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Chomsky, Brzezinski and the allegation of terrorism in the american strategy for the global primacy

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par Mohamed Youssef LAARISSA
Université Cadi Ayyad - B.A of English Studies 2010
  

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CADI AYYAD UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF LETTERS
AND HUMAN SCIENCES

 

Final Term Research

CHOMSKYJ BRZEZINSKI AND THE

ALLEGATION OF TERRORISM IN

THE AMERICAN STRATEGY FOR

GLOBAL PRIMACY.

Supervised by:

Presented by : Pr. JOUAY Mohamed

LAARISSA Mohamed Voussef

Academic Year: 2009-2010

CHOMSKYJ BRZEZINSKI AND THE ALLEGATION OF

TERRORISM IN THE AMERICAN STRATEGY FOR GLOBAL

PRIMACY.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT.

I would like to thank deeply Professor Mohamed

p4aav for supervising me and for his constant support

and encouragement.

CONTENTS:

INTRODUCTION 6

PART I: THE GLOBAL PRIMACY THEORY 8

I- The Control of Eurasia: A Geo-strategically Imperative10

1- What is Eurasia? 11

2- Why? 14

II- The European Powerlessness 19

1- The European Protectorates19

2- The European Pivots 22

PART II: THE THEORY ABUSE &THE SELF-AWARDING OF THE GLOBAL MONOPOLY OF WAR ON TERROR 25

I- A Unilateral Definition of «Terrorism»27

1- A Biased official Definition27

2- Leading Global Terror 32

II- From war against Communism to war on Narco-terrorism in Latin

America 37

1- Latin America: An American Private Hunting Ground 37

2- Sticking the American Habits 40

CONCLUSION44 BIBLIOGRAPHY47 APPENDIX48

INTRODUCTION:

«HEGEMONY is AS OLD AS MANKIND. But America's current global supremacy is distinctive in the rapidity of its emergence, in its global scope, and in the manner of its exercise. In the course of a single century, America has transformed itself-and has also been transformed by international dynamics-from a country relatively isolated in the Western Hemisphere into a power of unprecedented worldwide reach and qrasp»(').

Nonetheless, like the other Powers and Empires, that have dominated the world, America's Hegemony could not be eternal. To delay its situation USA, must be aware of its strength and weakness, and try to set strategies that will allow it to remain the global Hyper power, as long as possible.

USA has had recourse to a classical Manichean approach, focusing on the struggle between the good and the evil. The good represented by it and its allies, and the evil by any other power that could be susceptible to menace its global primacy. That is the main reason to explain the eternal tracking down America's and friends' enemies.

Inventing enemies has always been a states' imperative. Since the dawn of time, governors have always recourse to such a technique to strengthen, concentrate and secure their power. The presence of an enemy has always served as an efficient tool, legitimating the abuses of power of the one who possesses it. This enemy is a «must» in politics; he can either be a foreign threat coming from outside, or internal. And when he is absent, he is simply invented.

(1) Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and its Geostrategical Imperatives, Basic Books, New York 1997, p 4.

Throughout the last century, many of those «enemies» have marched. Nowadays, «International Terrorism» leads the list of states' enemy. That rank has been strengthened by, the 9/11 events.

Since that date, fighting terrorism -whether the Islamic one or others- has become many countries imperative around the world (USA & EU). The banner of the «War against Terrorism» allows the American superpower to wage military interventions, wherever, whenever, however and in unilateral way.

The following research will be divided in two. We will briefly try to tackle the Brzezinski's theory for America's global primacy and its major statements; namely, the Eurasian imperative control. So we are going to see what does Eurasia mean why it is so important (I), and what do the other powers do while USA is looking for its own global primacy(II), ...

