Landfill sites selection for municipal solid waste using multi criteria evaluation techniques. Case of Rusizi town, Rwanda
par Fidele RUGIRAMANZI
National university of Rwanda - Post Graduate Diploma in Applied Geo-Information Science 2013
NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA
CENTRE FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND REMOTE SENSING (CGIS)
LANDFILL SITES SELECTION FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE USING MULTI CRITERIA EVALUATION
Case of Rusizi Town, Rwanda
Individual Case Study done in the partial fulfillment for the award of the Post Graduate Diploma in Applied Geo-Information Science
By Fidèle RUGIRAMANZI
Supervisor: Mr. Theodomir MUGIRANEZA
I declare that the dissertation hereby submitted in the partial fulfillment for the award of the Post Graduate Diploma in Applied Geo-Information Science at the National University of Rwanda/ Centre for Geographical Information System and Remote Sensing, is original and has not been published and/or submitted for any other degree award to any other University before.
To the almighty God,
To my mother,
To my Brothers and Sisters,
To my Friends, classmates and Colleagues
Firstly, I give thanks and praise to GOD for everything that happened in my life.
Much of the work for this project as well as for my study programme could not have been completed without the help and support of many people. I would like to thank my supervisor, Mr. Theodomir MUGIRANEZA, I am so deeply grateful to his help, support, and valuable guidance throughout this research and my study programme that I do not have enough words to express my gratitude.
My incredible recognition goes out to my fellow students for their moral and collaboration during this research.
Finally, special thanks are extended to all institutions and individuals that supported me in different manner.
My sincere gratitude is expressed to each and every one who supported me in one way or another to accomplish this research.
I COUNT YOU ALL AS A GIFT FROM GOD TO ME: BE EXTREMELY BLESSED
Siting a landfill is an extremely complex task mainly due to the fact that the identification and selection process involves many factors and strict regulations. For proper identification and selection of appropriate sites for landfills careful systematic procedures need to be adopted and followed. Wrong siting of landfill may have negative environmental, economic and ecological impacts. In this study, attempts have been made to determine sites that are appropriate for landfill siting in Rusizi Town of Rusizi District, Western Province in Rwanda. This was achieved by combining geographic information system (GIS) and a multi-criteria evaluation technique. For this purpose, ten input map layers including Roads network, Rivers, Kivu Lake, wetlands, forests, airport, markets, health facilities, schools and slope were prepared. A constrained area was created with respect to 100m buffer from the roads, 300m buffer from rivers, forest, wetlands and Kivu Lake, 1000m buffer from schools, health facilities and market and 3000m buffer from Kamembe airport. The final map was produced after spatial overlay of permissible area and suitable slope of between 8 and 12%. The final output was produced where 133 sites were identified to fulfill the required criteria; among them five met the land size criteria requirement of 2 hectares and above for a potential landfill site. 04 potential sites were identified in Mururu Sector while 01 potential site was identified in Gihundwe Sector. However, during this research, the lack of some of the required data such as ground water levels and geologic data that may improve the quality of the final result was among the problem faced due to time and budget constraints. The results showed the efficacy of GIS and multi-criteria evaluation technique in decision making, while dealing with complex and conflicting criteria.
Keyword: Landfill, Site selection, Municipal Solid Waste, Multi Criteria Evaluation Technique
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS V
LIST OF TABLES VII
LIST OF FIGURES VIII
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS IX
CHAPTER 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 1
1.2. PROBLEM STATEMENT 2
1.3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND RESEARCH QUESTIONS 3
1.4. SCOPE OF THE RESEARCH 4
1.5. RESEARCH CONTRIBUTIONS 4
CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW 5
2.1. SOLID WASTE CATEGORIES 5
2.2. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT 6
2.2.1. Source reduction 6
2.2.2. Recycling 6
2.2.3. Waste transformation 7
2.2.4. Landfilling 7
2.3. CRITERIA FOR LANDFILL SITING 9
2.3.1. Environmental Criteria 9
2.3.2. Political Criteria 10
2.3.3. Economic Criteria 11
2.3.4. Hydrologic/Hydrogeologic Criteria 12
2.3.5. Topographical Criteria 12
2.3.6. Geological Criteria 12
2.4. GIS AND MULTI CRITERIA TECHNIQUES IN SITE SELECTION 13
CHAPTER 3: STUDY AREA AND METHOLOGY 14
3.1. STUDY AREA DESCRIPTION 14
3.2. DATA AND MATERIAL 15
3.3. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES 15
3.4. DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 18
CHAPTER 4: WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT IN RUSIZI: BOTLENECKS' ANALYSIS AND SUITABLE
LANDFILL SITES LOCATION 19
4.1. WASTE GENERATION AND MANAGEMENT IN RUSIZI TOWN 19
4.2. GAPS AND CHALLENGES IN WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE TOWN OF RUSIZI 20
4.3. SITE SELECTION FOR LANDFILL IN RUSIZI TOWN 21
4.3.1. Criteria for site selection 21
4.3.2. Landfill site determination 23
4.4. POSSIBILITIES FOR LANDFILL SITES PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION 31
