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The morphosyntax of adverbs in Shupamem

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Université de Yaoundé 1 - Master en Linguistique Générale 2016

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- A: Adjective

- AdvP : Adverbial Phrase

- AGR: Agreement

- AgrP: Agreement Phrase

- ALCAM: Atlas Linguistique du Cameroun

- Asp. Aspectual

- Aux: Auxiliary

- CERDOTOLA: Centre International de Recherche et de Documentation en Tradition Orale et Langues Africaines

- Cert. Certitude

- Cond. Conditional

- CHL: Computation of Human Language

- Cl. Cleft

- Cond. Conditional

- CP: Complementizer Phrase

- Decl. Declarative

- Dem: Demonstrative

- DES: Post-graduate Degree Diploma

- DP: Determiner Phrase

- Dr. Doctor

- DS: Deep Structure

- Epist. Epistemic

- Evid. Evidential

- Excl. Exclusive

- F1: Immediate future

- F2: Near future

- F3: Remote future

- Fig: Figure

- Foc0: Head of the Focus Phrase

- Force0: Head of the Force Phrase

- Freq. Frequency

- GB: Government and Binding

- GBWG: Grassfield Bantu Working Group

- Hab. Habitual?

- Iff: if and only if

- IMPFVE Imperfective

- Incl. Inclusive

- Inf. Infinitive

- INFL: Inflection

- IntP. Interrogative Phrase

- LF: Logical Form

- Mann. Manner

- Mod- Modality

- MP: Minimalist Program

- N: Noun

- Neg. Negation

- Num: Numeral

- NYU: New York University

- Ø Null morpheme

- OM: Object Marker

- P1: Immediate past tense

- P2: Recent past tense

- P3: Nearpast tense

- P4: Remote past tense

- PF: Phonological Form

- PFI: Principle of Full Interpretation

- Ph.D. Doctor of Philosophy

- Pl. Plural

- PPLE Participle

- Prog. Progressive

- Pst. Past tense

- QM: Question Morpheme

- Recip. Reciprocal

- Rep. Repetitive

- Sg: Singular

- SIL: Summer Institute of Linguistics

- Sp.act: Speech act

- SVO: Subject-Verb-Object

- SS: Surface Structure

- T- Tense

- T0: Head of the Tense Phrase

- TAM: Tense, Aspect, Mood

- Top0: Head of the Topic Phrase

- TP: Tense Phrase

- UG: Universal Grammar

- V0: Head of the Verb Phrase

- VP: Verb Phrase

- Vs. Versus

- VSO: Verb-Subject-Object

- ^ Falling tone

- ì High tone

- Ì Low tone

- - Mid tone

- ? Rising tone

- * Ungrammatical

- + Addition

- > Precedes

- Becomes


Thisdissertation, titled The morpho-syntax of adverbs in Shupamem (991),seeks to provide the morphological and syntactic properties of adverbs and adverbial expressions in Shupamem, a Grassfield Bantu language spoken in the Noun Division of the Republic of Cameroon. The study is driven within the framework of the Minimalist Program, a theory initiated and developed by Noam Chomsky in the 1990s. On the one hand, the morphological study of adverbs establishes a clear morphological difference between the adverbs classes that exist in this language, while, on the other hand, the syntactic study provides the unmarked positions and the hierarchy of adverbs within a given structure. Based on empirical data, the results of the study show that Shupamem has both pure and derived adverbs. The derivation processes are affixation, adjunction, reduplication and substitution. The syntactic study shows that in Shupamem, adverbs can be right-adjoined or left-adjoined to the verb. It also shows that some adverbs allow movements through focalization and topicalization, (higher class adverbs and post-verbal lower class adverbs), while for others, movements are impossible or constrained (pre-verbal low class adverbs). The results also show that the hierarchy between post-verbal adverbs is highly flexible, given that a locative adverb can come before or after a manner adverb, a temporal adverb, and a degree adverbetc., this order being reversible. Furthermore, following the Ciquean (1999) Fixed Hierarchy Hypothesis, this study provides the hierarchy of adverbs in Shupamem, a hierarchy that remains flexible as far as post-verbal adverbs are concerned. Itis presented as follows:




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