In the second part of the research, we will try to see the consequences of this global primacy strategy, by appealing one of the major figures of the American Establishment dissidence «Avram Noam Chomsky». We will try to analyze the official definition of terrorism, and the consequences of this biased definition and the self-awarding of the global monopoly of war on terror. (IV). Then we will try to apply this analysis and the one of the major Brzezinski global primacy theory lacks at the light of war against Narco-terrorism.

PART I:

BRZEZINSKI'S THEORY FOR GLOBAL PRIMACY

Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski is one of the main masters in International affairs. He is one of the major and heavy figures of the American foreign policy and one of the most brilliant geo-strategist in the world. He was former «National Security Advisor» within Jimmy Carter's Administration. In the seventies he made the prediction that the USSR was going to collapse in nineties. He is at the moment, Obama's advisor on foreign affairs.

The «Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and its Geostrategic Imperatives» is a major masterpiece, on the American Foreign Policy. Appeared for the first time in 1997, the Book still has an important topicality. In it, the author explains that USA constitutes an unmatched super power, above all after the fall of the Socialist Bloc leaded by the USSR. And draws what the American Foreign Policy must be, to remain USA in Its actual Position. For him the American Empire has made a choice: «To Dominate the World».

Zbigniew Brzezinski's style compared, to other authors, is unique. Far from wooden language and double speech, he is direct, usually blunt, brutal sometimes and barely politically incorrect. With «The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and its Geostrategic Imperatives» American Foreign Policy has never been so clearly, and precisely explained.

In the following pages, we will try to present a brief approach of Zbigniew Brzezinski theory. We are going to begin with one of his basic concepts, namely; «Eurasia» (I). Then we will tackle the author's view on other global powers, such as Europe (II).

I-The Control of Eurasia: A Geo-strategically Imperative.

«It is imperative that
no Eurasian challenger emerges,
capable of dominating Eurasia and thus of also challenging America.
The formulation of a comprehensive and intergrated Eurasian geostrategy
is therefore
the purpose of this book.»(2)

(2 )The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives, Zbigniew Brzezinski, éd. New York, 1997, p. 14

1- What is Eurasia?

Eurasia constitutes a central concept in the Geostrategical jargon. It's the globe largest continent is geopolitically axial. So if we reverse the global map (3), we will see that Eurasia appears as a central continent, while others seem to look like peripheral Islands. Controlling Eurasia means controlling two of the world's three most advanced and economically productive region; namely Western Europe and East Asia. About 75% of the global population lives there. Most of the physical wealth finds itself there too, both in its enterprises and underneath its soil (4).

In his analysis, Brzezinski argues that all the Empires have emerged in that geographical zone (Rome, China, Mongolia, Turkey...) USA is the first non-Eurasian Empire that the Mankind knows. It is the most powerful country in the globe. But its position is not eternal. He is aware that US must adopt some vital measures that are going to allow the continuity in its position. So, as vital as

(3) (4) Ibid, p. 15.

Eurasia has been vital for the other empires, so it will be for USA. Then USA must control EURASIA. The control of Eurasia is its geostategical Imperative.

Brzezinski's theory major statement is the Chessboard on which the global primacy is played. It is inspired by the imminent works of the British geographer «Harold MacKinder». For Mackinder, Eurasia represents a Heartland. That can be seen through the reversed map upon. Eurasia appears as a central land and the rest of the continents as Islands. So, Mackinder major statement is the following.

· Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland;

· Who rules the Heartland rules the World Islands;

· Who rules the World Islands commands the World.

During the WWII Germany's objective was to control East Europe. In Hitler's book «Mein Kampf», he detailed his belief that the German people needed «Lebensraum» (living space), and that it should be found in the East. USSR will be the major opponent to this achievement. During the cold war, Nazi Germany will be replaced by USA, in challenging URSS for the control of East Europe.

