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Action program of the rwandan women parliamentary forum (RWPF) in matter of promotion of the know how of the rwandan women facing vision 2020: Case of Huye District (1996-2006)

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Frédéric TEGERA MPAMYA
National University of Rwanda - Bachelor's Degree 2007

précédent sommaire



Section 1. Texts of the condition of the woman through the project of society


The genocide of 1994, the massacres and the war had left the country in a very critical situation, have regard with this particular situation of the country and other challenges which Rwanda knows, within this framework the project of society under consideration by FPR-Inkotanyi56(*) with an aim of improving the condition of the women and that of the society in general are multiple, to identify, here some priority:

v The leveling division of the capacity and responsibilities;

v The fight counters poverty;

v Improvement of the access of the woman to the social services (education, health,

Management of the environment, etc.)

v The promotion of peace and the fight against the violence made to the women;

v Improvement of the legal statute of the woman;

v The promotion of the woman through the media;

v The support with the women in the particular situations;

v Reinforcement of the mechanisms of promotion of the woman;

v Promotion, protection and development of the small girl;57(*)

With an aim of supporting the Rwandan women FPR-Inkotanyi contributes to the development of project made by MIGEPROF having the goal to record the constraints which prevent the Rwandan women from opening out and to take part in the wellbeing of the society. Within this framework, the committed projects and the introduction of the communal funds of the women have the basic seat in the district.

These funds constitute to allocate with the women in order to reinforce their economic capacity in the exercise of the generating activities of the incomes and to help them to solve their problems in order to facilitate moreover the access of women to the bank credit. Moreover, one has to open guarantee funds near the institutions wanting to support the women in the Small sector and Medium-sized companies (SME).

1.1. Priority action plan of the FPR-INKOTANYI of 2003-2015

To encourage the best participation of the women in the process of the durable development, the FPR- Inkotanyi must give the chance to the women to take part fully in the decision-making and to ensure the responsibility. In prospect, BOSERUP Ester (1975), the watch by saying that:

"The integration of the woman in the effort of the development means that one has the statutory duty to reach the means which exist and which allow the individual or the company to progress. The development itself will be slows down if the woman does not take part of advantage in employment in all the fields and all the levels. Certain governmental services and other suitable organizations should establish standards and objectives to just like encourage the employment of women in the public sector in the private sector. It is important that the women, they also take share with the formulation and the execution of the projects. It is thus imperative to grant a more important place to the woman in all the fields of planning and the execution as regards the development, on all the levels of the local government, regional, national and international."58(*)

Thus, under the mandate of FPR-Inkotanyi here some paramount actions of the integration of the woman; in the years 2003-2015:

v To reinforce the capacities of the women implied in the authorities of decision-making on all the levels by the formations on several occasions, the training courses, the camp of solidarity, the trips studies as regards civic education, leadership, gender and development;

v To create the environment necessary to support the education of the girls and the women;

v To increase social services related to reproductive health;

v To develop the mechanisms and to multiply the formations and seminars aiming at encouraging the women able to take part in the electoral process and the other political activities and fields of the leadership;

v To promote generating activities of incomes for the reinforcement of the capacities of the women from the economic point of view and the activities of fight against poverty;

v To organize the inclusive public awareness campaigns to support the evolution of mentalities with regard to the roles traditionally allocated with the men and the women and to fight the stereotypes, by reinforcing patriotism;

v To pay an attention particular to the education of the women especially country-women, not educated;

v To work out suitable laws and legislations to protect the woman from the exploitation and discrimination of which it is victim on behalf of the company and to offer a legal support to them. 59(*)

A priori, FPR-Inkotanyi roughly speaking, A contributes on the revision of the code of the family, the significant constitution kind of which one of the principles is that for all the stations of decision-making the women occupy 30%. Thus, the law n 22/99 of the 12/11/1999, instituting the fifth part relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and the successions was promulgated. In the part relating to the division of ascending, the law stipulates this in its articles 42 and 43.60(*)

Article 42: "the division going down is the act achieved by parents of their alive, by whom share their inheritance between their children or their descendants which become about it, each one for the reserved position him, owners. This division is worth achievement of the duties of the parents to educate and give a specific inheritance to their children."

Article 43: "All the children without discrimination no, between those of male sex and those of female sex still in life or failing this, the descendants of those deceased before their parents, other than the deposed children due to misconduct or ingratitude, have right to the divisions made by their descendants".

1.2. The engagement of the women in the armed forces

As one explained the marginalization of the woman in the second chapter, traditionally the woman did not take part in the war, which reserved with the men; the woman could not be victim of revenge nor to help with the avenger actions. The popular, saying called "umukobwa agira inzara ntagira inzigo" (the girl knows the hunger, it does not know resentment).61(*)

In 1990 already, the women are stopped for complicity with the FPR - Inkotanyi. Generally "RDF" (Rwanda Defense Forces), currently is greets like an action aiming at establishing the equality between the man and the woman. Within old army FPR certain women were also committed as soldiers, the so fundamental importance, we can say on the line of face in 1990 until 1994, the Rwandan woman marked a solved revolution; it took the initiative! Rwanda had never known similar women hero, since the long one and long dates.

The women devoted incredibly are illustrated in the category of "super hero" solemnly recognized during the ceremonies commemorative of National Release. About fifteen the women were crowned medals in 2007, at the time of 7th ceremony of National Release, that is to say five civil among the groups of Supers Hero's, which stopped the genocide. By way of example: ZURA KARUHIMBI62(*) of old the province of GITARAMA, saved more than 100 people during the genocide. Sergeant Angelica NIYONSHUTI and his colleague Berthilde MUKANDEGEYA RUKUTANA, all perished at once of battle after having struck the enemy in the Park of the KAGERA in 1991. Berthilde MUKANDEGEYA was killed after a large baited combat with RWEMPESHA in the old province of UMUTARA. 63(*)

A posteriori, FPR-Inkotanyi affirmed that, the implication of the woman in the authorities of decision-making breaks the sociocultural barriers, opens the spirit among women to have the ambition to reach the stations of responsibility and to give their effective contribution to the development of the country.

Section 2. Texts of the condition of the woman through the constitution of


Current opportunities in favour of the women are registered in the active of achievements of the constitution of 2003. This one entirely integrates the kind in its provisions. Thus, this fundamental instrument gives an opening strategic for the setting of the quotas to the level of three capacities (executive, legislature and legal)64(*) of the Rwandan citizen.

The whole text of the new constitution of Rwanda of 2003 seeks to promote and share the equal opportunity and social justice. However, the core even of the rights of the person and women's rights is in the preamble to the constitution of Rwanda of 2003. This preamble65(*) states with force how Rwanda foresees its past and which its vision of the future is. It is a good place to explore the place of the women and men in the Rwandan company. The preamble to the constitution of Rwanda is read as follows:

"Us, Rwandan people [...] engaged to ensure the equal rights between

the Rwandan one and the men and the women, without bear prejudice

of the principle of the approach gender."

In addition, article 9 stipulates:

"Rwandan State begins to conform to the following fundamental principles and to make them respect: (...) the equality enters the men and the women reflected by the attribution of at least thirty percent of the stations to the women the Authorities of decision-making."

These provisions very clearly show a formal engagement as regards the rights of the person and rights to the equality of the woman. Precisely this engagement, article 11 envisages this expressly:

"All the Rwandan ones are born and remain free and equal in rights and duties."

The same article prohibits the discrimination based on the sex. This limitation is heavy consequences for the women who, often are with the catches with forms of discrimination and multiple oppression in the private sphere.

