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Evaluation bactériologique des eaux de consommation des populations de Ngoa-Ekélé à  Yaoundé

par Laurel Kevine TCHAMDA TAYO
Faculte des sciences et de la sante - Universite catholique d Afrique Centrale - Technicien Principal Medico-Sanitaire - Analyses Medicales 2021

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Water represents the major constituent element of the body of a living being. It is estimated at 60% in the composition of the latter with a minimum consumption of 1.5L / Jr. For this, it is incumbent that it is of good sanitary quality to thus evoke its potability, this in order to avoid that the populations are subject to various water-borne diseases. Studies have established that water pollution is the cause of mortality which rises from year to year among populations in developing countries. In this regard, it was important for us to know the real bacteriological profile of the water consumed in these countries. This is how our research focused on "The bacteriological evaluation of drinking water from the populations of Ngoa-Ekélé in Yaoundé". This is a descriptive cross-sectional study which was based on collections of drinking water in this locality at two sources and five wells, associated with the determination of the bacteriological profile of these waters. This determination was made by a direct enumeration method, membrane filtration and identification thanks to the use of special media and API 20E miniaturized galleries coupled with the use of the APIDENT version 2.0 software for the nomenclature of species. The pollution factors and pathologies associated with these waters were identified using a questionnaire submitted to 53 participants. The data were collected by CSPro software and processed by Excel and SPSS software. The results obtained revealed that at the seven water points studied, the springs were full of Klebsiella oxytoca and enterococci, the wells were full of Klebsiella gr. 47, Klebsilla pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes and enterococci. This translates to 67% the distribution of the genus Klebsiella and to 33% the distribution of the genus Enterobacter in the waters of the locality speaking of coliforms. The distribution of enterococci is equivalent to 100% because they are found in each sample tested. The major factors justifying the existence of these germs in the water turned out to be: the latrines, the ditches and then the dumps found near the water points. The study was able to link the non-treatment of water by the populations to these environmental factors. Water-borne diseases affecting consumers and which may be associated with the existing bacterial profile have been identified, revealing the appearance in the population studied of typhoid and paratyphoid fever at 48.39%, gastroenteritis and dysentery at 22.58%. , followed by 6.45% skin infections. In short, the waters of the locality of Ngoa-ékéléé are found to be unfit for consumption.

Keywords: water, evaluation, drinkability, pollution, bacteriological profile, Yaoundé

Mémoire rédigé par TCHAMDA TAYO Laurel Kévine, TMS Page 1


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