Brzezinski affirms proudly that he had played an important role, by creating the Afghan conflict, and supporting morally and military the «Islamic Freedom Fighters», in order to create a Russian Vietnam that will conduct USSR to its loss. In late 70's and during an unofficial visit to Pakistani-Afghan borders, he affirmed in a speech to a group of jihadist, that they must fight the Soviet enemy, the must come back to their homes and mosques from which they have been thrown. The major sentence in the speech was «Because your cause is right, God is on your side».(5)

(5) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WaiJtLrEwVU&feature=related

Asked nowadays, of his support of the «Terrorists» in Afghanistan, he stated that America's major objective was to stop the Russian hegemony. He answers that, the Afghan conflict was created, in a way to induce USSR in a conflict that will conduct it to its decadence, by avoiding a direct confrontation with USA. With the collapse of USSR, Brzezinski states that USA reached its objective to win an Evil by recurring to a less bad one. Noam Chomsky observed that CIA took the most extremist Islamic assassins that participated in the Afghan conflict, to send them to Balkans and Caucasia to continue their bloody homework serving American Interests.

The Weakening of Russia is one of the most important imperative for USA. Russia must be weakened, to avoid the most minimal possibility that she could revive again, as it the case and unfortunately for Brzezinski with Vladimir Poutine's Russia. The Georgia-Russia war in august 2008, in which the Russian Army annihilated the Georgian armed forces of one of the most pro-American presidents «Mikhail Saakashvili» in few days only, expressed the Russian comeback and the fact that it is not ready to accept any inference in what was its private hunting ground.

After the collapse of USSR, USA must have as a central objective to win the ex-USSR zones, and eliminate any potential menace to its hegemony in the Zone. When the USSR broke, Tito's Yugoslavia stayed the only socialist state in whole Europe. For some scholars, having socialist states in Europe was a menace that had to be eradicated by any way. The rise of ethnical conflicts and bloody wars in the Yugoslavian republics (Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Albania, Kosovo...) all around the 90's will have as a result the collapse of the Yugoslavian Federation. The smash of the Yugoslavian Federation of Marshal Tito can be compared with the voluntary smash of Saddam Hussein's Iraq.

2- How?

USA Power is unmatched. Throughout the History, no empire has enjoyed the actual situation of the American Empire. Notwithstanding, contrary to the other Empire, US bases his hegemonic power not only in the military field. Its supremacy, is cultural, economic, technological, and military.

In the keeping USA Supremacy, USA depends on creating a global consensus. Being the major Democracy in the world, and that it must behave as it as well. It is worldwide appreciated, it's the model to follow and imitate. USA has produced an international order that not only replicates but institutionalizes abroad many of the features of the American system itself. Its basic features include:

· Regional economic cooperation (APEC, NAFTA) and specialized global cooperative institutions (The World Bank, IMF, WTO)...;

· Procedures that emphasize consensual decision making, even if dominated by the US;

· A preference for Democratic membership within key alliances;

· A rudimentary global constitutional and judicial structure (ranging from the World Court of Justice to a Special Criminal Court to try Bosnian war crimes);

· A collective security system, including integrated command forces (NATO, the US-Japan Security Treaty, and so forth).

Near, the Economic and technological supremacy that is unquestionable, we find the cultural one. At that point Zibig gives a blunt and realistic statement, that it would be impossible to give a clearer one. For him «Whatever one may think about its aesthetic values, America's mass culture exercises a magnetic

appeal, especially on the world's youth. Its attraction may be derived from the hedonistic quality of the lifestyle it projects, but its global appeal is undeniable. American television programs and films account for about three- fourths of the global market. American popular music is equally dominant, while American fads, eating habits, and even clothing are increasingly imitated worldwide. The language of internet is English, and overwhelming proposition of the global computer chatter also originates from American, influencing the content of global conversation. Lastly, America has become the Mecca for those seeking advanced education, with approximately half a million foreign students flocking the United States, with many of the ablest never return home. Graduates from American Universities are to be found in almost every Cabinet on every Continent». (7)

Despite of the American supremacy on many facets, Zibig focuses on the Military one, and tries to illustrate it within the following map (8):

(7) (8) Zbigniew Brzezinski, Op cit, P13.

