021

0.156

0.049

0.203

0.083

0.038

15 min

0.011

0.026

0.005

0.024

0.051

0.059

0.055

0.077

0.029

20 min

0.017

0.020

0.004

0.045

0.020

0.053

0.046

0.077

0.012

25 min

0.016

0.014

0.007

0.027

0.038

0.064

0.068

0.034

0.049

30 min

0.014

0.019

0.014

0.015

0.030

0.030

0.026

0.049

0.024

35 min

0.020

0.012

0.005

0.017

0.039

0.034

0.032

0.034

0.014

40 min

0.029

0.011

0.006

0.016

0.130

0.017

0.042

0.039

0.014

45 min

0.010

0.020

0.004

0.008

0.110

0.099

0.030

0.038

0.019

Total

0.176

0.182

0.067

0.219

0.625

0.484

0.612

0.565

0.217

Zinc and chromium removal mechanisms from industrial wastewater by water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) (Mart.) Solms-
Laubach

Appendix V: Adsorption variability of chromium during experimental period

Time

1mg/L

3 mg/L

6 mg/L

5 min

0.035

0.147

0.403

10 min

0.035

0.152

0.208

15 min

0.035

0.138

0.156

20 min

0.018

0.105

0.115

25 min

0.034

0.171

0.153

30 min

0.016

0.105

0.147

35 min

0.034

0.123

0.210

40 min

0.033

0.082

0.135

45 min

0.034

0.080

0.130

total

0.274

1.103

1.657

Appendix VI: Variation of uptake mechanism of zinc.

Time

I.C.a

Roots

Petioles

Leaves

Total

 

1mg/L

0.117b

0.306b

0.105b

0.528b

1 week

3mg/L

0.093b

0.364b

0.127b

0.584b

 

6mg/L

0.080b

0.487b

0.209b

0.776b

 

Total

0.290b

1.157b

0.441b

 
 

1mg/L

0.065b

0.218b

0.141b

0.424b

2 weeks

3mg/L

0.066b

0.136b

0.117b

0.319b

 

6mg/L

0.145b

0.330b

0.146b

0.621b

 

Total

0.276b

0.684b

0.404b

 
 

1mg/L

0.035b

0.205b

0.145b

0.385b

4 weeks

3mg/L

0.128b

0.251b

0.123b

0.502b

 

6mg/L

0.042b

0.386b

0.165b

0.593b

 

Total

0.205b

0.842b

0.433b

 

a: I.C.: Initial Concentration in water samples; b: dry weight in mg/kg

Appendix VII: variation of uptake mechanism of chromium

I.Ca

1 mg/L

3 mg/L

6 mg/L

total

roots

0.550b

1.531b

3.436b

5.517b

petioles

0.134b

0.418b

0.503b

1.055b

leaves

0.104b

0.236b

0.576b

0.916b

total

0.788b

2.185b

4.515b

 

a: Initial concentration in water samples; b: dry weight in mg/kg

Appendix VIII: Translocation ability of zinc by water hyacinth.

 

Roots/ Shoots

1 mg/L

Zn (II) conc.

3 mg/L 6 mg/L

1 week

Roots/petioles

0.382a

0.255a

0.383a

 

Roots/leaves

1.114a

0.732a

0.164a

2 weeks

Roots/petioles

0.478a

0.485a

0.439a

 

Roots/leaves

0.461a

0.564a

0.993a

4 weeks

Roots/petioles

0.171a

0.510a

0.109a

 

Roots/leaves

0.241a

1.041a

0.255a

a: times of zinc storage in roots compared to shoots.

Appendix IX: variations between initial concentrations and plant relative growth

a) Variations for 1 week of experiment

ANOVA

 
 
 
 
 
 

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

I.C.(1, 3 & 6 mg/L) IFW, FFW and RG Error

Total

547.5
8582.8
677.3

9807.6

2
2
4

8

273.8
4291.4
169.3

7.5
25.3

0.3
0.0

6.9
6.9

b) Variations for 2 weeks of experiment

ANOVA

 
 
 
 
 

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

I.C (1, 3 and 6 mg/L) IFW, FFW and RG Error

Total

682.7
4830.1
418.9

5931.7

2
2
4

8

341.4
2415.0
104.7

3.3
23.1

0.1
0.0

6.9
6.9

 

c) Variations for 4 weeks of experiment

ANOVA

 
 
 
 

