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Une agriculture urbaine durable a Kigali (Rwanda)

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par Felicien SEBUHINJA
Universite du Maine (France) - Master's degree en politiques territoriales et developpement durable 2010
  

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ABSTRACT

The concept of sustainable agriculture in the urban context refers to the conditions for the sustainability in situ of the agricultural occupation of the space and the contribution of the agriculture to the sustainable development of the city. Tackling this question of the sustainability of the urban agriculture in the city of Kigali, the present research analyzed the tools used to remove a number of constraints relating to the future of this urban agriculture in Kigali.

The results show that the agriculture has its place in this city where the terrain is mountainous West to East. However, the question about the definition of the production function against the identity function of the agriculture remains. The big spaces agriculture was localized in zones with strong stakes (high sloping zones, wetland zones). There is a diversity of views between stakeholders in the agriculture, environment and town planning on the agenda of the urban and periurban agriculture. The question that arises is how to handle spaces and agricultural activities over the city, the production function of agriculture and sustainable development requirements: should these three aspects be compartmentalized or reconciled?

The perspective of a sustainable development would be to calculate the value of non-market agriculture and to consider what form it could ensure in payment for the services rendered to the society. The social utility thus created would justify the investment required for its maintenance or development. However, such reasoning can not be applied to environmental goods. This research concluded that with the combined effect of urbanization and its environmental impacts, there will be probably a relocation of wetlands agriculture by actors from environment while the dry agriculture will be adapted to its context (reforestation and grazing). The internal durability of this agriculture is then compromised by environmental and territorial factors.

From then on, these results show that, beyond the master plan project, which is not legally constraining by itself, the future dynamics of the agricultural farmland and agricultural activities in the city of Kigali depend on policy choices to be made by the city officials and the actors. A dialogue between elected officials, stakeholders and users, accompanied by an organized agricultural production should be fostered.

Keywords: sustainable development, sustainable urban agriculture, actors' interplays

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TABLE DES MATIERES

RESUME ii

ABSTRACT iii

TABLE DES MATIERES iv

LISTE DES TABLEAUX vii

LISTE DES FIGURES vii

LISTE DES CARTES vii

LISTE DES PHOTOS vii

LISTE DES SIGLES ET ABREVIATIONS viii

REMERCIEMENTS ix

INTRODUCTION 1

Ière partie : CADRE CONCEPTUEL ET METHODOLOGIQUE DE LA

RECHERCHE 4

I. LA PROBLEMATIQUE 4

II. OBJECTIFS DE LA RECHERCHE 6

III. HYPOTHESES 6

IV. CADRE METHODOLOGIQUE DE LA RECHERCHE 6

IV.1. L'entretien semi-directif 6

IV.2.Analyse des jeux d'acteurs 7

IV.2.1. La matrice intérêt-pouvoir, adaptée de Mendelow 8

IV.3. L'analyse de contenu 9

V. CADRE THEORIQUE ET CONCEPTUEL DE LA RECHERCHE 11

V.1. De la durabilité de l'agriculture urbaine 11

V.2. De l'émergence de la question d'agriculture urbaine durable 13

V.3. La construction de la place de l'agriculture dans le territoire urbain 18

V.3.1. L'organisation du territoire 18

V.3.2. L'identité territoriale 19

V.3.3. L'environnement 19

V.3.4. L'économie agricole 19

V.3.5. La capacité des acteurs 19

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V.4. PRISE EN COMPTE DE L'AGRICULTURE ET SES ESPACES 20

V.4.1. Les espaces agricoles dans le territoire urbain 20

V.4.1.1. Des surfaces agricoles à enjeux prioritaires 20

V.4.1.2. Des surfaces agricoles à enjeux forts 20

V.4.1.3.Des surfaces agricoles à enjeu faible ou nul 20

V.4.2. Les questions agricoles dans les schémas d'aménagement 20

V.5. PROTECTION DES ESPACES AGRICOLES 22

V.5.1. Pourquoi protéger les espaces agricoles ? 22

V.5.2. Les outils de protection des espaces agricoles 24

V.5.2.1. Les directives de développement 24

V.5.2.2. Le zonage 25

V.5.2.3. L'acquisition de propriété 26

V.5.2.4. Les techniques d'incitation 28

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