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The morphosyntax of adverbs in Shupamem


par Abass NGOUNGOUO YIAGNIGNI
Université de Yaoundé 1 - Master en Linguistique Générale 2016
  

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2.9.2.2.2. Manner adverbs

Similar to the locative adverbs, manner adverbs license focalization and topicalization. This is shown in (35) and (36) below:

(35) Focalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké kénkériì

child fetched water tiredly

«The child fetched water tiredly»

b) aì kénkériì mb?ì kaì m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké n?ì

Cl. tiredly is how child fetched water Decl.

«It is TIREDLY that the child fetched water»

c) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké poì kénkériì

child fetched water Foc. tiredly

«The child fetched water TIREDLY»

(36) Topicalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké kénkériì

child fetched water tiredly

«The child fetched water tiredly»

b) kénkériì-neì, m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké

tiredly-Top child fetched water

«Tiredly, the child fetched water»

The data in (35) show that both focalization of manner adverbs with «» and «poì» are licensed in Shupamem.Topicalization is also licensed. As in the case with locative adverbs, focalization through the cleft copula triggers the use of the expressions«mb?ì kaì»(which is how) and «n?ì» (declaration).

2.9.2.2.3. Celerative adverbs

Celerative adverbs allow focalization and topicalization as shown in (37) and (38) below:

(37) Focalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké m?ìj?Ìt m?ìj?Ìt

child fetched water slowly

«The child fetched water slowly»

b) aì m?ìj?Ìt m?ìj?Ìt mb?ì kaì m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké n?ì

Cl. slowly is how child fetched water Decl.

«It is SLOWLY that the child fetched water»

c) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké poì m?ìj?Ìt m?ìj?Ìt

child fetched water Foc. slowly

«The child fetched water SLOWLY»

(38) Topicalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké m?ìj?Ìt m?ìj?Ìt

child fetched water slowly

«The child fetched water slowly»

b) m?ìj?Ìt m?ìj?Ìt n??, m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké

slowly Top child fetched water

«Slowly, the child fetched water».

2.9.2.2.4. Temporal adverbs

Temporal adverbs allow focalization and topicalization. Their focalization through the cleft copula «» requires the use of «mb?ì j??ì» (which is when) and the morpheme «n?ì» at the end of the clause. This is shown in (39) and (40) below:

(39) Focalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké ?kuÌr?Ì

child fetched water yesterday

«The child fetched water slowly»

b) aì ?kuÌr?Ì mb?ì j??ì m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké n?ì

Cl. yesterday that child fetched water Decl.

«It is YESTERDAY that the child fetched water»

c) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké poì ?kuÌr?Ì

child fetched water Foc. yesterday

«The child fetched water YESTERDAY»

(40) Topicalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké ?kuÌr?Ì

child fetched water yesterday

«The child fetched water slowly»

b) ?kuÌr?Ì-?ì, m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké

yesterday-Top child fetched water

«Yesterday, the child fetched water»

In (39.b), the temporal adverb «?kuÌr?Ì» (yesterday) has been focalized through cleft construction. This has generated «mb?ì j??ì» (which is how) and «n?Ì» which marks declaration. In (39.c), the temporal adverb has been focalized in-situ. As for the data in (40.b), they show that temporal adverbs in Shupamem can be topicalized.

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