The constitution of a 2003 reflected unambiguous engagement to promote the equality of the women and men. Actually a good number of provision of the new constitution of 2003 were conceived in the best interest of the woman, on the other hand, the women in rural medium, are distant from all the governmental apparatus, they are really invisible as participating active on the political scene.

The new Rwandan government played a part in the facilitation of the improvement of the condition of the woman. Its engagement as regards the inclusion of the woman seems authentic.66(*)

Table 6: Current situation of the participation of the women in the process of


Year 2006/2007









House of Commons





Room of the senate










Supreme Court





Source: Worked out by us - same (September 2007)

This table above shows that, since 2003, the government accounts to 32,14% women; the government thus created a ministry for the promotion of the equality of the sexes which must play a key part in the promotion of the equality of the woman to the country. The Rwandan Parliament counts to 48,8% women, and this percentage with the senate amounts to 34,6%.

As regards the Supreme Court, the women account for 41,7% of the judges, including the presidency. With 48,8% of the parliamentary seats, Rwanda and become country with the highest number of the parliamentary women in the world. The women in Sweden currently occupy 45, 3% of parliamentary seats, 38%au Denmark, 37%, in Finland and 36, 7% in Holland.67(*)

Admittedly, the Rwandan women have a rate of representation higher than that of the women in good of other richer democracies and places from there for a long time, like Canada and the United States. However, there is yet no badly way to make in Rwanda in order to increase the representation of the women in the local government. Currently, the representation of the Rwandan women on this level is only 9,1% in the provinces and 1,9% with the town hall of District. In the executive rows, one finds 37% women.

Section 3. Condition of the woman tests through the sectoral policy of


3.1. General context68(*)

The Ministry for the gender and promotion of the family was creates in 2003 in charge of the promotion of the equity of the gender in the process of development of the country. This ministry; mainly endeavor to promote the equality between the gender and to ensure the full participation of the women the social economic life and policy of the country.

The coordination of all the activities in connection with the promotion of the woman also falls on this ministry. To carry out its mission, the MIGEPROF assigned two principal objectives with knowing integration of dimension kind in all the fields and the promotion of the woman. In more of that, a committee of follow-up of the conference of Beijing was set up in this ministry.

3.2. Total objective of the MIGEPROF69(*)

The ministry for the kind and promotion of the family has as a general objective of founds a general framework of blooming and development of the woman. The great mandate of the MIGEPROF is of:

v To coordinate the integration of the problems men women in all the sectors and all the entities of the State,

v To integrate a concerned step of equality of the kinds in the development of the legislative provisions, the policies and the programs of general interest;

v To produce and provide data and the information broken down by sexes for purposes of planning and evaluation.

To reach this mandate, the MIGEPROF uses the various tools like the folders, the posters, the streamers, launching of the booklets, the meeting holding various always on the woman and the decision-making, the behavior of the formation on the leadership, the preparation of the day of reflex ion each year.

Besides that, the MIGEPROF materially supports the women by giving a financial support to that who have the goodwill to take part in the process of decision-making of the country but which does not have financial means like by facilitating them transport at the time of the election campaigns. By way of example, at the time of the elections of 2003, MIGEPROF A frees for each district 300.000 frw to help the women to carry out election campaigns.

3.3. The implementation resulting from the International day of the

Woman 70(*)

8 March of each year, since 1975 the MIGEPROF celebrating at famous the international day of the woman. This day was restored for an awakening of the roles of women in the process of development, so that the stake of the development of Rwanda, peace and social justice takes consideration.

The MIGEPROF under its mandate has the responsibility of integrate the woman in the process of the development and to improve the positive changes of the woman, her attitude, its behavior and to encourage it, integrate it in the organizational structure into Community base.

Under the initiative of the MIGEPROF, the National assembly adopted an amendment of the civil code in order to eliminate the discrimination which weighs with regard to the women with regard to the heritage and the rights of ownership. This amendment covers the marriage settlement, the succession and the heritage. Moreover, old laws as the fair labor standards act were also amended in order to eliminate this discrimination.

Moreover, under the initiative of the MIGEPROF, the planners and the organizations of development Endeavour to make so that the needs for women are taken into account at the various stages for a process of planning and in particular at the stage for the design and project assessment. The MIGEPROF under its mandate tries to encourage the informed actors at the base and to be formed on the importance of the saving - credit in order to be caught gradually gives the responsibility some in order to avoid the culture of begging of the Rwandan women rise from free services.

Multiple programs are in the development process by MIGEPROF to support the specific actions of the women in order to raise the constraints which weigh on them, to reinforce their competence71(*) (to know, to know to be and know-how) with dynamic the organizational country-women to enable them to develop proposes strategy in the organizations to them and to assert their own strategy in the organizations and to assert their rights in all the spheres of the national life. Among, the achievements of the MIGEPROF, it is necessary to quote: the creation of the funds of appropriations and of guaranteed in favour of the women and the development of the national five-year plan of the kind (Gender Maintaining).

Section 4. Texts of the condition of the woman through the vision 2020

4.1. The vision 2020

According to Jean-Marie Court and Serge Snrech (1998)71(*) see the first chapter in the conceptual frame work "The vision" is expressed in the form of a long-term image of the distribution of the men and their activities. It is the result of "projections" established on the basis of mechanism identified in the long retrospective and of more or less voluntary sets of assumptions.

While, the expression "Vision 2020" in Rwanda context, is a document set up by Rwandan government considering a long-term prospect aiming at devotion for the country and having objectifies it and the indicators that the countries have need in order to envisage its long-term blooming and having the goal to support underdevelopment and to fight against poverty by reaching the annual average rate of 8,5% of the GDP and planning to make Rwanda a country with returned of 200$ US currently with 960$US in 2020."72(*)

The engagement of the vision 2020 preaches out of the 6 transverse pillars and 4 fields. The vision 2020 of the know-how of the Rwandan woman is of:

v To reinforce the capacity73(*) of the women as regards family planning in close cooperation with the health services of reproduction;

v To increase the access of the girls in primary education teaching with an aim of reaching primary education universal end 2010;

v To decrease the risks for the mothers with the childbirth and to encourage the antenatal consultations, that in collaboration with the humane organizations and ONG, to improve the access of the women to the services of information on the suitable choice of methods;

v To encourage the programmers of functional elimination of illiteracy for the adult girls in order to set up of the formal discussions on family planning;

v To reinforce the capacity of the women in the reduction of poverty;

v To raise the inequality enters the sexes on the level of the higher education and the national university and the other institutions of higher educations in 2020.

Table N 7: 6 pillars and 4 transverse fields of the vision 2020

Pillars of the vision 2020

Transverse Fields of the vision 2020

1. The rebuilding of nation,

2. The State effective, resemble and


3. The development of human

resources in conformity with our

objective on the knowledge and the

knowledge to make,

4. The regional planning and

infrastructures basic,

5.. The development of the

entrepreneurial and the private sector

6.. The modernization of agriculture and

the breeding.

1. Problems of gender

2. Environmental protection

3. Science and technology


4. Regional integration

Source: MINECOFIN, Indicators of development of Rwanda: towards vision

2020, Kigali, July 2001, p. 13

MINECOFIN, Indicators of development of Rwanda: Reduction of

poverty, Kigali, Printing works of Kigali, 2000, p. 6

The objective of the Rwandan Government about 2010 and 2020 is to provide primary education teaching to all is equivalent to 100%. The description hereafter shows how teaching primary education will be in 2020.

Table N 8. Enrollment at the primary school in 2010 will be 100%


















Source: MINEDUC quoted by Indicating MINECOFIN of development of

Rwanda, Kigali, July 2001, p.30

This foregoing table shows that since 2000, the percentage was 75% in 2005 one counts 85% is in 2010 one counts an assertion of 100% of the children registers at the primary school. Thus the description below evokes how equality will be at the universities in the close relations years 2020.

