Vulnérabilité et risques liés au VIH et sida chez les groupes sociaux historiquement marginalisés « Batwa » des districts de Rusizi, Nyamasheke et Nyamagabe au Rwanda( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Muhire Kanyamasoro
Université nationale du Rwanda/ école de santé publique - Master degree at public health 2010
UNIVERSITE NATIONALE DU RWANDA
ECOLE DE SANTE PUBLIQUE
MAITRISE EN SANTE PUBLIQUE
The results obtained from the descriptive analysis of the respondents show that 60,7% of the respondents get married before the legal age of 21 years old (the median age being 19 ; medium age : 20, the mode : 16 with 95% C I [19,5416-21,4346]).
In the same vein, regarding age at the first sexual intercourse, more than the half of the respondents (57,7% ) have confirmed having had sex before 21 years old and even before age sixteen (26,9%).
Still as regards sexual behavior, 43,8% of the respondents had non-desired pregnancies before marriage; and a no-negligible group do not perceive any risk of HIV infection (6,9%).
The majority of the respondents acknowledges that HIV does exist (96,9%). So do they for the modes of its transmission and prevention. But they don't know anything at all about Mothers to Child HIV Transmission (PMTCT).
Only 5,4% of the respondents know about HIV prevention and transmission methods, with reference to the three chief means of prevention; notably sexual abstinence, fidelity to an unique non-infected partner and the correct use of the preservative.
As concern prejudices formed around HIV, results demonstrate that the respondents confuse HIV with the poisoning (79,2%). Women are more inclined to believe this than men (60,2% versus 39,8% ).
The surveyed population accuses acute poverty as the main reason which urges the Twa wife to have extra conjugal sexual relations in order to satisfy her household primary needs. Among the given reasons, the quest for food comes first (66,2%), then money and presents (32%) and finally the valorization and/or prestige of having sex with rich person (2%).
As the marital status, married people are the most protected (33,3%) in relation to independent union (0,0%) with p = 0,030; 95% IC [0,562-0,791].
Regarding the use of the condom, results show that the existence of the condom is almost totally known (96,9%). However, only 10,7% of the respondents affirm having used the condom at least once in their life.
Given the fact that the Batwa live in isolation, they don't easily access to information because only 8% argue that they have a health animator within their group; the rest receive information from the radio (28,1%), from neighbors (9,5%), in community meetings with local authorities (19,8%) from the cell health animators (42,5%).