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The morphosyntax of adverbs in Shupamem


par Abass NGOUNGOUO YIAGNIGNI
Université de Yaoundé 1 - Master en Linguistique Générale 2016
  

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2.9.2.2.5. Adverbs of degree

Adverbs of degree license focalization and topicalization in Shupamem. In focalization with the cleft copula, we have «mb?ì kaì» (which is how) and the morpheme «n?ì» at the end of the sentence. Focalization and topicalization of degree adverbs are shown in (41) and (42) below:

(41) Focalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké r??niì

child fetched water much

«The child fetched much water»

b) aÌ r??niì mb?ì kaì m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké n?ì

Cl. much is how child fetch water Decl.

«It is MUCH that the child fetched water»

c) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké poì r??niì

child fetched water Foc. much

«The child fetched MUCH water»

(42) Topicalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké r??niì

child fetched water many

«The child fetched much water»

b) r??niì-n?ì, m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké

much-Top child fetched water

«Much water, the child fetched»

The data in (41) show that the degree adverbs in Shupamem can be focalized in-situ or extracted to the left periphery. As for the data in (42), they show that degree adverbs can be topicalized in Shupamem.

2.9.2.2.6. Restrictive Adverbs

In Shupamem, restrictive adverbs can be focalized, alongside the noun that they modify. In the same vein, they can be topicalized. None of these operations will be allowed if the modified element is left aside. Also, topicalization requires the use of a resumptive pronoun that refers to the moved element. Let's consider the data in (43) below:

(43) Focalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? nduì ?ké

child fetched only water

«The child fetched only water»

b) aì nduì ?ké mb?ì j??ì m?ìn tuÌ? n?ì

Cl. only water is what child fetched Decl.

«It is ONLY WATER that the child fetched»

c) * aì nduì mb?ì j??ì m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké n?ì

Cl. only is what child fetched water Decl.

Intended: «It is ONLY WATER that the child fetched»

d) m?ìn tuÌ? poì nduì ?ké

child fetched Foc. only water

«The child fetched ONLY WATER»

(44) Topicalization

a) m?ìn tuÌ? nduì ?ké

child fetched only water

«The child fetched only water»

b) nduì ?ké-é, m?ìn tuÌ? jiìr?ì

only water-Top child fetch that

«Only water, the child fetched that»

c) *nduì n?ì, m?ìn tuÌ? ?ké

only Top child fetched water

Intended: «Only water, the child fetched that»

The data in (43.c) and (44.c) are ungrammatical because the restrictive adverb has been focalized and topicalized alone, without the noun «?ké» (water) that it modifies. Also, (44.b) shows that topicalization of the restrictive adverbs and the noun it modifies requiresthe use of a resumptive pronoun «jiìr?ì» (it)which refers back to the said noun.

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