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Action program of the rwandan women parliamentary forum (RWPF) in matter of promotion of the know how of the rwandan women facing vision 2020: Case of Huye District (1996-2006)

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Frédéric TEGERA MPAMYA
National University of Rwanda - Bachelor's Degree 2007
  

précédent sommaire suivant

Appel aux couturier(e)s volontaires

Section 1. Theoretical framework

1.1. The condition of the woman like political question

The theoretical framework around the condition of the woman as political question about the gender goes and brings the light on the elements, which always cause many contradictions in particular when it is a question of integrating the approach gender and policy in the current language. Within this theoretical framework the gender refers to the social roles allot to the women respectively and to the men in particular society and particular moment while the policy refers to the guiding principle for a certain action realizes by the decision makers in order to attack a particular question.

The evolution of the woman in the political life does not date a long time; the entry of the woman in this field remains very timid. The relationship between the women and the policy is little known. This because political science was always an object to study the political life of the society, field where the women are neither numerous even today, nor truly allowed.

In the majority of the companies, the prejudices are abundantly in almost all the society of the four corner of the world, which regarded it as a weak being. These prejudices worsen its marginalization. The entry of the woman in the political life is late compared to the man. Why? Because, the women have been willing; to return from they're in policy than the men. On the one hand, because the policy; does not answer to their aspirations.

The policy claims resources, which the women do not have (availability, job security, financial ease) of other shares; these political systems are responsible for this situation because of the electoral system.

According to Jean ROSTAND, affirmed that:

"The woman is not purely female, nor the purely male; it is only more female and he more male than it" 7(*)

However the fact of being woman was the cause of restriction of rights and ridiculed freedom. In the conquest of freedoms for independence, the history proves that the women accompanied the men with the assistance and the support. However, at the time to collect the fruits of success acquired so hard, the women were often put at the variation; sometimes private of the natural reward seeing itself excluded from the honors of the victory to which came to contribute. In the underdeveloped countries, especially the woman is responsible for all the food chain since the production of the food until the preparation of meal.

According, to VADERVEKEN. M, and HERNADEZ, C, (1985) marked by TWAHIRWA Gervais:

"The Anthropologists and the archaeologists affirmed that the woman was in charge of the research of the treatment and storage with vegetable food. In logical consequence: they are the women who invented the techniques and the tools to exert this work. Today the anthropologists are also convinced that they are also the women who discovered agriculture." 8(*)

By seeking a response to the preceding quotation: The antifeminists traditional often evoked that the women in the social and economic life are the most dynamic factors of the growth and their absence in the political life reconsider the domestic and family capacity so that their statute with the hearth does not feel guilty.

In contrast the socialist feminists rejected these constant traditional, while following the texts of the United Nations adopted in 1948, and stipulates that:

"The preamble to the charter of the United Nations strongly condemned all discriminations with regard to the women and stresses that one of the goals of the organization is to ensure that the women have the same rights and the same possibilities as with the men in dignity and the value of the human person». 9(*)

The man refused to grant the same right to the woman, which it enjoys.

According to SIMON of BEAUVOIR (1945), shows it while saying:

"This world always belonged to the men" 10(*)

It still shows again while affirming:

"One is not born woman, one becomes it." 11(*)

While examining, an answer favorable to the foregoing quotations, the woman since years, was regarded as a lower being and its inferiority seem so naturally indisputable and immutable that was never concerned with the risks of this marginalization and neither the passage of times, nor the political régimes in their succession do not bring great changes to this situation.

To include/understand her marginalization, which does not go back to yesterday, Madam de Staël (1766- 1817)12(*) affirmed:

"One is right to exclude the women from the public affairs and civil; nothing is opposed any more to their natural vocation than all that would give them reports/ratios of competition with the men and glory itself could not be for a woman who mourning of happiness " 13(*)

The anti-equal ones rejected certainly this constant enracine the policy in biology, by saying for example that; by their nature the women would be carrying another political vision14(*). There is neither man, nor woman in the Republic; it is only citizen without distinction of sex. This level, the man and the woman must be considered in control, the access to employment, the services and the resources like with their division, without forget the equal treatment by the employers and suppliers of services.

Thus we agree with the idea of DROY ISABELLE (1996) in the following quotation:

"The evolution of social and political conditions has causes these last years a return of interest on the women like the object of research even if the no historical and temporal characters of the woman category makes difficult any conceptualization of their situation. The women always seem to be subordinated to the men and this dependence does not seem consequence of an event or from a future, the call with female nature, the inequalities between the sexes, one from of deduces whereas the female handicaps are eternal. Are the biological differences enough - they to explain the inequalities between the sexes? "15(*)

By seeking an answer to the preceding question we find that the Anthropologists Economists reject this constant: For the anthropologist's economists, the relationship between man and woman is to study in a context of social change rather than to study the category of the women. They say that it is necessary to seek the cause of the inequalities in the producing activities; reproductive and sexual division with work and each culture can find the things differently.

