Fond bitcoin pour l'amélioration du site: 1memzGeKS7CB3ECNkzSn2qHwxU6NZoJ8o
  Dogecoin (tips/pourboires): DCLoo9Dd4qECqpMLurdgGnaoqbftj16Nvp

Home | Publier un mémoire | Une page au hasard


Criminal liability for third person's act: case of release on bail

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Pascal KAVUTTSE
National university of Rwanda - Licence 2011

précédent sommaire

Bitcoin is a swarm of cyber hornets serving the goddess of wisdom, feeding on the fire of truth, exponentially growing ever smarter, faster, and stronger behind a wall of encrypted energy


This work entitled:  «criminal liability for third person's acts: case of release on bail» has the hypothesis of personality principle of responsibility and punishment of fines like other penal sanctions in case of release on bail.

In civil law, there exist cases of liability for others' act. Unlike, criminal law is framed in terms of imposing punishment for bad conducts, rather than of grating rewards for good conduct, the emphasis is more on the prevention of the undesirable than on the encouragement of the desirable. Thus, criminal justice system before punishing, considers certain elements of crime and some circumstances that can mitigate or aggravate penalties or to imply irresponsibility of perpetrator. However, in principle the penalties are incurred personally by the offender unless there are causes of non responsibility.

Though, the process of charging to some one a offence let him/her certain rights as long as he/she is presumed innocent. Therefore, he/she can be provisionally released whether on bail conditions, on bail bond or on bail surety. His/her release does not mean that if his/her guilt is found he/she will not be convicted or execute the sentence. Indeed, she/he must execute it unless he/she escaped the justice. However, if he/she escapes, the enforcement authorities have only one recourse: the pursuit of wealth of the offender or that of his surety in case of surety bail, for execution of pecuniary penalties like fines.

It is worth to mention that this research clarifies what release on bail is under Rwandan law, how the punishment of fines violates personality principle of criminal liability and punishment not only in case of release on bail but also in general. The execution of fine punishment is sometimes against the constitution in its article 17 «criminal liability is personal». The release on bail is also against constitution. There is no equal protection if a suspect is released on payment of a sum of money. However, release on bail is reserved to the richer and those who have not financial means shall never benefit provisional release.


The principle of personality of criminal responsibility implies the personality of punishment meaning that a person is punishable because of the offence he/she committed him/herself or he/she participated. Criminal justice system should ensure as far as possible if a person to execute or to serve a punishment is personally offender.

The release on bail should be limited only to the bond and conditions, not to the surety. If release on bail surety is necessary, a surety should be bound only to civil penalties rather than penal sanctions. The criminal justice should be careful to the fines penalties. It should recognize that fines are penal sanctions, then, criminal liability is personal.

As a particular recommendation, judges or magistrates in taking decisions of release on bail, would follow the supreme law, the constitution, rather than other laws. Their motivations denying bail on surety would be based on constitutional principle of personality of criminal liability. If not their decisions will be against the article 17 of Rwandan constitution. It is good and necessary to know and to respect the hierarchy of norms.

The legislator should correct some articles of code of criminal procedure especially those relating to release on bail. For example article 90 which states «bail conditions can be ordered when the offence a person is charged of is a misdemeanor or a felony» and article 105 para.2 which states «no bond shall be admitted in respect of felonies». The problem is how damages arising from the offence, property to be restituted and fines will be recovered in case the accused of felony and released on bail conditions, escapes? Those articles give chance to that one accused of felony rather than the accused of misdemeanor.



1. Constitution of republic of Rwanda of 04/06/2003 (O.G special No of 4 june2003, p. 119) as amended up to date.

2. Rome statute (Text of the Rome Statute circulated as document A/CONF.183/9 of 17 July 1998and corrected by process-verbaux of 10 November 1998, 12 July 1999, 30 November 1999, 8 May 2000, 17 January 2001 and 16January 2002. The Statute entered into force on 1 July 2002).

3.Law No 13/2004 of 17/5/2004 establishing code of criminal procedure, O.G special No of 30/07/2004, modified and complemented by law n° 20/2006 of 22/04/2006, O.G special n° of 27 may 2006.