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

I.C.(1, 3 and 6 mg/L)
IFW, FFW & RG
Error

Total

16.2
12453.0
9.5

12478.7

2
2
4

8

8.1
6226.5
2.4

3.4
2628.1

0.1
0.0

6.9
6.9

Appendix X: Variations between exposure time, pH effects and metal remained in water samples.

a) Concentration of 1 mg/L

ANOVA

 
 
 
 
 
 

Source of Variation

SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Exposure time pH & metal

remained

Error

Total

3.03

465.04

5.94

474.01

14

2

28

44

0.22

232.52

0.21

1.02

1096.78

0.46
0.00

2.06
3.34

b) Concentration of 3 mg/L

ANOVA

 
 
 
 
 

Source of Variation SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Exposure time 0.29

pH & metal

remained 542.58

14

2

0.02

271.29

0.68

8780.55

0.77
0.00

2.06
3.34

Error 0.87

28

0.03

 
 
 

Total 543.74

44

 
 
 
 

c) Concentration of 6 mg/L

 
 
 
 
 
 

ANOVA

 
 
 
 
 

Source of Variation SS

df

MS

F

P-value

F crit

Exposure time 4.98

pH & metal

remained 448.82

14

2

0.36

224.41

1.01

638.11

0.47
0.00

2.06
3.34

Error 9.85

28

0.35

 
 
 

Total 463.65

44

 
 
 
 

Appendix XI: Preliminary water tests at the beginning
pH test for used waters:

Buutare valley pH= 7.7 Nyabugogo water pH=7.4

nyabugogo + butare valley pH=7.9 (in small buskets)

nyabugogo + butare valley pH=7.6 (in the big basins)

solution of K2Cr2O7 pH = 7.2 solution of ZnCl2 pH = 6.4

fixed pH : 6.7 at starting in all small plastic buckets

Appendix XII: Raw data from lab experiments

Lab experiments (observation and analyses

No

date of sampling

Period

Sample no

pH sample

Zn (II)

Cr (VI)

 
 

1june

06,2007

after 1h

S1BLK1

7,07

0,062

0,006

 

2

 
 

S1BLK3

7,04

0,068

0,008

 

3

 
 

S1BLK6

7,11

0,07

0,118

 

4

 
 

S1WH1,1

7,08

0,048

0,113

 

5

 
 

S1WH1,3

7,09

0,029

0,099

 

6

 
 

S1WH1,6

6,97

0,045

0,121

 

7

 
 

S1WH2,1

6,59

0,036

0,001

 

8

 
 

S1WH2,3

6,91

0,044

0,107

 

9

 
 

S1WH2,6

6,98

0,026

0,121

 

10

 
 

S1WH4,1

6,9

0,022

0,087

 

11

 
 

S1WH4,3

7,01

0,176

0,112

 

12

 
 

S1WH4,6

6,96

0,084

0,085

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

13

 

after 2h

S2BLK1

7,24

0,062

0,084

 

14

 
 

S2BLK3

7,16

0,158

0,107

 

15

 
 

S2BLK6

7,2

0,058

0,081

 

16

 
 

S2WH1,1

7,21

0,007

0,129

 

17

 
 

S2WH1,3

7,17

0,022

0,052

 

18

 
 

S2WH1,6

7,08

0,088

0,112

 

19

 
 

S2WH2,1

6,66

0,008

0,109

 

20

 
 

S2WH2,3

6,99

0,094

0,087

 

21

 
 

S2WH2,6

7,06

0,095

0,105

 

22

 
 

S2WH4,1

7,07

0,012

0,115

 

23

 
 

S2WH4,3

7,13

0,062

0,008

 

24

 
 

S2WH4,6

7,09

0,023

0,098

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

26

 

after 3h

S3BLK1

7,23

0,05

0,108

 

27

 
 

S3BLK3

7,17

0,022

0,090

 

28

 
 

S3BLK6

7,21

0,019

0,077

 

29

 
 

S3WH1,1

7,23

0,144

0,075

 

30

 
 

S3WH1,3

7,18

0,011

0,081

 

31

 
 

S3WH1,6

7,1

0,003

0,063

 

32

 
 

S3WH2,1

6,62

0,007

0,093

 

33

 
 

S3WH2,3

7

0,029

0,079

 

34

 
 

S3WH2,6

7,04

0,001

0,107

 

35

 
 

S3WH4,1

7,13

0,015

0,076

 

36

 
 

S3WH4,3

7,17

0,002

0,088

 

