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Etude qualitative de la faune culicidienne de l'étang du quartier mairie (Zoetele - Cameroun)

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par Serge Eugène AMOUGOU ZIBI
Université de Yaoundé I - DEA 2010
  

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ABSTRACT

From January to December 2006, we carried out a study which unveiled the Culicidiae fauna near the pond in the Zoétélé council area, situated in the outskirts of the North-East of Zoétélé town (East longitude: 11°53'40», North latitude: 3°15'26») in the Equatorial forest of Cameroon, in the Dja and Lobo Division of South Region. Zoétélé has a Guinean type of climate, which is characterized by four seasons: two rainy seasons (the low peak ranging from March to June and the high peak from September to November) alternating with two dry seasons (the low peak ranging from July to August and the high peak from December to February). Samples were collected from the pond in the council neighborhood situated some 70 m from the town hall.

Culicidae larvae (6730 in number, 4274 from the Anophelinae sub-family and 2456 from the Culicinae sub-family) were collected from this pond using the dipping method. From these larvae, 5327 Culicidae nymphs were obtained (3415 from the Anophelinae sub-family and 1912 from the Culicinae sub-family) and also 5033 Culicidae imagoes.

Eleven different types of mosquitoes emerged from the identification process, which are classified into three types: four species of Anopheles (Anopheles moucheti, Anopheles nili, Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus), three species of Culex (Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex duttoni and Culex tigripes) and four species of Aedes (Aedes albopictus, Aedes aegypti, Aedes tarsalis and Aedes vittatus).

Quantitatively, it therefore emerged that the Anopheles species is the most widespread (68. 11 %) followed by Culex (19. 23 %) and then Aedes (12. 66 %).

Concerning Anopheles type, Anopheles moucheti is the leading vector of malaria throughout the year with a frequency of 41. 07 %. Its production mostly during the low peak of the rainy season. The analysis of variance test (ANOVA) confirmed that seasonal variations do not significantly influence the population of Anopheles moucheti during the four seasons (F = 3.258; ddl=3; P=0.081). Anopheles nili comes after Anopheles moucheti, with a frequency of 29. 72 %. Its production peak is equally during the low peak of the rainy season. A non -significant difference in the variations of the population of

Anopheles nili with regard to the four seasons is confirmed by the analysis variance test (ANOVA) (F=1.665; ddl = 3; P=0.251).

The Culex type is dominated by Culex quinquefasciatus species with a population of 492 (50. 83 %), the species which is the leading vector of Bancroft's filariosis or elephantiasis. Its production peak is during the low peak of the dry season. The analysis of variance test (ANOVA) showed a non-significant difference in the variations of the population of Culex quinquefasciatus during the four seasons (F=1.024; ddl = 3; P=0.432).

Aedes albopictus (potential vector of the dengue) and Aedes aegypti (vector of the yellow fever) are the most widespread species of Aedes with a frequency of 47. 41% and 24. 65 % respectively. Their reproduction peak is during the low peak of the dry season. The analysis of variance test (ANOVA) revealed that the four seasons do not significantly influence the population of Aedes albopictus (F=4.031; ddl=3; P = 0.051). On the contrary, a significant difference in the variations of the Aedes aegypti population during the four seasons is revealed by the analysis of variance test (ANOVA) (F=4.186; ddl = 3; P=0.047).

Key words: Culicidae fauna, Zoétélé, Council, Anopheles, Culex, Aedes.

SOMMAIRE
Dédicace iRemerciements .iiRésumé iiiAbstract .v

Sommaire viiListe des figures ix

Liste des tableaux x

Liste des abréviations ..xi

INTRODUCTION .1

CHAPITRE I : REVUE DE LA LITTERATURE SUR LES CULICIDAE 4

I.1. POSITION DANS LA SYSTEMATIQUE DES CULICIDAE ...5

I.2. BIO-ECOLOGIE ET MORPHOLOGIE SOMMAIRE DES DIFFERENTS STADES

DE DEVELOPPEMENT DE CULICIDAE

11

I.2.1. L'oeuf

12

I.2.2. La larve

.13

I.2.3. La nymphe

15

I.2.4. L'adulte

.16

I.3. LUTTE ANTIVECTORIELLE

19

I.3.1. Lutte contre les oeufs et les larves

20

I.3.2. Lutte anti-imago .

.21

CHAPITRE II : MATERIEL ET METHODES

25

II.1. MATERIEL

26

II.1.1. Matériel biologique

..26

II.1.2. Matériel technique

26

II.1.3. Matériel d'élevage

28

II.1.3.1. Table

..28

II.1.3.2. Cages

.28

II.1.3.3. Eau d'élevage

28

II.1.4 Site d'étude

28

II.2. METHODES

29

II.2.1. Echantillonnage des larves de Culicidae

29

II.2.2. Elevage

.30

II.2.3.Identification morphologique des adultes de Culicidae

30

II.2.4. Analyse des données

30

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