According to CORRINE Goldberger16(*) (1982) affirmed that:

«A Republic with a democracy without woman is not a democracy; the equality of the gender is also an element of good governorship.

The equal opportunity is under the heart of the democracy "article 4 of the universal declaration on the democracy, adopted in September 1997 by the council of the Interparliamentary Union stipulated:

"It would not know of democracy without true partnership between man and woman in the control of the public affairs or men and women act in the equality and the complementarity's growing rich mutually by their difference." 17(*)

In Rwanda, the present differs from last in integration from the approach kind and development. The development itself is founded on 6 pillars and 4 transverse topics of the vision 2020. While the gender; is the pillar of these transverse topics?

In this context, it is important that the women play a part fully equal to the man in all the future decisional structures of Rwanda; of which Parliament granted to the women 49% of the places in all the fields of decision-making. From now on, the Rwandan woman is considered by the Rwandan government an active partner impossible to circumvent for peace and the development, for of which Rwanda with thirst.

2. Methodological framework

According to GRAWITZ, M, (2001)"the method is the whole of the intellectual operations by which a discipline seeks to reach the truths that it continues, to show them, check them." 18(*)

2.1. Method of research

Throughout this work of study we resorted to the four methods of research taking into account the matter to study: it acts of the comparative method, the historical method, the functionalist method and the analytical method.

2.1.1. Comparative method

This method helped us to find the elements of resemblance and dissimilarity between the compared facts. Us summons itself been used for to use this method in order to see clearly if there is an interaction between the parliamentary women (member of the deputies and member of the senate) and the women administrators of District of Huye.

2.1.2. Historical method

It is based on the analysis of the facts or the one quite precise period data or of a time delimited well in the past. By examining the facts and the events related to the kind during the recent time one calls upon the national policy of the kind as political question bases on the consolidation of a State of right related to the durable development in order to promote the equality and the equity of the gender in Rwanda.

2.1.3. Functionalist method

It goes by the idea of the promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman through the vision 2020, which is the result of durable development of the country. Consequently, we will be brought to research the causality of the changes of mentalities of the women as real phenomenon on the problems of the gender among the young people of two different sexes in the system sociopolitical in which they take part.

2.1.4. Analytical method

It helped us to analyze the data and information obtained in order to draw somewhat characterizes and is referred to our assumptions. In this scientific research task, to reach: the aims of the study and checking of the assumption we served ourselves certain techniques of data acquisition but the choice was justified by the nature of our investigation.

2.2. Population of investigation

In our population of investigation we considered it convenient to determine in advance the people likely to provide us desired information. It is within this framework that it was judged to inquire the parliamentary women representing the interest of the Rwandan women in the Parliament and the women administrators of District of Huye. However, we chose to formulate questionnaires reserved for the two bodies. Thus, we referred to the lists posted at the Parliament and the list posted at the office of town hall of District of Huye.

For better identifying these two bodies of public administration, we were interested to note the total number of the parliamentary women are than 48,8% more women appointed (either on the whole 39 whose 24 women come from the CNF and 15 women come from political parties) and 34,6% are women senators (or on the whole 9).

By after us were also interested by noting the total number of the women administrators of District of Huye, that is to say on the whole 12 responsible women in charge of various administrations. Thus, within this framework to enrich our work, we took 15 parliamentary women (that is to say 10 appointed women and 5 women senators) being given who they are very occupied in these two bodies.

On the whole our study has investigations 27 women coming from the 2 bodies (either 15 last surveyed parliamentary women and 12 women responsible for known as District). Unfortunately the total of the population was not numerous, thus, sampling was not considered to be necessary.

2.3. Techniques of data-gathering

The data-gathering was carried out thanks to the information retrieval and the technique of opinion poll, i.e. the investigation by questionnaire and interview. To put the questions, we followed a model of questionnaires, which we prepared such as it appears in appendix. The questions were made up in French and Kinyarwanda. These questionnaires are subdivided in two parts which knowing:

v Questionnaires reserved to the women administrators of District of HUYE

v Questionnaires reserved to the parliamentary women

These questionnaires were elaborate so that they can provide us the fullest information on the opinion of the parliamentary women and the women administrators of District of Huye, to clearly see the cardinal importance of the implication of the parliamentary women through the promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan women through the vision 2020. Amongst other things, this work wants to check the interaction existing between the RWPF and the women administrators of the aforesaid District; in particular by strongly checking the interaction that played the parliamentary women in the changes of mentalities and the reinforcements in the intellectual abilities of the Rwandan women lasting their representativeness from the period of 1996 in 2006.

To illustrate and distribute the questionnaires, it is asked to us to resort to the office of the RWPF where the agents of this office were given the responsibility to forward to us concerned questionnaires in order to better filling. The information received thanks to the interviews supplements the information collected via the questionnaires.