As we can see, the American Military Arsenal and Military organization is unmatched. No other country enjoys its invidious strength situation.

Its armed forces are present all around the world and their supremacy is unquestionable, either on Land, Air or Sea. By controlling oceans, having some private hunting grounds such as Latin America, and Some Protectorates (Western Europe, Japan, Great Britain and the Common Wealth...), USA and in a symmetrical warfare (Wars between States and their Regular Armies) has assured triumph and victory. In 2003, the International coalition, leaded by the US Army annihilated Saddam Hussein's troops, by a lightning and conclusive victory on that some Western Media- classified to be one of the most powerful ones in the world. Concerning, irregular and asymmetrical wars, better known as guerilla warfare, the US Army, and as it is normally the case with regular armies, have troubles imposing their supremacy. Iraq, Afghanistan, and above all the Vietnam illustrate the difficulties that a regular army may face in that kind of wars.

Brzezinski detractors strongly criticize his brutality and his focus on the military facet. But from another perspective, the excessive importance given to it can be justified. It can be explained throughout the old Latin adage» Si vis Pacem, Para Bellum», in other words, if you want peace, prepare the War. And it might have its roots in «Nicollo Machiavelli» masterpiece «The Prince» (1513) where he explains whether a Prince must be loved or feared. «From this arises the question whether it is better to be loved rather than feared, or feared rather than loved. It might perhaps be answered that we should wish to be both: but since love and fear can hardly exist together, if we must choose between them, it is far safer to be feared than loved». Then, in such a logic, USA as Princes must be feared by other states rather than loved, and this fear finds its

fundaments in the American massive and unmatched military power. So, USA is loved and appreciated, but in a contrary case, they will not hesitate to recourse to their destruction forces towards dissident and recalcitrant States.

Returning to the main question within this part, «HOW». That means how the US could be able to set their hegemonic aims.

In 1945, the main reason of the American participation within WW II was to fight Nazism and Fascism. From 1945 to 1991 the enemy was Communism. After this date finding a new enemy will be an imperative. The participation in the WW II was legitimated throughout the Pearl Harbor Attacks, and the Cold War throughout the blockage of Berlin and the war of Korea.

In the 90's Islamism is going to replace Nazism, Fascism and Communism, and put to design the new axis of Evil. This point of view has been strengthened by jumble of stupidities as the clash of civilizations, or the roots of Muslim rage and so forth. Some Western authors will develop some theories that will create false debates. According to such biased results, we are going to give more importance to «the violent feature» of a culture to justify and legitimate guiding armed actions against it, as being the only solution.

In fact, we are living in a world dominated by the economical interests and the economical interests only. We must overtake the simplest and Manichean approaches that divide the world in two «Axis»: The Good and the Evil. Humans will use any pretext to justify the theft of what does not belong to them. We are living in a jungle where the struggle goes on who will have more. All concerns economical struggles that are given the shape of religious, ethnic, ideological conflicts. It only turns on money and money only. Being, Jew, Christian, Muslim, Atheist, Black, White, Yellow or Red does not really matter. Racial, or Religious approaches have as purpose to create only false debates.

When it goes on defending own interests, moral values and principles are thrown to a secondary position.

Zbigniew Brzezinski did not express exactly in what way the American Administration must apply his theory. But we can easily argue -above all after the 9/11 events- that it recourse to a classical Manichean approach, where the USA, being the world peace and order Guardian and leader of Democracies and the Enlightened world is going to fight in the name of International Security, Democracy and Freedom the 21st Century axis of Evil, represented by «International Terrorism».

Then, by observing the Iraqi an Afghan case, and in the name of what those wars have been waged, we can without any difficulty affirm that «Kicking off a global war on terror» is one of the most efficient tool, allowing to dress Brzezinski's Global domination Theory.

II- The European Powerlessness.

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