37

 
 

S3WH4,6

7,11

0,071

0,083

 

38

 

after 4h

S4BLK1

7,29

0,032

0,074

 

39

 
 

S4BLK3

7,23

0,065

0,039

 

40

 
 

S4BLK6

7,29

0,018

0,029

 

41

 
 

S4WH1,1

7,32

0,034

0,064

 

42

 
 

S4WH1,3

7,22

0,045

0,051

 

43

 
 

S4WH1,6

7,12

0,033

0,026

 

44

 
 

S4WH2,1

6,61

0,007

0,023

 

45

 
 

S4WH2,3

7,02

0,007

0,021

 

46

 
 

S4WH2,6

7,06

0,010

0,005

 

47

 
 

S4WH4,1

7,23

0,002

0,001

 

48

 
 

S4WH4,3

7,42

0.000

0.000

 

49

 
 

S4WH4,6

7,34

0,014

0.000

 

50

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

after 5h

S5BLK1

7,45

0,008

0.000

 

51

 
 

S5BLK3

7,35

0.000

0.000

 

52

 
 

S5BLK6

7,46

0,03.0

0.000

 

53

 
 

S5WH1,1

7,44

0,014

0.000

 

54

 
 

S5WH1,3

7,32

0.000

0.000

 

55

 
 

S5WH1,6

7,14

0,098

0.000

 

56

 
 

S5WH2,1

6,7

0,013

0.000

 

57

 
 

S5WH2,3

7,17

0.000

0.000

 

58

 
 

S5WH2,6

7,12

0.000

0.000

 

59

 
 

S5WH4,1

7,33

0,005

0.000

 

60

 
 

S5WH4,3

7,55

0,006

0.000

 

61

 
 

S5WH4,6

7,45

0,034

0.000

 

62

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

63

 

after 6h

S6BLK1

7,49

0.000

0.000

 

63

 
 

S6BLK3

7,43

0.000

0.000

 

64

 
 

S6BLK6

7,5

0,024

0.000

 

65

 
 

S6WH1,1

7,55

0,001

0.000

 

66

 
 

S6WH1,3

7,56

0.000

0.000

 

67

 
 

S6WH1,6

7,48

0,032

0.000

 

68

 
 

S6WH2,1

6,83

0,062

0.000

 

69

 
 

S6WH2,3

7,35

0,014

0.000

 

70

 
 

S6WH2,6

7,32

0,098

0.000

 

71

 
 

S6WH4,1

7,46

0,024

0.000

 

72

 
 

S6WH4,3

7,61

0,013

0.000

 

73

 
 

S6WH4,6

7,52

0.000

0.000

 

74

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

74

june 07,2007

after12h

S7BLK1

7,82

0,021

0.000

 

75

 
 

S7BLK3

7,68

0,007

0.000

 

76

 
 

S7BLK6

7,82

0.000

0.000

 

77

 
 

S7WH1,1

7,62

0.000

0.000

 

78

 
 

S7WH1,3

7,47

0.000

0.000

 

79

 
 

S7WH1,6

7,42

0,022

0.000

 

80

 
 

S7WH2,1

6,23

0,012

0.000

 

81

 
 

S7WH2,3

7,13

0.000

0.000

 

82

 
 

S7WH2,6

6,85

0,002

0.000

 

83

 
 

S7WH4,1

7,49

0.000

0,093

 

84

 
 

S7WH4,3

7,51

0.000

0.000

 

85

 
 

S7WH4,6

7,34

0.000

0.000

 

86

june

08,2007

after24h

S8BLK1

7,9

0,004

0,000

 

87

 
 

S8BLK3

7,72

0,040

0,000

 

88

 
 

S8BLK6

7,89

0,000

0,000

 

89

 
 

S8WH1,1

7,48

0,000

0,000

 

90

 
 

S8WH1,3

7,35

0,000

0,000

 

91

 
 

S8WH1,6

7,37

0,005

0,000

 

92

 
 

S8WH2,1

5,65

0,004

0,000

 

93

 
 

S8WH2,3

6,62

0,000

0,000

 

94

 
 

S8WH2,6

6,28

0,032

0,000

 

95

 
 

S8WH4,1

7,48

0,000

0,000

 

96

 
 

S8WH4,3

7,53

0,000

0,000

 

97

 
 

S8WH4,6

7,34

0,004

0,000

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

98

june

10,2007

after48h

S9BLK1

7,64

0,016

0,000

 