Table N 9. Equality of kind to the inscription at the universities in 2020 Year






Enrolment of girls










Source: MINEDUC quoted by Indicating MINECOFIN of development of

Rwanda: towards vision 2020; July 2001, p. 30

The table above shows that into 1996/97 the equality of kind in the higher education was 27% of the women, in 2005 one counts 33% when in 2010 the rate of the women is more 38% almost in 2020 one counts a rise in 50% between the two sexes.

Section 5. The program74(*) of the RWPF: The promotion of the Know-how

of the Rwandan Woman

5.1. The program of the RWPF75(*)

The RWPF is an advisory mechanism of facilitation of the integration of the Gender within the Parliament, which was, creates in 1996. It is the organizational shape of the Rwandan members of Parliament specifically the parliamentary women (9 Senators and 39 Deputes).

It gathers like effective members all the parliamentary women coming from various political parties, in order to be able to reinforce the unit and their role within the Rwandese society in general and within Rwanda in particular. The RWPF collaborates with the Parliament to integrate the gender into all the levels by various actions:

v Sensitizing, Reinforcement of the capacity of action of the women;

v Integration of the kind in the laws, the policies, the programs, the projects and budgets at the central level and centralizes.

In its action plan,76(*) the RWPF illustrates the strategic axes to raise the challenges of the kind whose women were traditionally victims, to surmount, the equality and equity is taken into account in the annual budgets of the Rwandans government.

5.2. The promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman

According, to PARKER and FLEISHMAN, quoted by RAK, I., and LARRIEU.P. (1994.),77(*) the term "know-how, means the knowledge of the means which allow the achievement of a task". This term is equivalent in English "Know - how to do" regularly used to facilitate the performance of an individual in a variety of tasks. Thus the empirical base of our work is thus not exclusive.

Today the parliamentary women affirm that the Rwandan women are omnipresent in the work of design as a practitioner the management of the small projects, marketing of the products, distribution of small appropriations, the formation of generating activities of incomes, etc. With 48%, of the women parliamentary on the level of the Parliament: to such sign that the whole world makes a blow of hat in Rwanda. The parliamentary women although they are represented their colleagues on the level of the Parliament, they must plead their colleagues as they promised during their election campaign that it will raise their living condition.

This assertion primarily does not allow it to cross the arms in the seats of the Parliament without saying a word on the inequality made to the women. They must rent their colleagues to manage in the abstract sectors as solution of fight against poverty in terms of trade especially in our country. In accordance with the resolutions of the world conference on the women of Beijing 199578(*) one of the strategic objectives of the parliamentary women in the promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan women is of:

v To provide the Rwandan women, in particular to those with low income, of the professional services, formation, access to the market, information and technology;

v To work out programs of the possibilities of formation and recycling;

v To take measures to guarantee to the women equal access to the formation continues at work, to ensure a formation to prepare the women and girls;

v To create a system of tutorial for the women who did not acquire an experiment yet, in their offering a formation to learn how to them to direct, learn from decisions, to speak in public;

v To work out mechanisms and to ensure a formation, which encourages the women to take part in the electoral process, the political activities and the decision-making;

v Sensitizing of the woman to combat the poverty and to create generating activities of incomes.79(*)

In order to correct the errors of the master key, in its mandate, the RWPF must devote much more time to the women rural and urban, by multiplying formations for the reinforcement of their intellectual ability, in addition to it also must, to multiply the meetings on ground of sensitizing at the place of all the layers of the company, while having good agreement and working conditions so much at the family level, Community and at the national level.

They should not interpret the notion of the gender like the inversion of the roles between the two sexes not to give the chance to its detractors. On the other hand, the State in its policy of education must integrate the girl to give them know-how to be more suited in the political life, thus a frank collaboration must be constant on all the levels of decision-making and various institution.

Lastly, very conscious nap that the Rwandan women have the firm will to be integrated in the sociopolitical life of the country. It seeks with better discharging their task to be made listen at the national, regional and international level.



4.1. Mission of the RWPF

The mission of the RWPF is to contribute to build a society leveling, equitable, inclusive and participative by playing the part of influence as regards the gender counts held of the mission of the Parliament.

4.1.1. Great Strategic achievements of the RWPF

The great strategic achievements of the RWPF extend known the two periods from its existences: the period of Assembles Transition (November August 1996-, 2003) and the period Post-Transition (October 2003-October 2006) The plea, the Positive influence and the Partnership

During the transitional period (November 1996 - August 2006), the achievements of the RWPF were mainly focused on the role of plea in favor of the Rwandan women and on the reinforcement of the capacities as of the members.

Indeed, the RWPF made the plea and pressure so that the organic law punishing the genocide regards the rapes with the women lasting the genocide as crime tells humanity. Thus, the authors of sexual tortures appear in the first category as well as the thinkers and the planners of the genocide.

The RWPF played an important part in the development and the adoption of law supplementing the book first civil code and instituting the fifth part relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and successions, law which gives the girls and boys to succeed by equal shares. To influence the Parliament to take into account the aspects kind in its mission, its structure, its policies and programs, the RWPF took the initiative to propose creation, on the level of the Parliament, the standing committee kind, proposal which at summer approved by the plenary meeting. Information and formation for exchanges

On the integration of the gender on all the levels and the reinforcements of the capacities of the members of the RWPF, the formation has reinforced the capacities of analysis and influence of the members in their role of Parliament and representation of the people.

It is in June 2001, the RWPF organized a seminar on "the process of integration of the kind in the new constitution of Rwanda." With the exit of this seminar a memorandum containing all the aspirations and ideas of the women as collected at the time of the popular consultations carried out by the RWPF was submitted to the Legal Affairs Committee and constitutional which; was charged to write the draft constitution. Moreover, it organized several seminars of formations for its members. The research and dissemination of best practice gender

In the participation in research by the researchers preparing their work of control, doctorate or other in-depth studies especially after the great success of Rwanda which, according to the Interparliamentary Union,

Rwanda is the first country with 48% of the parliamentary women. Research was concentrated to prepare it presentations in the national and international conferences. Of another research were concentrated on the participation in the studies initiated by the civil company, the private sector or other partners as regards the kind or action of reinforcement of the capacity of action of the woman. The participation of the RWPF international conferences to vigorously show the experiment of Rwanda as regards the political participation of the Rwandan woman and other relevant experiments of democratization. The setting in networks in favour of the gender in the laws and

Governmental action

The RWPF was regularly invited in various bases aiming at the setting in networks of the members of the Parliaments of the various States by the initiative of the Interparliamentary union, AWEPA (Association of the European Members of Parliament for Africa), Canadian Centre Members of Parliament, etc.