As for the women responsible for District of Huye, it was easy to us to forward it to the concerned ones. To check on all these questionnaires were answered and filled well and if all the talks available were well carried out, we envisaged a calendar, which took to us two months (July, August, 2007).

During our investigation, the major constraint met in our questionnaire and the follow-up carried out by means of telephone, to really check if our questionnaires deposited were answered, whereas financial means was always insufficient.

SECOND CHAPTER: HISTORY OF THE CONDITION OF THE RWANDAN

WOMAN

The history of the Rwandan woman in the traditional society did not follow a diagram very different from that of the other women in the world, although certain characteristics can be noted according to specific realities to each country. The Rwandan society is patrilineal; the husband is the chief of the woman and the whole family. In the old Rwandan habit the authority on the woman made it possible to the husband to beat his wife when she did not want to obey to him, when she had made a fault likely to make indignant the husband. 19(*).

According to ADRIAENSSENS, J, (1969) marked as that:

"The patriarchal system constitutes an ideology of inequality of the sexes putting the Rwandan woman in position of subordination compared to the man. The habit does not recognize the equal rights between the man and the woman. The patrilineal structure of the family gives the capacity and the richness to the men."20(*)

This preceding ideology confines the woman with the only roles of production of the family and housewife. By way of example much of proverbs sayings or insults of the Rwandan habit translate the reconsideration of the woman such as:

v Uri uwa nyoko: Does this insult want to say that the child of a foul temper inherited his/her mother;

v Umugabo umwe agerwa kuri nyina: it was for saying that if one wants to only act, one to the force not of the father but of the mother, always to insinuate that the mother could nothing produce valid die.

v Ukurusha umugore akurusha urugo:21(*) Paradoxically when a person who has a conscientious woman has a more prosperous household.

v Umugore n'umutima w' urugo: the family wellbeing depends largely on the wisdom of the woman or the woman is the heart of the whole family.22(*)

With these proverbs mentioned the Rwandan woman at the tender of the man so to speak nothing puts die valid for it. The woman is a partner, a pillar of the household, it plays a key part but discrete, it avoids contradicting her husband in public May asks him its opinion deprives some. In the patrimonial field, the woman or the girl did not have anything and could not acquire any good, which is nothing clean. Theoretically, it does not have economic rights, except certain rights exceptionally.

Section 1. The condition of the woman during the Monarchical time

In old Rwanda, certain women had an important place within the society, some could use of this capacity. Initially, the traditional royal institution obliged each new king to associate a queen-mother. This one was the mother of the new king or, failing this, one of the wives of the father of this one. The queen-mother played a paramount part. Roughly speaking, it was consults for any decision of importance. Sometimes, it assumed the regency of the mode while waiting for that the king grows and takes his responsibilities.

1.1. Implication of the women in the political life

In the old time, the political organization of the kingdom of Rwanda included/understood the administrative and military hierarchy as well as the structure of customers, which although; it was not purely political; interfered nevertheless often with the others. For the monarchical period, Rwanda was a State having a consolidated administrative organization.

The King, sovereign supreme of the country, was made help by the usual chiefs of the various provinces of the country.23(*) The woman did not miss within this throne, since already the queen-mother was the first adviser of the King her son. She assumed at the sides of her son, all the administrative responsibilities.

The queen-mother took part in the administration especially when the King very young person or was struck incapacity. Consequently, some women were distinguished by playing a great capital part in the decision-making from the course.24(*)

The last known queen-mother is KANJOGERA; it was at the origin of the coup d'Etat of RUCUNSHU26(*) in 1895: a young king appointed by his father, MIBAMBWE RUTARINDWA was laid out and the queen was to establish her own son YUHI MUSINGA this one reined of 1895 to 1931.

Another queen-mother is NYIRATUNGA mother of GAHINDIRO, controlled the country during 10 years about the years 1700. Other women also found themselves on the political scene such as for instance NYIRAKIGWENE and NYIRAKABUGA, which was assistant managers, NYAGAKECURU, wife of SAMUKENDE controlled the

"Ibisi bya Huye" and ROBWA heart of RUGANZU BWIMBA and NYIRATUNGA, which was sacrificed as a liberator so that Rwanda could not invaded by the GISAKA.

One knows others, which exerted the first military intervention such as NDABAGA,27(*) which was famous for its extraordinary character with the famous proverb:

"Ibintu byageze iwandabaga» To translate that the situation worsened with such sign that a woman NDABAGA has to intervene personally at once of battle.28(*)

Section 2. The condition of the woman under colonization29(*)

For the colonial period,30(*) Rwanda saw itself applied the texts of laws applicable to the Congo-Belgian by art 1 of the law of August 21, 1925. At that time the woman did not have a place in the administration in front of the jurisdictions as created. With the establishment of the usual tribunals, in 1926, a composition of the seat of the court was establishes having its seat with the place chief of the territory, composed of a judge and five assessors.