4. Decree law of 30 July 1888 [Book III ] contracts or conventional obligations (B.O., 1888, P. 109)

5. .Decree law No21/77 of 1/8august 1977 establishing Rwandan penal code(O.G No 13, 1978 p.1) modified by decree law No23/81 of 1981 (O.G 1981,P.940) confirmed by law No 01/82 of26 January 1982(O.G no 1982,p.227)and law 08/1983 of 10 March 1983 (O.G of 1983, p.206)

6. Code of criminal procedure of republic of French.


1.CANNIN Patrick, droit pénal général, 4e éd., maitre de conférence à l'université Grenoble-II-Pierre-Mendès-France, hachette, 2007

2. K. Twiine Apophia, special criminal law course manual, faculty of law, NUR, 2009

3.Wayne R. La Fave and AUSTIN W. Scott, Jr, criminal law

4.BERNARDINI Roger, Droit pénal général : Introduction au droit criminel théorie générale de la responsabilité pénale, 2003

5.MUGENZI Louis. Marie, droit pénal général, ministère de la justice, Edition R.C.N., 1995

6.Brière de l'Isle M.Georges, Droit pénal général, les cours de droit, 158, rue saint Jacques-Paris-v

7.Ormerod David, SMITH AND HOGAN. Criminal law, 11th ed., US Oxford university press, Inc., New York, 2005

8.Soyer Jean CLAUDE, droit pénal et procédure pénale, 16th ed., L.G.D. 31, Rue Falguiere, 741 Paris Cedex 15 Depot Légal, 2002

9.Campell Brack. Henry, Black's law dictionary, 6e ed., St Paul Minn: West Publishing, 1990

10.CORNU G, vocabulaire juridique, 8e ed., Paris, PUF, 2000

11.William A. Shabas and Martin Imbleau, introduction to Rwandan law, Canada,Quebec, les Editions Yvon Blais inc. 1997

12.P.CHAMBON, le juge d'instruction, théorie et pratique de la procedure, 4e ed., Paris, Dalloz, 1997

13.Pradel Jean, droit pénal comparé, Paris, Dalloz, 1995

14.MWINE B. Jofrey, criminal responsibility in Rwandan law: criminal proceedings since 1994, memoire, UNR, 2001

15.MUHAYEYEZU A., le droit à un procès équitable, principe fondamentale de droit de l'homme dans la procédure devant les juridictions répressives rwandaises, RJR., vol XVI, No 1, 1992

16.TUSABE Andrew, conditional release under Rwandan law, memoire, BUTARE, UNR, 1999

17.UMUHOZA Naomi, legal analysis of bail system under Rwandan law, BUTARE, UNR, Memoire, 2006

18.Bouloc Bernard, Matsopoulou Hiritini, droit pénal général et procédure pénale, 16e ed., Paris, Editions Dalloz, 2006

19.NTAMFURAYINDA Joseph, le régime de l'amende en droit pénal rwandais, UNR, mémoire, 1989

20.CHAMBON P., le juge d'instruction, théorie et pratique de la procédure, 3e ed., Paris, Dalloz,1980

21.Cambridge encyclopedia,

22.Encyclopedia Americana vol.3 Americana corporation, New York- Chicago- Washington,DC, 1961


1.RONPJ 0141588S1/11/RG/NM, order no 19/11/NGOMA of provisional release of September, 06, 2011, prosecutor v J.NTIGIRINZIGO

2. 33.RPGR 290036/S1/2005/BG/SA, Order no 47/2005/ TB/GIKONGORO of provisional release of 12/08/2005 prosecutor v T.TWAHIRWA and J.B.MUKURARINDA


1. accessed on 4/03/2011

2. Htt:// accessed on 12th September, 2011

3. accessed on 12th September, 2011

précédent sommaire

Bitcoin is a swarm of cyber hornets serving the goddess of wisdom, feeding on the fire of truth, exponentially growing ever smarter, faster, and stronger behind a wall of encrypted energy

"Ceux qui rĂªvent de jour ont conscience de bien des choses qui échappent Ă  ceux qui rĂªvent de nuit"   Edgar Allan Poe