It contributed moreover in formalization dimension kind to the level of the countries of large lakes for peace and safety, the fight against the corruption, the population and the durable development. For the levels national and decentralizes, the RWPF freed a satisfactory step for better a collaboration with the companies civil in particular the punts forms (trade unions, collectives of the women and networks working for the rural development), the National Council of the Women was started too. In addition, this collaboration is to be consolidated to familiarize these structures with its being useful effectively of the institutions of which they are the voters. Reinforcement capacity institutionary and organization of

the RWPF

During the period when started the RWPF until 2006, the reinforcement of the FFRP is base above on the activities:

v The RWPF organized study trips and exchanges in the strange countries such as: Travel to South Africa, to Europe, to China, to England and in Canada;

v It brought up to date the statutory texts and worked out the payment of an interior nature of the RWPF in collaboration with basic partner UNDP and other financial backers;

v The RWPF, worked out and to integrate the strategic plan of the RWPF in the strategic plan of the Parliament;

v It organized and takes part in the meetings sets of themes in connection with the critical fields of the kind within the framework of the setting in local area networks, regional and international in collaboration with the partner GACACA,80(*) punt forms BEIJING, NEPAD, CNLS/SIDA, AMANI, PPPD etc. The RWPF organizes international conferences on the strategies of control of the coordination of the aspects kind and on "Stop with GBV (Gender Based Violence)";

v It organized seminars on the forms of the violence's based on the sex and their causes and consequences like the AIDS and poverty. The contents of this topic be concern on the countryside against the violence's based on the kind and their consequence

Table N10: Broad objectives and the activities not realized by the RWPF 2006

Objectives 1: to reinforce the FFRP institutionary by giving him instrument legal and of management

Activities in court not realize

Indicator of evaluation


To form on the leadership and communication

Action of plea

Not realizes

To form on the tool of plea

The contents reflect, contact Harvard University

Not realizes

To work out and integrate the strategic plans of the FFRP in the strategic plan of the Parliament

Effective contents to relate to the framework of sensitivity on the gender to the Parliament

Not realizes

To take part in the regional forum member of Parliament and with the local area networks as regards integration of the kind

To integrate dimension in the parliamentary networks and the principle gender in the new constitution and the aspect of Gacaca

Not realizes

Objectives 2: To develop the capacity of analysis of the laws; strategies of the policies

within the framework of the vision 2020

Activities in court not realize

Indicator of evaluation


To organize a seminar centered on the techniques of communication with the basic authorities and the private sector and to negotiate the "hot line for the gender"

Program council (Inama Njyanama), to identify the operation of the Parliament and the RWPF;

Not realizes

To document itself on the Web site of the Parliament on the progression of the gender in Rwanda

The text of the FFRP is not put on the Web site

Not realizes

To organize seminars and other frameworks of discussed and exchanges with the CNF, the public sector, the civil company and other partners

Meet with the committee of the CNF and the civil company

Not realizes

To integrate dimension gender in the plans of the RWPF and budget of the Parliament

The contents reflect the comparative impact of the men and the women

Not realizes

Objectives 3: Development of the laws sensitive to the gender

Activities in court not realize

Indicator of evaluation


To analyze according to the gender, bills' initiated by the government

Laws sensitive to the gender, respected on all the levels

Not realizes

To organize executives of experience sharing with the members of Parliament of the other countries on the analysis of the laws and the policies in a perspective gender,

The contents reflect in particular the regional forum of the members of Parliament as regards integration of the significant gender;

Not realizes

Objectives 4: Control gender of the governmental action and budget

Activities in court not realizes

Indicator of evaluation


To apply the tools for analysis gender in the budgetary analysis;

The budget of the central government and those of the authorities decentralized in the integration of the aspect gender,

Not realizes

To control the budget of the gender in the implementation of the constitutional provisions

The contents reflect the new constitution in its entirety in particular by respecting article 9

Not realizes

To analyze the inventory of fixtures genders of various reports/ratios present at the Parliament

Institutions having transversely gender like the office of Ombudsman, commission of Humans right, commission of the unit and reconciliation

Not realizes

To collaborate with the RWPF in the plea to make a thorough academic training in gender,

The present reflects the expertise in kind available for the men and the women

Not realizes

Source: Resulted from investigations (September 2007), works out to report/ratio of strategic plans of the RWPF (Septembre2005)

4.2. Great achievements of District of Huye

Our study with target the medium locates on the named geographical part "District of Huye" as was determined by the law No 29/2005 of the 23/12/2005 modifying and fixing the administrative structures of Rwanda, such as precise in the Official Journal special number of the 23 /12/2005. The District of HUYE is composes of 4 sectors is 16 cells by the known as law mentioned.

The socio-demographic aspects of the District of HUYE are of 500 habitants/km2. The male population is higher compared to the female population. In June 2007 the District of HUYE gave the figure of 290677 people on the whole including 131033 and 159644 men. However female manpower is lower than that of the men. In 2002 the general census of the population and the inhabitant with shown that the women were 36306 against 40911 men81(*). While in December 2003, the total staff complement were 77217 people whose 36106 women and 41343 men. 82(*)

4.2.1. Principal geographical characteristics General aspect

Huye is one of the 8 Districts which make the Province of the south; it is consisted 14 sectors: Mbazi, Kinazi, Simbi, Maraba, Rwaniro, Rusatira, Huye, Gishamvu, Mukura, Ruhashya, Tumba, Kigoma, Ngoma, Karama. The general characteristics of the District are gathered in table No 11


The socio-economic situation is presented under these aspects: the sector of the human development Sector of the human development Demographic data

The total population of the District of Huye is of 290 677 inhabitants who are divided in the sectors as table No 12 shows it below.

Table No 11. Pattern of the settlement by sector







25 525

10 544

14 981



18 450

7 948

10 502



22 876

10 822

12 054



22 595

10 942

11 653



21 290

9 814

11 476



27 017

13 464

13 553



19 392

8 508

10 884



11 955

5 185

6 770



15 963

7 332

8 631



18 156

7 960

10 196



23 666

11 033

12 633



18 557

 8 477

10 080



13 465

5 558

7 907



31 770

13 446

18 324



290 677

131 033

159 644


Source: Data produced by the Sectors (June 2007

This table shows that, in the pattern of the settlement of the District of Huye by Secteur, Karama is the sector more populated with 11% of the total population of the District, Gishamvu being less populated with 4%. In addition, one notices through all the sectors, which there are more women than men.

4.2.3. Gender and Promotion of the Woman

In the field of the gender and Promotion of the family, the District of Huye already crossed a remarkable step because one lays out, at all the levels (cells, sectors and Imidugugu), of organizational structures of the women who exploit a great part in the mobilization of the women the national policies in progress; in addition, the women are integrated in the institutions of decision-making. They are organize in associations of mutual aid and promotion of generating activities of incomes such as the small trade, the breeding of the smaller live-stock, the craft industry, especially the manufacture of the carpets, the manufacture of bricks and agriculture. Analyze of problems, causes and consequences

Tableau No 12: Analyses of problems, causes and consequences of the Promotion of the







· Financial inaccessibility,

· Geographical inaccessibility to the care of primary health of part of the population,

· Insufficiency of the quality of the women sensitizes formation trainer

· Lack of information and training of the majority of the women,

· Resistance to change of mentality,

· Insufficient family income

· Insufficiency of the budget allocated with the women,

· Bad planning and family management of the persons in charge for the structures,

· Increase in the rate of fruitfulness by the woman.

· Increase in the rate of morbidity and maternal and infantile mortality,

· Reduction in the life expectancy to the birth,

· A high number of the population which dies following paludism, the infections of the respiratory tracts and the diarrheas diseases,

· Increase in the number of the infected people of the VIH/SIDA and tuberculosis

· Increase in the number of the children,

· A high number of the women who are confined in residence.

Source: Results of investigations of district of Huye (September 2007)

Table No 13: Analyses of the forces, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of

the promotion of the woman in the sector







· Existence of the organizational structures of the women

· Existences of the laws on the protection of the women

· Political good-will in the fight against violence

· Existence of associations of the promotion of the woman

· Existence of a forum of the women leaders,

· Existence of the funds of the women

· The organizational Structures of the women are not functional;

· Decentralization of financial means no effective

· A great number of the proportion of the women

· Educational level

Very low

· Consequences of


· Pandemic of



Source: Results of investigations of district of Huye (September 2007)

4.2.4. Identification of the priorities identified by the District of HUYE

On the basis of the analysis and taking into account the priorities identified by the district like their potentialities and constraints; the promotion of the women of the aforesaid district was identified like below:

v To reinforce the capacities of the responsible women;

v To ensure does the protection of the woman against the rape and any form of discrimination practice with the regard;

v To reinforce the capacities of the organizational structures of the women;

v To reinforce the financial capacities of the women;

v To organize seminar aiming at reinforcing the know-how of the women in the decision-making.