The chiefs and the assessors among the assistant managers, by the delegate of the resident, named the judge in consequence the women were indicated. Even in 1937 when Mwami (King)31(*) created the courts of cheffery, the woman did not have a place, nor as assessors, selected among, the notable ones of the cheffery of all the men. In addition, the Decree of July 5, 1948 on civil and repressive justice will bring there no change and the situation goes perjurer until for the post-colonial period.

Nevertheless, the arrival of the missionaries, although it was at the origin of some changes of mentality perpetuated the political discrimination of the women. Schools were initially created only for the boys and the religion condemned rather than it encouraged the participation of the women in the political life.

The aspect to be held in consideration on the reinforcement of the inequalities of instruction is that in our country the large schools of secondary studies were created by the catholic church, they all was managed by priests or brothers and categorically excluded the presence from girls: one can quote all the schools seminars, in particular that of (Kabgayi, Karubanda, Nyundo, St Andre, Byumba, Save, Official Collège of Kigali, Christ King, School complex of Butare, Musanze, etc.)32(*)

A little liked late, it was open domestic schools whose roles were to promote the role of the girl and housewife, to the fur of the years later they took names: domestic school, social hearths, family schools and social school of which that of Karubanda currently.

Section 3. At 1994 Independence

At 1994 Independence, the roles of the woman in the policy miss. It is into 1965 that the woman could take part in the seminars and of congers organize for the promotion of the woman. The first constitution of November 24, 1962 granted the Rwandan woman to take part in the policy of the country by electoral way, right to article 9 which lays out: "are entitled to vote, under the conditions determined by the electoral law, all the major Rwandan nationals of two sexes, enjoying the plenitude of their civic rights and political"

In spite of the provisions of article 16 to 30 which guarantee the equality of the sexes, consequently article 54 of the first constitution prohibited to the woman to stand as candidate to the presidency of the Republic, with the policy of the MRND of July 5 1973 which morally supports the emancipation of the woman through its constitutions and its legislation 33(*) to join the other women at the international level.34(*)

In the first years of independence, the girls were especially directed towards the dies of formation, which the country needed: Instructresses, social assistances, nurses, etc. The weak representation of the woman in policy preached mainly low level of female elimination of illiteracy and the role of the woman remained impossible to circumvent.

From the years 1975, the first time in the history of Rwanda, a woman was recruited as a soldier within the gendarmerie and of the army. The women engaged as officers or privates. They became thus targets as well as the men. About the years 1980, the representation of the women became more important at the Parliament and in the services of the administration. 35(*) In the central government,36(*) since 1962 until the events of 1994, the post offices occupied by the women are very tiny. The Presidency, the vice-presidency, premature, 1st ministers, the ministry and the secretariat of State. While on the level of the local government, the key political stations occupied by the women since independence until 1994 are in particular the prefect, the sub-prefect, the burgomaster or mayor. Amongst other things the parliamentary women, had a considerable evolution since 1982.

In contrast, it is since 1994, that even certain women were elected parliamentary candidates since 1980 thanks to the financial intervention of party-State MRND, that the situation strongly developed, to not only be victim of violence's but also to be active in violence against humanity.37(*) The tables' hereafter put in account of their manpower. 39(*)

Table N 1. Degree of political representativenesses of the women to the central

Government for the post-colonial period.39(*)

Year

Post offices

Total of the women

Presidency

v/Presidency

Primature

1est minister

Ministers

Secretary of state

M

W

M

W

M

W

M

W

M

W

M

W

1962

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

0

0

0

0%

1964

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

13

1

0

0

6,6%

1965

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

11

1

0

0

7,6%

1968

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

0

2

0

0%

1969

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

0

2

0

0%

1970

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

2

0

0%

1972

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

3

0

0%

1973

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

12

0

0

0

0%

1975

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

0

0

0%

1977

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

14

0

0

0

0%

1978

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

15

0

0

0

0%

1981

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

17

0

0

0

0%

1982

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18

0

2

0

0%

1985

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

18

0

0

0

0%

1990

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

19

1

0

0

4,5%

1993

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

1

17

2

0

0

4,5%

1994-95

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

19

2

0

0

4,3%

Source : HAGURUKA, la femme rwandaise et l'accès à la justice, 2000, p.66

MINEPRISEC, Histoire du Rwanda, IIème partie, 1989, p.59

Since independence until 1994, we account only four women of the ministers knowing: Madeleine AYINKAMIYE who was Minister for the social affairs, his mandate was stopped one year after (1964 to 1965). After that we saw reappear the woman within the government for the period of multi-party system after 199040(*).

This moment, the women were named, not by the will of the leader but by designation of the political parties. And it is at this time that a woman UWIRINGIYIMANA Agathe41(*) saw herself allots the post of Prime Minister, unforgettable historical fact.

