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The morphosyntax of adverbs in Shupamem

Université de Yaoundé 1 - Master en Linguistique Générale 2016

précédent sommaire suivant Epistemic II adverbs

The epistemic II adverb that I identified in Shupamem is the pre-verbal expression «k?Ì mbuì?/puì?» (unavoidably). The data in (31) and (32) below show that it can be focalized through the cleft copula, and not with «poì». They also show that epistemic II adverb cannot be topicalized.

(31) Focalization

a) m?ìn k?Ì mbuì? nsuì taìsaÌ

child unavoidably wash dish

«The child unavoidably washed the dish»

b) aì k?Ìmbuì? m?ìn nsuì taìsaÌ

Cl. unavoidably child washed dish

«The child UNAVOIDABLYwashed the dish»

c) *m?ìn poì k?Ì mbuì? nsuì taìsaÌ

child Foc. unavoidably washed dish

Intended: «The child UNAVOIDABLYwashed the dish»

(32) Topicalization

a) m?ìn k?Ì mbuì? nsuì taìsaÌ

child Hab. unavoidably wash dish

«The child unavoidably washed the dish»

b) *k?Ì mbuì? n?ì, m?ìn nsuì taìsaÌ

UnavoidablyTop. child washed dish

Intended: «Unavoidably, the child washed the dish»

With focalizaton, the epistemic II «k?Ì mbuì?» (unavoidably) allows the cleft construction, as shown in (31.b) above. It cannot be focalized in-situ, that is, through the focus particle «poì», reason why the data in (31.b) is ungrammatical. In the same light, it cannot be topicalized, as shown in (32.b), like the case with the aspectual adverbs studied above. This leads to the conclusion that pre-verbal lower class adverbs can neither be topicalized nor focalized in-situ. Post-verbal adverbs

Post-verbal adverbs are adverbs that are right-attached to the verb. In other words, they are adverbs generated after the verb.I shall look at the focalization and topicalization of the locative, the manner, the celerative, the temporal, the degree, the restrictive, the frequency, the comparativeand exocomparative adverbs. Locative adverbs

Locative adverbs in Shupamem admit both focalization and topicalization. Let's consider the data in (33) and (34) below:

(33) Focalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké t?Ì taìm

child fetched water well

«The child fetched water from the well»

b) aì t?Ì taìm mb?ì?aì m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké n?ì

Cl. well iswhere child fetched water Decl.

«It is FROM THE WELL that the child fetch water»

c) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké po? t?Ì taìm

child fetched water Foc. well

«The child fetched water FROM THE WELL»

(34) Topicalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké t?Ì taìm

child fetched water well

«The child fetched water from the well

b) t?Ì taìm m?ì, m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké

well Top child fetched water

«From the well, the child fetched water»

Examples in (33) and (34) show that both focalization of locative adverbs with «» and with «poì» are licensed in Shupamem. In the same vein, topicalization of locative adverbs is licensed. It is important to precise that focalization with «» is rare in discourse. This makes the structure much more complex. In fact, there should be theexpression «mb?ì?aì» (which is where)to mark emphasis on the moved element,and «n?ì» (declaration) in such constructions.

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