4.3.1. Opinion of the women to meet risks of blocking of them

Table N 14: the participation of the woman in the administration

Factors handicap the responsibility for the woman

Women of Huye District

Parliamentary women





Are there social currently rules in connected with the gender?





As do you hear by the national policy?





Does your family statute cut have certain incidence?





Are there actions carried out by the women for the monarchical period?





How have you reaches the stations occupy before?





Source: Results of investigations of District of Huye and RWPF, (September 2007)

According to the results obtained in table above; have remark that in general, 100% of the Women of District of Huye and 100% of the parliamentary women; answering affirm that currently rules social handicap the woman always exist. Carried out surveys majority marked that in much of family, that only the husband makes the decision by saying that the husband is the chief of the hearth and that the opinions of the woman is not effective.

These investigations show that no woman can make a decision without having consults her husband, which shows "Nta nkokokazi ibika isake ihari" (no hen makes cock-a-doodle-doo in the presence of cock), answering them of the women of the aforesaid district and the W.P always show how these rules social are still very complied with in the Northern center of Rwanda and the Southern of Rwanda.

All these expensive actions put the woman at the beginning in a situation of inferiority in the decision-making within its hearth and confer ipso facto to the man. Concerning family statutes related to the woman, 100% of the women of District and 100% of the parliamentary women affirm that their family statutes do not cause problems with the social services. For more share of answering of the aforesaid District often point the Parliament or 48, 8% of its members, are women.

In more they affirm that female associations were created in high manpower. To the question of knowing the principal causes how the W.P. elected with the last elections of 2003 have arrived to occupy the parliamentary places, 47% of our answering affirm that more of them were pushed by the political good-will, political party etc.

Probably the women leaders of district affirm that 83% of them made contests at the stations currently occupy, nevertheless 17% affirm that they were named according to the national policy of the gender, which wants the equality of right between the two sexes. Acting an action of know-how carried out by the women during the old monarchical time, 50% of our answering of Huye District, and 80% of the W.P show that before the King, sovereign supreme of the country, in the administration was made help by the usual chiefs of the various provinces of the country.

The woman did not miss within this administration, since already the Queen-mother was the first adviser of the King her son, they assumed at the sides of her son, all the administrative responsibilities. Inquired carried out, prove that the women in general affirm that NDABAGA and NYAGAKECURU are figures in a list of ten women Abatware (Den mothers) and Ibisonga.

However our answering affirmed us that at the time contemporary, Rwanda expressed its will to follow the political lines such as were recommended by the fourth conference of Beijing. They have show that the woman in all the fields must have same the chances and the same possibilities as those offered to the man to reach a certain level of development as well as an integrated and equitable justice. This stage will involve then the change of mentality of know-how to crosspiece the vision 2020.

4.3.2. Opinions of the women leaders of District of Huye

Table No15: Opinions of the women leaders of District of Huye to the actions carried

out by the parliamentary women

Problems meetings

principales Causes




Miss sufficient information and formation on the national policies, laws and payment




Resistances to change of mentality




Existence or increase in a number of cases of violence's sexual servants of the women in particular




Miss equity in the management of the family inheritance




The concept kind included/understood not yet well by the community and even of most of the woman




Economic capacity of the women limited




Incompetence of intellectual mentality




The organizational structures of the women are not functional



Source: Results of investigations (September 2007)

The investigation into table above shows that 6 women, i.e. 50% finds that the lack of information and formation constitute an obstacle of instruction to face the challenges of the durable development of their country. Finally it would fall on the W.P to develop the topic of the networks of information.

It is by these sources of information and formation that the women will learn the rights which theirs are devoted by the law, the inequalities which they undergo and if need be there is, to claim the improvements in the first case, and of suppressions in the second case in order to found the best conditions of access to justice.

However the majorities of the women interviewed by questionnaires 4 women, I.e. 33% acknowledged that the resistance of change of mentality of the old Rwandan habit involved such a design that the man believes himself higher and that the woman remains subjected to the yoke of the man.

Woman who wants to be released called Igishegabo83(*) (shameless woman which behaves like a man) and the man who wants to be made release with equal from his wife will be called Inganzwa (husband subjected to the authority of the woman).

From where the saying Nta jambo Ry' umugore (the woman does not have has to say) must be cleaned in the mentality of the men.84(*) By the way for instance, the women during the family ceremonies, themselves seating with the corner or the withdrawn room, whereas the man took the place with the living room, in the same way the woman to lie down, to put itself more towards the side of wall and that the man puts himself just, towards the side of the door. All this undervaluation must be cleaned in their mentality, which maintains it in a state of complex of inferiority.

From here we notice that the W.P must sensitize the Gender for the promotion of equity and equality. The lack to encourage it with spoken as a public while discussing with men and other women, access to information, ignorance and socialization prevented these last to be taken an active part in the public assemblies, because they were accustomed has to speak indirectly by the means of another person preferably as a man.

These obstacles mentioned continued to slow down the achievement of the objectives of the RWPF. Through this table above, the surveyed women of the aforesaid District, the existence or increase in the number of cases of violence's domestic and sexual rapes of the women in particular, 8 women, is 67% show that sexual violence's are very serious in the spheres of District.

They explained the case of certain violated women thus chose not to be made examine by a doctor, of fear of discovering that they had caught the virus of the AIDS.85(*) Indeed the women of District could encourage their colleagues to put it together to break insulation, of frustration and trauma, to fight about it against domestic violence; they in particular planned to continue the efforts of popularization of the laws and formations of the agents of District in charge of the application.

Indeed the law recognizes violence as can be physical, sexual, psychological, economic or sociocultural. The lack of justice and the fact of not punishing what have violated the human rights were the major cause, which is, repeats of 1962 to 1994. By the initiative of the RWPF the legal system revises the organic law punishing the genocide regards the rapes made with the women lasting the genocide as crime against humanity. Thus the authors of sexual tortures appear in the first category as well as the thinkers and the planners of the genocide within the framework to be a judge in front of the TPIR and the national jurisdictions and the Gacaca jurisdictions. 86(*)

In addition, 9 surveyed women, i.e. 75% show that equity in the management of family inheritance misses it continue to be a problem, but the law which regularizes the inheritance of the hearth is in force, law which gives the girls and the boys to succeed by share equal, law supplementing the book first civil code and instituting the fifth part relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and successions. Moreover, our investigation with questioned or interviewed 7 women, i.e. 58% affirm that the concept gender is not yet well understood by the population and even of a great part of the woman.

With the process of the development the women must take part and to draw the same advantage from it that the men, support in it the engagement of the national policy of the kind which is articulated around the vision 2020, of the national strategy of reduction of poverty (SNRP) and the policy of decentralization. It is noticed that in spite of their bad understandings the women provided the hand of work and for the first time in the history of Rwanda, they are ridden on the roofs of the houses.

Some ventured to make this kind of work for the first time by pure determination and need to follow. A questioned woman of District in charge of department of gender and promotion of the family, they us affirms that the women currently exert work that the men made, sensitizing continue encourages the women of sectors to invest themselves in multiples work with equal of the man, most remarkable is that the women test carried out the tasks hard that the men are not in measurement.

Indeed, 9 women, i.e. 75% people interviewed, proven that the Rwandan legislation before 1994, did not seem to protect the women's rights relating to the economic87(*) capacity, a woman of District in charge of the social affairs has declared that certain parents die without leaving will. In this case, the female theirs test difficulties in defining the priority successors.

