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The role of SMEs in rwanda from 1995 to 2010

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par Clotilde MUKAMUGANGA
National University of Rwanda - A0 2011

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3. 7. Data processing and analysis

«Data processing is concerned with classifying responses into meaningful categories called codes » (Roth, 1989: 58). It consists of editing, schedules and coding the responds. The data processing began with editing, coding and finally ended with tabulation.

Nachmias (1976: 143) assert that, data processing is a link between data collection and data analysis. It involves the transformation of the observation gathered from the fields into the system of categories and the transformation of these categories into codes and amenable to quantitative analysis and tabulation. Not all data can be presented in their entity. The variables to be presented are those most central to the goals of the study; generally variables include specifically in the research questions (Bailey, 1978: 321).

Data collected was really in arrow form. It was not easy to the researcher to present the findings of the study. Therefore, the researcher had technically processed data before proper analysis was done so as to become more meaningful for interpretation. Data processing was done in accordance with general and specific objectives of the research study.

After carrying out interviews with respondents and questionnaire were collected, they were edited and the information was arranged in a meaningful and organized form by coding it. The data were analyzed by using computer program SPSS.

3. 7. 1 Editing

According to Daniel and Gates (1991: 387), editing is the process of going through the questionnaire to ensure that the `skip patterns' were followed and required questions are filled out. Editing involves the inspection and if necessary, connections of each questionnaire or observation form; the basic purpose of editing is to impose some minimum quality standards on the raw data (Churchill, 1992:608).

3. 7. 2 Coding

According to Churchill (1992: 612), coding is the procedure by which data are categorized. Through coding, the raw data are transformed into symbols usually numerals that may be tabulated and counted. The transformation is not automatic; however, it involves judgment on the part of coder. Moses and Kalton (1971: 415), states that the purpose of coding in the survey is to classify the answers acquired were coded and tallies used to determine the frequencies of each response. Similar responses would be grouped according to their different categories. This helped the researcher to know for instance the percentage of responses on whether there is role of small and medium enterprises on rural development in Rwanda.

3. 7. 3. Tabulation

According to Selltiz et al. (1965: 406-407), tabulation refers to the part of technical process on statistical analysis of data that involves counting to determine the number cases that fall into various categories. Thus after eliminating errors, codes were assigned to each answer. This stage led to the construction of statistical tables showing frequency distribution of answers to questions addressed to respondents. The statistical tables were used to compare the number of occurrences of each answer to questions asked. Up to this level, it was through mathematical and statistical tables that the number of occurrence of each answer in relation to the questions asked was converted into percentages which made it clear.Each table was accompanied by explanations about the nature of relationship between the variables that were indicated in tables.

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