This one controls for one difficult period of political disturbances and made goes up of political force and the exceptional capacities, thus defending the equality of the man and the woman in particular. Unfortunately it was assassinated at the beginning of the genocide of 1994. Let us recall that before, Agathe UWIRINGIYIMANA was Minister for the primary education and secondary education of 1990 to 1993. Mrs. Pauline NYIRAMASUKO42(*) was Minister for the family and the female promotion of 1990 to 1994 and Mrs. Agnes NTAMABYARIRO, Minister for justice43(*).

Table N 2. Political degree of representativeness of the women to the local

Government for the post-colonial period.

Year

Post offices

Total of the women

Prefect

Sub-prefect

Bourgomaster- Mayor

M

W

M

W

M

W

1962

10

0

21

0

143

0

0%

1964

10

0

26

0

143

0

0%

1972

10

0

22

0

143

0

0%

1976

10

0

34

2

143

0

1,1%

1982

10

0

47

1

143

0

0,4%

1983

10

0

46

2

143

0

0,9%

1986

10

0

55

1

143

0

0,5%

1990

11

0

60

1

145

0

0,5%

1994-95

10

1

0

3

0

0

7,6%

Source : HAGURUKA, la femme rwandaise et l'accès à la justice, 2001, p.69

MIFOTRA, recensement des agents de l'Etat, décembre, 1998, p. 12

With the table above, the presenter room shows that since 1962 until 1975, no woman reached the station of responsibility at this level, it is only into 1976 that the 1st women were appointed sub-prefect. It acts Mesdames Victoire BALINDA, NYIRARENZAHO and Marguerite MUKANKWAYA, being a representativeness of 1, 1%.

This progress is due to the awakening by the government of former president HABYARIMANA on the importance of the contributions of the women to the development of the country. Dancila MUKARUSHEMA originating in rural Kigali, appointed, occupied then the same functions in the same prefecture of Byumba in 1989. Stations occupying, nevertheless stations more administrative than political.

Unfortunately, in 1982 until 1990, there was a regression of representativeness to 0,5%. In 1983 the woman sub-prefect named NYIRABIZEYIMANA Immaculée sub-prefect of the sub-prefecture of Rwamagana control of the 20/01/1983 to the 8/01/1984 it was appointed of 1984 to 1994, named by the central committee of the MRND.

With her departure no other woman was appointed sub-prefect of sub-prefecture, only excludes the sub-prefect with the prefecture. Acting of the woman prefect one had to wait in 1994 a woman prefect of the prefecture of the town of Kigali (PVK).44(*)

3.1. The woman fighting in the army45(*) and the magistrate.46(*)

At the time of former president KAYIBANDA and HABYARIMANA, the army was exclusively male irrevocability, the majority are the men who convey and control the army47(*). Admittedly, some women in the army start to emerge themselves, but its representativeness is obvious.

The gendarmerie and the police force be male, the woman nevertheless is some gone away. As for the legal organization it is in 1962, that the government adopting the law-instituted courts of canton replaces courts of the chefferies48(*) of them; with this change the situation remains precarious.

In front of the ordinary jurisdictions and the military jurisdictions the woman as magistrate did not have any more a place. The first woman at the Supreme Court49(*) was named in 1999, acting of the military court any woman neither military listener, nor substitute was not named. Mutatis-mutandis and Citeris Paribus; in 1994 one counted 81 women legal police inspectors.

The impact of this female absence is extremely regrettable, since times, certain women can have problems to see even the fear of being addressed to the officers of the public Ministry of male sex. Description hereafter shows us how much the woman was for a long time isolated of the officer of the public Ministry and the police inspector.

Table N 3. Degree of the representativenesses of the officers of the Public Ministry

close the ordinary jurisdictions.50(*)

general

Year

Parquet floor close the supreme court

General Parquet floors close the Courts of Appeal

Parquet floor of the Republic

General

prosecutor

1st Prosecuting attorney General P

General

Attorney

Prosecuting attorney General

General Prosecuting

Substitutes

Prosecutors

1st Substitute

Substitute

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

H

F

1991

1

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

2

0

5

0

10

0

12

0

50

0

1994

0

0

1

0

1

0

4

0

4

0

8

0

11

0

12

0

103

18

Source: MINIJUST Supreme Court

Table N 4. Numbers of legal police inspector (IPJ)

Year

Man

Woman

1994

24

0

Source: MINIJUST Supreme Court

Before the promulgation of the law n 3/97, bearing creation of the lawyer office in Rwanda51(*), there were legal agents, times not-lawyers, which practice with any degree of procedure52(*). One estimates at that time which ago discrimination except that other trades carried the women. Today, contrasts about it the preceding law stipulates that any holder at least license in right, has right to be a lawyer, which gives right to plead with any degree of procedure, whereas the not-lawyer, called legal defenders cannot plead in first authority.