Moreover, the children born out of the marriage have problems of successions after the death of their parents. All things considered in the event of conflict it recommends to note the legal authority, now it is clear is well-clarified new law in force.

Other problems meetings, 10 questioned women, i.e. 83% affirm that the mechanisms snuffed by the government are not sufficient in the reinforcement of the know-how of the Rwandan woman, they affirm that the State must allocate the budgets for facilitate with the forum parliamentary women sensitized the women with the experiments of their life and plan what it is necessary to do in the next years. Finally according to the investigation, 11 women i.e. 92% testify that the organizational structures of the women of District are not functional.

The difficulties which are observed has such declare the people interviewed, whom the women must change the marital status so that to be competitive in all the fields with the generating activities of income in the regional integration of the Community of the East Africa.

4.3.3. Opinions of the Parliamentary Women Like results of changes of

Mentalities of the women implied in the basic authorities

Table N16: Opinion of the actions carried out by the F.P

Mission of the FFRP

Actions stratégiques menées par FFRP




To imply in the revision and the abrogation of the laws which still contain exclusions and of discrimination against the women,




Sensitized the Parliament so that the budget of the women in particular in the reinforcement of their intellectual ability was voted,




To reinforce the capacities of the parliamentary women on the level of the Parliament,




To identify the lived problems in particular women in bringing solutions there;




Follow-up of the resolutions and recommendations with regard to the women in particular with the adoption of legislation suitable



Source: results of investigation (September 2007)

In the above table 14 women, i.e. 93 % acknowledged that the revision and the abrogation of the laws, which contain exclusions, and of discrimination against the women, more these laws were revises by the Parliament. In addition to the, RWPF organized seminar on the development of bills. It is true of saying that one of challenges with which the women are confronted is the threat of physical violence, sexual, emotional and psychological or traumatism based on the patriarchate.

All things considered of other seminars launched by the RWPF88(*) were to integrate the female gender in the new constitution of Rwanda. RWPF has organizes another seminar in frank collaboration with the interparliamentary union under the financial support of the United Nations. The above table, 15 women, i.e. 100% affirm that the budget is voted annually by the government basically it's the mechanism taken lastly for the reinforcement of the capacity of the know-how of the Rwandan women.

In all the undertaken activities, 14 parliamentary women, i.e. 93% have us affirm that the FFRP did many the satisfactory things bring to the women solutions such as:

v Allocated funds of assistance to genocide (FARG);

v Ensures the school fees the orphans, the contribution of the residences for, supports the generating activities of income, given trainings on the resolution of the conflicts in the four provinces of the country;

v Does plea and to make the political pressure so that the organic law punishing the genocide, the crime against the rape pass from the fifth category to the first gathering the thinkers and from the planners of the genocide;

v In does collaboration with the MIGEPROF, it a work out a bill relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and the successions, adopted by the Parliament in June 1999;

v Other facts, it has form the provincial directors and the secretaries in charge of the kind as well as the technicians of the province on the planning of the gender, it made pressure in the sensitizing of the Parliament in end that it is voted the annual budget allocated with the good being of the women in the reinforcement of their capacity although the women represent 52%de the national population, this justifies their best representativeness national in the Parliament.

All things considered in the reinforcement of capacity of the parliamentary women on the level of the Parliament, 13 parliamentary women, i.e. 87% affirm to be able to apprehend the budget in the development process, and are actively with the control of the action governmentally.

Amongst other things, they affirm to have the capacity to communicate with the population in order to transmit to him and collect information useful for the accompaniment of their mission. In end, their gained experience allows it to use Internet in the communication and the search for suitable information.

These percentages mentioned are the best results implying itself in the NEPAD, on the vision 2020 etc. Possibly, 12 questioned W.P, i.e. 80% show that they have were imply in the resolution of conflicts, able to take part in the development of the bills aiming at equity and the equality on the gender. They have us affirm that they collaborated with the institutions of promotion of the woman within the framework of the taking into account of the gender in various laws.

4.3.4. The strategic means has to take to overcome these difficulties To develop the capacity of plea

v To create a framework of partnership enters the RWPF and the women of district and other structures of CNF sitting sectors;

v To create a direction in each district charged with "Forum of the promotion of GENDER"

v To support the RWPF to create with each district a network ICT in all the provinces of Rwanda. To develop the confidence of the women in themselves

v Allocated funds with the W.P better organized formations on the development of personal optics for the women who are in the decision-making;

v To organize the study trips inside and country,

v To sensitize periodic meetings, with the women of district in order to cause an exchange of the experiments. To reinforce the will of the women to know and enjoy their right

v To diffuse convention on the elimination of any form of discrimination with regard to the woman;

v To carry out a public awareness campaign on the law, relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and successions;

v To sensitize the women to follow the application of reduction of poverty, in end of makes sure that the prospects for kind lead to the concrete results;

v To encourage the women to take measures to eliminate the traditional ways of thinking which, make obstacles with the education of girls and the women in particular; to sensitize in did the State and the political party with the capacity, to continue urgently reinforce the importance that increase education as that right of the person and means for the women of taking their destiny in hand;

v To conduct a campaign to the government and RWPF to take care that the rural and urban women can profit from the projects of various types and that the most vulnerable women in particular forming part of various ethnic groups To sensitize the government in order to install special mechanisms aiming to eliminate any obstacle handicaps the woman of access to justice and to take special measures in collaboration with the commission of the humans right and of administrative justice to inform the women on their rights etc. To integrate the use of the media circuits and other services of


The use of the media circuits and other sources of information remain crucial tools for the action of promotion of the women's rights Rwandan, the problem remains the access of the woman to these tools. The W.F should be interested in the communication networks which theirs are offered such as the media means which their allow a broad diffusion of information like newspapers whose they are the object. And well, let us agree us that currently almost all the Rwandan media opened a space for the woman where they analyze her situation and plead her cause.



This research task had as a principal objective to show a retrospective glance finally clearly the objectives laid down at the beginning were reached. Our objective was of analysis the part, which the RWPF during their representativeness played since 1996 until 2006, in particular in the change of mentalities and the reinforcement of intellectual ability of the Rwandan women in particular the women administrators of District of Huye. Like specific objectives, our study, tested these following objectives, it acted of:

v To raise the inherent factors of blocking to the Rwandan women,

v To show the effect of the policy of the parliamentary women on the changes of mentality of the women administrators implied in the basic authorities

v To release the strategic means to overcome the difficulties.

To arrive there, we needed to make a research centered on the following question: "Which are the consequences of the policy of the RWPF on the development of the gender in the District of Huye during the period of 1996 to 2006" To undertake our study well, we used like discussion thread of the ideas, through the following assumption: "does the policy of the RWPF constitute one of the best means of integrating the development of the gender into the District of Huye"?

v To check our assumption, we have been used for of various methods and techniques of research previously speak within the theoretical framework. However, the data of research collected come from the investigations to carry out near 15 parliamentary women (that is to say 10 appointed women and 5 women senators), surveyed by questionnaire, and carried out differently accommodated 12 women administrators of District of Huye exerting various functions. On the whole our study has investigations 27 women coming from the 2 bodies (either 15 last surveyed parliamentary women and 12 women responsible for known as District).

v However, it is quite imperial show that the results of the investigation have show that, 80% of the women affirmed that "the policy of the parliamentary women is one of better means of the changes of mentalities of the women implied in the basic authorities". These results are:

Ø Firstly during the ten last years, the women of the basic authorities expressed like exemplary leaders as well at the political level Community.

Ø Secondly, parliamentary women as the representative undertook concrete activities such as carrying assistance to the orphans, to adopt them and provide a support for the victims of famine and flood and to have the unit like their ultimate goal?.

