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Health risk assessment associated with the reuse of compost, urine and greywater in agricultural field in sahelian climate.

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par Alexis Loukou BROU
Fondation 2iE - Master Environnement option Eau et Assainissement 2014
  

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III. MATERIAL AND METHODS

1. Experimental site

The experimental site of our study is localized on Kamboinsé campus of the International Institute for Water and Environmental Engineering (2iE) whose geographic details are12°27'39.74»N and 1°32'54.78»W. This experiment is carried out in the vicinity of the water purification plant on campus (Figure 1).

Figure 1: Experimental site of Kamboinsé (source Google earth)

Kamboinsé village is located at approximately 9 kms in the North of Ouagadougou on the road to Kongoussi. The population practice Christianity mainly and has activities such as agriculture, breedingand marketing of traditional drink «dolo».This locality is submitted to thesoudano-sahelian climate with a long dry season and a short rain season. The grounds, with the image of thesahelian grounds, are relatively low in organic matter and in total elements (N, P, K), they are generally attached to the classes of average fertility to weak(SOU, 2009). The study is carried out in the experimental site of Ameli-EAUR project.The experimental design is carried out on the lettuce crop which uses the combination of compost and top water (C+TW), urine and top water (U+TW), compost, urine and greywater (C+U+GW), greywater only (GW), and control with which we use only top water to irrigate (NoF). There are 3 replications for each combination (Figure 2 below).The area where the lettuce crop is grownis 1.56 m2 per plank.

The source of compost, urine and greywater which is used to irrigate thelettuce crop is from the families' pilotof Ziniaré especially from Barkuundouba and Kolongodjessé villages. Ziniaré is located in the eastern section with about thirty kilometers far from Ouagadougou, in the Oubritenga district. Barkuundouba is located at 17 kms of Ziniaré. The populations includein the majority Peulh (Fulani people) and practice Islam as the first religion and then Christianity. Breeding is the principal economic activity of the populations. The second activity is agriculture with rudimentary farmingtechniques. This activity is dominated by cereal cultures like millet, sorghum and corn. This sector is also confronted with the insufficiency of cultivable grounds, the irregularity of the rains and decreasing soil fertility(Tagro, 2012).

Kolongodjessé, as forit, is located at 7 kms of the city of Ziniaré on the axis Ouagadougou-Kaya. Its population has respectively as first and second activities breeding and agriculture.They also sell traditional drink called «dolo» and mainly include Mossiethnical group. Contrary to Barkuundouba, the dominant religion with Kolongodjessé is Christianity(NIKIEMA, 2012).

The gap between the lettuce plants on each plank varies from 10 to 15 centimeters. The choice of lettuce is justified by the roughness of surface of the edible sheets and the foliated density of the culture. These characteristics ensure for the micro-organisms a certain disinfecting ability to through solar radiations. Hence this type of consumed vegetables is believed to be a vector of pathogenic micro-organisms particularly dangerous for the consumer (SOU, 2009).

U+ TW

NoF

C+U + GW

GW

C+ TW

0.5 m

1.3 m

GW

C +TW

C+U +GW

U+TW

NoF

1.2 m

C+U+ GW

U + TW

GW

NoF

C+ TW

Figure 2: Experimental design in the site

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