Today the numbers of the women lawyer evolve/move of the day at the day although the law itself does not make any distinction related to the sex with the occupation of lawyer. As for the legislative assembly, the presence of the woman be unimportant, at the time of accession being studied of a law, the position of the woman be always minority. In addition, the National assembly of 1962 until 1994, to show that there is enough the manpower of the parliamentary women. The following table shows the change of manpower.53(*)

Table N 5. A number of parliamentary women54(*)

Year

1962

1969

1982

1984

1989

1994

M

44

47

60

62

59

59

F

0

0

4

8

11

11

Source: National Parliament, 1994

One notice that the table above shows that, the evolution of the woman is carried out already in 1982 or four women were elected members of the Parliament. Its representativeness somewhat opened the political sphere but under well defined periods and conditions.

In the council of Rwanda of after independence no woman appeared. In the same way, the revolution of 1959 did not make it possible any of them to emerge. The national assembly de facto installation by the national council joined together on January 28, 1961 at GITARAMA did not comprise women. The 3rd legislature of 1969 did not renew the experiment. The National Assembly of Transition (ANT) resulting from the supposed agreements of Arusha to put an end to the war of 1993. Among 70 deputies named by the 15 competent parties only three women appeared coming from political parties (FPR, PL and MFBP).55(*)

* 7 Bensandon, N, les droits de la femme au développement : pourquoi, Quand, Comment, 1980, P.3.

* 8 According to VADERVEKEN, M., and HERNADEZ, C, (1985), quoted by TWAHIRWA G, Identification of the obstacles to the participation of the Rwandan Women in the authorities of decision-making, UNR, 2004, p.40

* 9 NATIONS UNIES, la condition de la femme, Rapport et Document, Numéro 64, New York, 1986, P.3.

* 10 Simon de Beauvoir, le deuxième sexe I, les faits et les mythes , 1945, p.109

* 11Simon de Beauvoir, idem, p.45.

* 12 Madame Staël was born in France-Paris in April 22, 1766 - died at July 14, 1817. She was the daughter of the prominent Swiss statesman Jacques Necker.

* 13 Ney Bensandon, les droits de la femme au développement : pourquoi, Quand, Comment New York, 1980, p.18.

* 14 According to: ``The Latin Americana Women' S Group (1983), quoted by AYESHA. M. I., et AMINA.M., sexe, genre et societé, paris, 1997, p.259, confirmed that: In the fight for the reductionism of the oppression of the woman, to believe that by changing world of production, one destroys not only the oppression of the women, but all the design of world, the State, the capacity, the women, the children, education returns to... while reducing it to a rough form economism not to have has to pose the problem, first of all capacity, hierarchy and vertical structure of our political organizations..., and the capacity that our dear comrades men have throughout the histoire'

* 15 Isabelle D, Femme and development, Paris, karthala, 1996, p.82-83

* 16 http://webetab.ac-bordeaux.fr/Etablissement/SudMedoc/ses/1999/parit_00.htm (13 September 2007)

* 17 Interparliamentary Union, Report/ratio and document, Number 41, Geneva, 1995, P.7.

* 18 Grawittz, Mr., Methods of social sciences, 11th edition, Paris Dalloz, 2001, p.351.

* 19 Bourgeois, R.; Banyarwanda et barundi, t.z, la coutume, Bruxelles, 1954, p.146

* 20 ADRIAENSSENS, J., la parenté, le mariage, la famille au Rwanda, Butare, 1964, p.148

* 21 FIERENS. J and NTAMPAKA.C, idem. p.84, quoted that, the Rwandan ones are convinced that the force of a family comes mainly from the capacity of the woman to manage it and to make it prosperity. Generally, no decision of some importance is made without its opinion being necessary as a preliminary. Nothing obliges the husband to do it, but that depends on its relationship with his wife and the confidence which they have one in the other.

* 22 QUEMENER, J.M. et BOUVET, E., Femmes du Rwanda, éd. Paris, Catlleya, 1999, P. 16.

* 23 D'HERTEFELT, A., Les anciens royaumes de la zone interlacustre méridionale au Rwanda, Burundi Boha, Bruxelles Tervuren, 1962 p.62

* 24 25 D'HERTEFELT, A., idem, p.63

* 26 In 1896, King Musinga Yuhi V replaced King Mibambwe IV Rutalindwa in the famous coup

d'Etat of Rucunchu.

* 27 NDABAGA, girl of NYAMUTEZI, born in Bwishaza in 1700, which went to replace his/her father

in the camp of field-of-battles

* 28HAGURUKA, Ten years of existence of July 16 1981, July -16, 2001; assessment and perspectives, Kigali, 2001, pp.44-67

* 29 HAVUGIMANA, D., La compétence d'attribution des juridictions de l'ordre judiciaire en droit

rwandais, thèse de doctorat, Bruxelles, Antwerpen, 1989, p.52

* 30 According to KAGAME, A. (1975) quoted by GASANABO. J D., Mémoire et histoire scolaire : le cas du Rwanda de 1962 à 1994, thèse de doctorat en science de l'éducation, thèse No 341, Geneva, pp. 64-65, 2004, known as that, Jean-Paul Harroy was a general Vice-governor of Ruanda-Urundi (1955-1962) and Colonel Guy Logiest was Resident special of Ruanda (1959-1962). It is on July 1 1962, which the Belgian flag was brought and the Rwandan flag hoists. Rwanda thus covered its independence "temporarily put out of night light, arbitrarily confiscated, by the coloniser" Indeed, the European administration with exchange neither the name nor the borders of the country.