Ø Thirdly, the parliamentary women could together make pressure and influence the promulgation of laws.

Ø Fourthly, they still could make pressure the pleading for the women's rights and the equality between the two sexes.

Ø Fifthly, they have shows the capacity to set up bodies of the women who were later known under the name of adviser National of the Women known in the new constitution of 2003.

Ø In end, they could contribute to the national policies such as the vision 2020, PRSP, the national policy on the gender and much of other fields of capital interest such as the new constitution.

The strategic means to release to overcome its difficulties is:

On the level of District it was creates a department in charge of the problems of the gender, however the public awareness campaigns must be especially to reinforce and organized to encourage a strong participation of the women in the basic authorities, for this purpose, the national university and the private universities offer also to courses of the evening attended by a significant number women, to enable them to acquire a formation making them able to contribute for stations of decision-making, Finally, it was created in July 2002, a committee of follow-up of Beijing +5 for the promotion of the woman.

Acting of challenges which to decrease successes of the parliamentary women our assumption tested the following:

Through the answered questionnaires, one noted that the women certainly achieved or contributed much of meetings on ground in the sensitizing of the women administrators of the basic authorities for the reinforcement of their intellectual ability; but much of challenges remain to surmount so that they can exploit their full potential and become the agents of a lasting peace in the area of large the lakes on the development of gender.

The challenges on the development of gender which one identified can be grouped in various categories, which are allotted to the women themselves, and their environment. In general terms, the challenges are underline below:

v The insufficiency of the personnel currently in place in regard with the activities planned by the RWPF; the insufficiency of funds to carry out the activities planned by the RWPF puts in an uncomfortable situation and of uncertainty.

v The feminization of poverty; the low level of Community education in particular the woman;

v The low level of education of the women; the increasing incidence of the HIV; the risk of instability political in the area of large the lakes;

v The unfavorable sociocultural environment characterizes by the slow evolution of mentalities and the resistance to change at some, compared to the equality and the equity of gender;

v The no voluntary omission of the respect of the equality and equity according to the constitutional provision (article 9, subparagraph 4), due to the tradition and the patriarchal system;

v The institutional mechanisms and technical capabilities still little develop as regards analysis gender and of integration of the gender in the national laws, the policies, the programs, the action plan and the budgets;

v The action plan and diary of the National Council of the Women no known and not disseminated for knowledge and application with the limits as for the provisions relating to operations and no just in and the diary action plans of the Cells, the sectors, the districts, the provinces and ministries.


To reach, this finality, we make a point of making these recommendations:

The Rwandan woman as the pillar impossible to circumvent of the development of the vision 2020, must have the same chances and the same possibilities as those offered to; the man to be able to reach a certain level of development as well as an integrated and equitable justice.

To arrive at its full legal blooming and to tear off certain rights of which it missed since beautiful period, it must encounters a great number of obstacles is natural related to the habit and with the practice which disadvantaged always it, that is to say with an ignorance and a poverty, which has it characterizes and maintain it in a situation lower than that that the man in the company occupies and this, in all the fields of the life. For an effective political participation of the women, we formulate recommended to the place of the following people:


Ø To organize public awareness campaigns of formation,

Ø to develop mechanisms of seminar in multiple recoveries encourage the women of stand as candidates to the political activities and other fields of leadership,

Ø To improve the communication system supporting the free expression in front of the public, to be worthy and exemplary in all their daily activities for their subordinate clauses, to note that this will support it has to have the intellectual ability to fight the stereotypes allocated with the men and the women.



Ø To reinforce the positive values of the Rwandan culture, such as for example bravery, patriotism, the direction of the honor, etc;

Ø To organize and finance formation in favour of the woman;

Ø To create an environment making it possible to the women to ensure their family and professional responsibilities, of the social infrastructures and essential equipment for their full participation in the political, social and economic life;

Ø Assume so that women are sufficiently represented in the local structures and the key authorities of the central government, the Parliament, the legal apparatus, and other layers of the population, so that the legislation and the decisions have suddenly founded it the concept gender in the changes of mentalities and the activities from the Rwandan company.


Work has a presentiment of does not claim to exhaust the subject in connection with the role of the RWPF in the promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman through the vision 2020. No matters what we thought of having achieved our goals in a satisfactory way? This is why for fulfilling our study, we propose like prospect with the other researchers while treating in particular on:

v The Effects of Evaluative study of the contribution of the Rwandan women parliamentary in the promotion of the know-how of the rural woman."

v The role of the woman, in the process of reconciliation and consolidation of peace in Rwanda".

Thus, like encloses recommendation, peace and the reconciliation will guide the high authorities to achieve their total goals, fixed through the vision 2020



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1. Loi du 24 août 1962 portant organisation et compétence judiciaire en J.O. Kigali, 1962.

2. Loi n 03/97 du 19 mars portant création de bureau d'avocat au Rwanda, J.O.No8, Kigali, 1997.

3. Communique de presse de l'Union Interparlementaire N 175, Kigali, du 22 Octobre 2000.

4. La loi no 22/99 du 12/11/1999 complétant le livre premier du code civil et instituant la cinquième partie relative aux régimes matrimoniaux, aux libéralités et aux successions, J.o., 1999.

5. INteko Magazine, J.O. No 35, Avril 2007

6. La nouvelle Relève NO 376, Kigali, juillet 2006.

7. Agreement of peace of Arusha between the Government of the Rwandan

Republic and the Patriotic Face Rwandan, J.o., 1993.


1. La nouvelle Constitution de la République du Rwanda, du 4 juin, 2003.

2. la première constitution de la République Rwandaise du 24 Novembre 1962.


1. du

11/Septembre/2007,( octobre 2007)


(13 /septembre/ 2007)

3 du (15 Septembre 2007)


* 56 FPR- Inkotanyi (Rwandan Patriotic Front - Inkotanyi) is the name given to the political party which engaged the war of October 1990 against the political regime in place of the Former president Juvénal Habyarimana in Rwanda which organized and perpetrated the genocide in Rwanda. The FPR - Inkotanyi currently is on power with the capacity won elections of 2003 by the vote for all.

* 57 FPR-INKOTANYI, Imigambi y'umuryango, Kigali, 2003, p.33

* 58 Bosserup, E, intégration de la femme au développement, pourquoi, quand, comment, New York, 1974,


* 59 FPR-Inkotanyi, idem, p.34

* 60 After having seen the injustice made to the women the Rwandan government promulgated the Law no22/99 of the 12/11/1999, law, supplementing the book first civil code and instituting the fifth part relating to the marriage settlements, liberalities and the successions, J.o., 1999, p.7

* 61 P. CREPEAU et S. BIZIMANA, les proverbes du Rwanda, Bruxelles, MRAC- Tervuren, 1979,

p. 3641

* 62 According to the la Nouvelle Relève No 576, Kigali, from the 03 to July 10, 2006, p.1, Mrs. Zura Karuhimbi, an old woman of District of Ntongwe, in the old province of Gitarama, was acclaimed high and strong to have saved the life of more than 100 pesonnes pursued by Interahamwe and Ex-FAR at the time of the genocide of Tutsi of 1994.

* 63 La Nouvelle Relève, N 376, Kigali, 2006, p.1-2

* 64 In the executive powers, legislature and legal, the government of the national unit , its will to

grant to the women confidence and the respondability to rebuild the nation by naming them at

stations of leardership and respondability in the Rwandan society.

* 65 Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, Kigali, of June 4, 2003, p.

* 6610 the new constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, Kigali, June 4, 2003, p.