99

 
 

S9BLK3

7,86

0,000

0,000

 

100

 
 

S9BLK6

7,65

0,004

0,000

 

101

 
 

S9WH1,1

7,8

0,000

0,000

 

102

 
 

S9WH1,3

7,64

0,000

0,000

 

103

 
 

S9WH1,6

7,57

0,000

0,000

 

104

 
 

S9WH2,1

5,52

0,002

0,000

 

105

 
 

S9WH2,3

6,07

0,000

0,000

 

106

 
 

S9WH2,6

6,16

0,016

0,000

 

107

 
 

S9WH4,1

7,57

0,000

0,000

 

108

 
 

S9WH4,3

7,75

0,000

0,000

 

109

 
 

S9WH4,6

7,51

0,000

0,000

 

110

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

june 13,2007

after 72 h

S10BLK1

8,03

0,014

0,000

111

 
 

S10BLK3

7,93

0,006

0,000

112

 
 

S10BLK6

7,72

0,024

0,000

113

 
 

S10WH1.1

7,24

0,011

0,000

114

 
 

S10WH1,3

7,21

0,000

0,000

115

 
 

S10WH1,6

7,23

0,009

0,000

116

 
 

S10WH2,1

5,19

0,017

0,000

117

 
 

S10WH2,3

4,94

0,011

0,000

118

 
 

S10WH2,6

6,35

0,012

0,000

119

 
 

S10WH4,1

7,19

0,003

0,000

120

 
 

S10WH4,3

7,58

0,001

0,000

121

 
 

S10WH4,6

6,97

0,004

0,007

123

 
 
 
 
 
 

124

june 15,2007

after 96 h

S11BLK1

6,6

0,005

0,012

125

 
 

S11BLK3

7,37

0,015

0,079

126

 
 

S11BLK6

7,6

0,032

0,021

127

 
 

S11WH2,1

4,57

0,024

0,079

128

 
 

S11WH2,3

4,5

0,001

0,065

129

 
 

S11WH2,6

6,6

0,009

0,045

130

 
 

S11WH4,1

6,15

0,000

0,006

131

 
 

S11WH4,3

7,58

0,000

0,000

132

 
 

S11WH4,6

6,88

0,000

0,000

133

 
 
 
 
 
 

134

june 20,2007

after 120h

S12BLK1

8,01

0,023

0,000

135

 
 

S12BLK3

8,14

0,008

0,000

136

 
 

S12BLK6

7,75

0,011

0,000

137

 
 

S12WH2,1

4,75

0,029

0,000

138

 
 

S12WH2,3

4,87

0,008

0,000

139

 
 

S12WH2,6

6,48

0,008

0,000

140

 
 

S12WH4,1

6,61

0,009

0,000

141

 
 

S12WH4,3

7,6

0,000

0,000

142

 
 

S12WH4,6

5,67

0,006

0,007

143

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

1 mg/L

3 mg/L

6 mg/L

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

roots

0.324167

0

0

petioles

0.134

0.418

0.503

leaves

0

0

0

0.4582 0.418 0.503

total

% of Cr BCF

0.324167

23.5

1.055

76.5

0

0.0

1.379167

100

144

26-juin-07

after 144h

S13BLK1

7,12

0,000

0,016

145

 
 

S13BLK3

7,73

0,000

0,061

146

 
 

S13BLK6

7,25

0,000

0,001

147

 
 

S13WH4,1

5,31

0,000

0,049

148

 
 

S13WH4,3

7,35

0,000

0,000

149

 
 

S13WH4,6

4,47

0,004

0,053

150

 
 
 
 
 
 

151

3-juil-07

after 168h

S14BLK1

8,61

0,000

0,012

152

 
 

S14BLK3

8,37

0,000

0,000

153

 
 

S14BLK6

7,5

0,000

0,000

154

 
 

S14WH4,1

4,93

0,000

0,000

155

 
 

S14WH4,3

7,27

0,000

0,000

156

 
 

S14WH4,6

4,43

0,000

0,000

Appendix XIII: Bioconcentration Factor of zinc

Part

1 mg/L

3 mg/L

6 mg/L

total

% of BCF of Zn

roots

0.032

0.081

0.812

0.925

16.5

petioles

0.793

1.491

0.75

3.034

54.1

leaves

0.171

1.095

0.383

1.649

29.4

 

0.996

2.667

1.945

5.608

100.0

Appendix XIV: Bioconcentration Factor of chromium

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