* 31 The mwami (KING) played a part of saver of the nation, particularly at the time of the crises: political wars, competitions or internal conflicts. It was frequent that the king sacrifices himself while going ahead of the danger; at the time of battles for example, but also while committing suicide or while letting themselves "assassinate" and replace by another if Abirus, the ritualists of the Court, decided that it was necessary to the safeguard of the kingdom.

* 32 Haguruka, la femme rwandaise et l'accès à la justice, Kigali, 2001, p. 88

* 33 The Rwandan State by its constitutions of 1962, 1978 and 1991 recognizes equality of the man and the woman in front of the law and consequently the same rights with regard to the electorate and eligibility for the political stations. It is what confirms article 16 of the constitution of November 24, 1962 (J.o of December 01, 1962); article 16 of the constitution of December 20, 1978 (J.o. 1978, No 24 (a), article 16 of the constitution of June 10, 1991 (J.o, 1991).

* 34 The first Rwandan constitution of Republic of November 24, 1962 quoted by Muswahili, freins à l'intégration de la femme rwandaise au développement, Butare- UNR, 1980, p.20

* 35 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA C, idem, p.65, quoted some women be qualities are: Mrs. Pascasie Masengesho, Miss Félicula Nyiramutarambirwa, Mrs. Béatrice Ntahobari, Sister Agnes Twagiramariya, Miss Athanasie Nzacahinyeretse, Miss Janvière Baziyaka, Mrs. Stéphanie Nsengiyunva Kankundiye, Victoire Balinda Nyirarenzaho, Gaudence Nyirasafari, Consolata Nyiraminani, Immaculée Nyirabizeyimana... They also appeared under representing "integrated movement" of the militant women for the development, (Urunana rw' abanyarwandakazi driven majyambere) [URAMA], caused tardily by single party MRND in 1988.

* 36 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA C, idem, p.66, in the central government, under the first Republic, only one woman reached the rank of minister in January 1964. Madeleine Ayinkamiye, and directed the ministry for the socials businesses. Transform in ministry for health in November 1965, it yielded it... to her husband, Sixte Butera. Let us announce that this eminent woman, originating in Ruhengeri, was the sister of colonel extremely important Bonaventure Ntibitura.

* 37 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA C, idem, p.66, quoted that, Mrs. Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, old Minister for the family, is accused of participation in the Genocide in front of the TPIR, Mrs. Agnès Ntamabyariro, ex-minister of justice, was kidnapped in Zambia and was transferred to Rwanda by the services from safety, it held in Kigali to be accused in the genocide. Mrs. Kamatamu adviser of the Muhima sector, was condemned on July 17, 1998 by the court of Kigali to the death penalty and perpetual and total civic degradation; to also see court of the first authority of Gitarama; MP C BIZIMANA R.P.73/GT/CH.S/2/99; November 5, 1999; Court of first authority of Gitarama, MPc/MUKANGANGO; 24/05/1999, R.PNO 35/GT/CH.S/1/98; Court of Appeal of Ruhengeri, MP c/MUKANTAGARA, June 30 1998

38NTAMPAKA, C., La place de la coutume dans la législation rwandaise : Etat actuel, RJR, Numéro 199, Kigali, 1997, P.20

* 39 Presidency of the Republic, organization of the Rwandan Police headquarters of 1960 to our days, July 1983, idem, by MUKAMUGENZI, M. C Rôle de la femme dans le processus de leadership politique rwandais de 1962 à 2002, licencié en science politique ,UNR, 2002,p .45

* 40 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA. C, idem, p.172, the advent of the multi-party system integrate three women in the ministerial cabinet of April 16, 1992: Agnes Ntamabyariro, member of the party liberal and originating in Kibuye; Pauline Nyiramasuhuko, member of the MRND and originating in Butare; Agathe Uwiringiyimana, member of the MDR (Republican Democratic Movement) and originating in Butare. In the 2nd government of transition from July 1993, Agathe Uwiringimana reached the functions of Prime Minister and was assassinate as we said, April 7, 1994 in the morning, from the very start of the phase of massacres which followed making an attempt it against the presidential plane.