* 67 Communicate of press of the Union Interparliamentary, Number 175, Geneva, of October 22


* 68 MIGEPROF, la politique nationale du genre , version 2003, p.5

* 69 MIGEPROF, idem, p.6

* 70 of (11/10/2007), the international day of the women is celebrated on March 8 and finds its origin in the demonstrations of women at the beginning of the XXth century in Europe and in the United States, claiming better working conditions and the voting rights. It was officialized by the United Nations in 1977, inviting each country of planet to celebrate one day for the women's rights. It is one day of demonstrations throughout the world: the occasion to assert the equality, to make an assessment on the situation of the women. Traditionally the groups and associations of militant women prepare demonstrations everywhere in the world, to make succeed their claims, to improve the situation of the women, to celebrate the victories and the projections. The creation of an "international Day of the women" was proposed for the first time in 1910, at the time of the international 2econférence of the socialist women, by Clara Zetkin, (was teaching, journalist and political woman Marxist German. It is a historical figure of feminism. It was born on July 5, 1857 in Wiederau, in Saxony and died in Arkhangelskoïe, close to Moscow, June 20 1933.) and fitted then in a revolutionary prospect.

* 69. According to ARDOINO.J. et BERGER. G., quoted by RAK, I., et LARRIEU, P., des mots pour le savoir, évaluation et pédagogie dans l'enseignement généraux et techniques, Foucher, Paris, 1994, p.24 affirmed that, competence is the together knowledge, know-how, knowledge-to be making it possible to an individual to carry on with effectiveness a given activity. Thus with the general direction, competence is the complex whole of asset, fruits of the experiment is of formation received, bringing up to date natural provisions, allow to achieve tasks and dealt with the problems effectively resulting

* 71 JEAN, M., & SERGE, S., préparer l'avenir de l'Afrique de l'Ouest : une

vision à l'horizon 2020, Paris, 1998, p.65

* 72 MINICOFIN, Indicateurs de développement du Rwanda, Direction de statistique, Kigali, Juillet

2001, p.13

* 73 According to RAK.I, et LARRIEUX.P, des mots pour le savoir, évaluation et pédagogie dans l'enseignement généraux et techniques, Foucher, Paris, 1994, p.19: the Capacity is the whole of acivities to achieve a common goal, in addition to, it an actualization of the aptitude which keeps a very general character in opposition to the competence and which translates concretely into situation.

* 74 According to Grand la Rousse Encyclopédique, Tome 8, Paris, 1963, p.4734,

"The program is the whole of activities to achieve a common goal. In the general direction the definite program is

together the instructions and information necessary with the given execution of operation»

* 75 Report of strategic Action plan of the Rwanda Parliamentary Women Forum (RPWF), Kigali, September

2005, p.29

* 76 According to J.O. Inteko Magazine No 35, April 2007, p.19. City by the RWPF in collaboration

With the Parliament of Rwanda, organized an importance international conference February the 22 and 23 2007 on topics "KIND AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT: Role of the Parliaments ". With this conference was accommodated Its Excellence Paul Kagame President of the Republic of Rwanda and was honored by the presence with Its Excellence Ellen Johnson Sirleaf the president with Liberia; the very first African woman with being elected by the vote for all. The conference knew the participation of more than 400 delegues, whose only members of Parliament, come from all the corners of the world, Cook islands of the Pacific Ocean and in particular in the area of the Large Lakes.

* 77 RAK, I., et LARRIEU.P., Des mots pour le savoir, évolution et pédagogie dans les enseignements

Généraux et techniques, Paris - fourcher, 1994, p.67

* 78According to the declaration of Beijing, 4 2nd world conference on the women of 1995, paragraph 16 city by SADIK.N, le droit de choisir paris, 1997, p.53, quoted that: the participation of the women in the economic and social development, makes the equality and the full participation, on an equal footing, women and men, as profit agents of a durable development to the service of the individual are conditions essential with the elimination of poverty by means of a constant economic growth of the social development, environmental protection and justice social.

* 79 The United Nations, Report of the 4th world conference of the woman, Beijing (China) in

September 1995, Brussels, 1996, p.86.

* 80 The "Gacaca" meaning public place of meeting, in general on a flat ground with greenery makes agacaca (grass), or the men could discuss the conflicts interesting their village and slice the disagreements between members of the families.


* 82 ABIYINGOMA Olive, rapport de stage effectué sur la structure et le fonctionnementdes associations

féminines dans la province de Butare, UNR, 2003, p.9

* 83 According to MUHAWEYEZU, A., la capacité juridique des enfants mineurs dans le droit coutumier et écrit rwandais, mémoire de licence, UNR, Faculté de Droit, Butare,

1978, p.25. Announced that the Rwandan common law considered that the woman could never be chief of family. She could not think or to act by itself, it still assimilates to a minor and more humiliating still always an incompetent.

* 84 Indeed, altogether we're conscious that, this traditional design must be entrained in the mentality of the women current; often it was constant that a man either could be president, governor of province, mayor of District or adviser of Sector why not a woman cannot do it? However in time, certain women have been proved their capacity in the exercise of the supreme authority of the country. We stated previously that the Queen-mother could ensure the capacity while the King was a minor, that certain women were a chief of provinces and that they were obeyed by the men, and that a woman was a prefect of prefecture, without complex none. One wonders why these precedents were not observed. This is worth until at our day's well, if one sticks to the results of the elections of the local authorities organized in March 2001. Although many women's had gone as candidates to the elections, little were elected, until the point or the new constitution of June 4, 2003 could eliminate this injustice completely and guaranteed to the woman 30% in all the fields of decision-making.

* 85 According to the of (September 15, 2007) the syndrome of the acquired immunodeficiency, more known under its acronym AIDS or AIDS, is the name of a whole of consecutive symptoms to the destruction of several cells of the immune system by a retrovirus. The AIDS is the last stage of the infection by this virus and finishes by the death of the infected organization of the opportunist continuations of diseases. It is noted that after the events war of 1994 and the genocide, the women or girls do not dare to tell in public their problems, especially in the case of rapes, which often involve in desires pregnancies or convey infections, by fear of betraying their traditional decency under penalty of being banished or being relegated. Consequently this attitude reserve formerly with the girl or the woman is currently reflected in the spheres of Rwanda.

* 86 D'après, GASABO.J. D, op.cit, p.62 « Les juidictions Gacaca » signifie à peu près « justice sur le

Gazon » Created by the organic Law No 40//2000 of bearing 26 January 2001 creation of the Gacaca Jurisdictions and organization of the continuations of the infringements constitutive of the crime of genocide or crimes against the humanity, made between October 1, 1990 and on December 31, 1994 It is in June 1999 that the Rwandan government published a project concerning the jurdiction of Gacaca having the principle of bringing together all the protagonists of the drama: , supposed criminals and having the objective of debate from what occurred, in order to establish the truth, to draw up the list of the victims and to designate the culprits. The debates are framed by "Judges" professional No "Inyangamugayo" elected among the men and the just women of the community, which will have to pronounce the sorrows against culprits.

* 87 The traditional socio-economic structure granted the capacities and the richness to the men. We pointed out that the women or girls were deprived of straight of propriety, they could not inherit nor to acquire goods by an other means. "The question of the equality of kind in our company deserves to be evaluated objectively to be able to stop the strategies necessary for the future development in which the men and the women will be truths actors and recipients. According to us the kind is a question of good governorship, good economic management and respect of right of the person ".

* 88 The traditional socio-economic structure granted the capacities and the richness with the men. We pointed out that the women or girls were deprived of straight of property, they could not inherit nor to acquire goods by, an other means. "The question of the equality of kind in our company deserves to be evaluated objectively to be able to stop the strategies necessary for the future development in which the men and the women will be truths actors and recipients. According to us the gender is a question of good governorship, good economic management and respect of right of the person ".

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