CHAPTER 5: GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 32
5.1. GENERAL CONCLUSION 32
5.2. RECOMMENDATIONS 33
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1 : Research objectives and questions 3
Table 4-1 : Evolution of Solid waste by Sector in the Town of Rusizi .. 19
Table 4-2 : Composition of Waste in Rusizi Town 19
Table 4-3 : Proportions (in %) of dwelling units according to mode of disposal of household
waste in the town of Rusizi 21
Table 4-4 : Suitable Sites and their areas (in Sqm) 27
Table 4-5 : Potential landfill sites .. 29
Table 4-6 : Location of potential landfill sites 29
LIST OF FIGURES
Fig 2-1 : Waste management hierarchy 8
Fig 3- 1 : Location map of the study area 14
Fig 3-2 : Model builder for Factor Map 16
Fig 3-3 : Model builder for Constraints Map 17
Fig 3-4 : Model builder for Final Map . .. 18
Fig 4-1 : Rusizi Town MSW management related problems 20
Fig 4-2 : Slope analysis 24
Fig 4-3 : Constrained and permissible area . .. 25
Fig 4-4 : Distribution of Suitable sites in Rusizi Town 26
Fig 4-5 : Distribution of Potential landfill sites in Rusizi Town 28
Fig 4-6 : General Suitability Map . 30
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS
CBD : Central Business District
DEM : Digital Elevation Model
CGIS : Centre for Geographic Information Systems
MCE : Multi Criteria Evaluation
MCET : Multi Criteria Evaluation Techniques
MININFRA : Ministry of Infrastructure
MSW : Municipal Solid Waste
NGO : Non Governmental Organization
NIABY : Not in anyone's backyard
NIMBY : Not in my backyard
NUR : National University of Rwanda
REMA : Rwanda Environment Management Authority
RNRA : Rwanda Natural Resources Authority
RURA : Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority
CHAPTER 1: GENERAL INTRODUCTION
This study aimed at finding out potential landfill sites for Municipal solid waste in the town of Rusizi. This chapter presents the background of the study, problem statement, research objectives and research questions, scope of the research and research contributions.
Municipal solid waste (MSW) collection and disposal is a major problem associated with the urban development in different countries. It has also been recognized as one of the major problems confronting governments and city planners the world over (Rahman & Hoque, 2006). It is estimated that the United kingdom produces 35 million tones of municipal solid waste annually(Koshy, Emma, Sarah, Tim, & Kelly, 2007) and in the United states of America, more than 140 million tones of municipal waste is generated annually, while Japan and Germany generates 50.2 million and 43.5 million tones of municipal wastes in 1993 respectively(Sakai et al., 1996). In Africa, the situation appears to be the same as other parts of the world (Babalola & Busu, 2011).
In the developing countries, municipal solid waste management system is either not efficient or still at the rudimentary stage and as such solid waste generated has become a threat to the environment (Babalola & Busu, 2011). According to (Weigand, Fripan, Przybilla, & Marb, 2003) the «Lack of MSW management leads to significant soil, water, air aesthetic pollution associated human health problems, as well as an increase in greenhouse gases emission».
In urban areas of developing countries massive wastes generally consist of domestic garbage, organic litter, plant leaves, branches, logs, spoiled agric produce, crop residues, bad food materials, pieces of paper, polythene bags, rags, vehicle scraps, used tires, dusts, mire, plastics, glass, blood, bones, animal skins, hides, leather, urinary and fecal materials. When these wastes are improperly disposed-which is generally the case; they constitute a threat to air, water, land, vegetable, wildlife and man. Sickness and disease epidemics often occur when sewage, garbage wastes and unwanted substances are not properly disposed of and well managed (Awomeso, Taiwo, Gbadebo, & Arimoro, 2010).
For a sustainable solid waste management, system policies and techniques such as waste recycling, reuse, waste reduction, thermal treatment, landfilling must be in place. The landfill
method has been widely recognized as the most used of all the waste management techniques and sanitary landfill is the most cost-effective system of solid waste disposal for most urban areas in developing countries (Nas, Cay, Iscan, & Berktay, 2010).
Several studies have been conducted on different scales to find the optimum locations for solid waste disposal sites. The selection of their ultimate site is complex. It must combine social, environmental, technical and economical parameters. Also, the location must comply with the requirements of the governmental regulations in order to be acceptable (Al-Hanbali, Alsaaideh, & Kondoh, 2011).
According to (RURA, 2011) no landfill site shall be located in any area where it is likely to have a significant negative impact on existing land uses, the location of the landfill should not give rise to any adverse effects or a significant risk of any adverse effects occurring». For a sustainable urban development, it is imperative not only to set up an effective system for waste collection and transport but also a selection of a suitable site for waste deposition.
To do so, a Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) technique is used to deal with the difficulties that decision makers encounter in handling large amounts of complex information. The principle of the method is to divide the decision problems into more smaller understandable parts, analyze each part separately, and then integrate the parts in a logical manner (Malczewski, 1997).