* 41 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA. C idem Agathe UWIRINGIYIMANA, professor of secondary education and president of the MDR in Butare, knew an extremely fast political ascendance. It was named Minister for primary education Teaching and secondary on April 16, 1992 in the first pluri part government, it became Prime Minister on July 18, 1993. Its personal engagement, its frankness, its simplicity of its contact with the population introduced a rupture with the usual characteristics of the experienced national politicians

* 42 FIERENS. J, and NTAMPAKA. C ibidem, Pauline NYIRAMASUHUKO, Prime Minister for the MRND and president of the MRND originating in Butare, in the businesses national policy it was inexperienced completely unknown of the public and of policies circle, much caused was renewed in the government on July 18, 1993, then named in the government of transition to widened base, envisaged by the agreements of peace of Arusha. It was rival of Agathe uwiringiyimana of the opposition of the South.

* 43 NTAMPAKA, C., Droits des personnes et de la famille, manuels de droits rwandais, Printer set, Kigali, 1992, P. 34

* 44 FIERENS. J, et NTAMPAKA.C, idem, p.173, quoted that, Major Rose KABUYE in the history of Rwanda was named prefect of the prefecture of the town of Kigali (PVK) of November 05, 1994 to December 12, 1997. It could show that the equality of the man and the woman as regards public administration was possible.

* 45 FIERENS. J, et NTAMPAKA.c, idem, pp.17-18, In occident, it is only start at the First World War that the women started to take share with the hostilities in a systematic way. By the way one example, in Germany, since 1943, more than one million women were used in the factory of armament. At the same time, 300.000 women formed part of the army of reserve (20.000 in the navy, 130.000 in the Air Force).

In England, at the end of 1943, the female units of the army included/understood 450.000 women, accounting for 9, 39% of the total of the armed forces. During the Second World War, one counted, among the female units of the army: 624 killed, 98 disappeared, 744 wounded and 20 captured. In sovietic Republic, the women took part directly in the conflict, they carried all the weapons, and taken a share direct with all the engagements, as a shooter, marksman, pilot, artillery, etc. It is supposed that nearly a million women fought during the Second World War, including 800.000 in the armed forces and 200.000 in resistance, accounting for 8% of the total of the armed forces. One notices that in a great number of countries, the woman asserted the right to engage ideologically or politically; that implies the harbour due the weapons

* 46 NTAMPAKA, C., idem, p.36.

* 47 In the Rwandan army, the recruitment of the women officers was late; the first three women who integrated the Military Higher School belong with the 16th promotions of the years 1975-77. Symbolically, they came from the three prefectures of the North, in which the originating ones controlled the central capacity. The 17th promotion did not comprise any more that two, including one originating in Gitarama, dominated prefecture of the South In 1994, none of these women officers had not exceeded the rank of major nor did not occupy of function of operational command or a decisional station. The Law of 24 bearing August 1962 organisations and juridiction.

* 48La loi du 24 août 1962 portant organisation et compétence judiciaire

* 49 FIERENS.J, & NTAMPAK.C, ibidem, p.157, affirmed that the current woman from now is thus authorized to take place and to chair the Gacaca courts. In addition, hitherto the participation of the women as "magistrates" in strongly increased and was accepted by the Rwandan company which before had never conferred some capacity to them that it is.

* 50 Haguruka, dix ans d'existence du 16 juillet 1991- 16 juillet 2001, bilan et perspectives, Kigali, 2001, p.50

* 51 La loi No 3/97 journal officiel portant création du bureau d'avocat au Rwanda, kigali, mars 1997, p.42

* 52 NTAMPAKA, C., idem, p.36, quoted that, the only women to have occupied the decision-making jobs within the sitted magistrature are Mukandamage M. Josée vice-president with the supreme court and president of the Court of Auditors since 1999, CYANZAYIRE Aloysie, vice-president of the supreme court and president of the section Gacaca jurisdictions. Since 2000, MURARA Odette, president of the Court of Appeal of Kigali of 1995 to 1999, currently adviser at the supreme court, NTAMABYARIRO Agnes, vice-president of the Court of Appeal of Nyabisindu of the 1985 and MUKANGANGO Auréa vice-president of the court of the first authority of Kigali.

* 53 Legislative Parliament, project of Constitution, documents Number 6, meeting of October 10 1961.

p.50

* 54 FIERENS. J, ET NTAMPAKA.c, idem, pp.177-178. During years 1970, Agathe KANZIGA marry ex-president HABYARIMANA in writing pad was attached to structure "the Rwandan movement female". In its mandate a small group of women eminent established in relation to it in the social school of Karubanda with butare was attached to it, which contributed to the political organization among them appears: NYIRAKAROMBA Beatrice originating in butare, appointed of 1982 to 1989; MASENGESHO Pascasie, originating in Kigali; appointed of 1982 to 1989, Immaculate NYIRABIZEYIMANA, originating in byumba, appointed 1984 to 1994, vice president of the CND, member of the central committee of the MRND, Mukamusoni Catherine, sister of Agathe KANZIGA and Bararengana Séraphin soeur of Habyarimana ex-president.

* 55 Agreement of peace of Arusha, between the government of the Republic of Rwanda and the Rwandan Patriotic Front, Official Journal, Kigali, 1993, p. 25

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