L'intégration sous-régionale en CEMAC à l'épreuve de la liberté de circulation des biens et des personnes
par Achille SOMMO PENDE
Université Catholique d'Afrique Centrale - Master Gouvernance et Politiques Publiques 2010
From the official launching of the activities of the CEMAC on the 25th of june 1999, in equatorial guinea, the states members fixed themselves the major goal of building a common and competitive market based on the free circulation of persons and goods in order to give themselves a better capacity to create riches and get inserted into the world's economy. Despite the progress made, it is important to note that the free circulation of persons and goods is not very effective. This failure puts to light a mitigated balance, that can be seen through the non realization of the fixed objectives by the new sub regional institution and the weakness of the community spirit. Also, the existence of a protectional vague desire and of the malfunctions of the financial mechanism have considerably reduced the depth of the interrogatory projects.
The observers of the sub regional integration process in central Africa have the tendency to point a finger at the absence of political will the explain the backwardness. Far from refusing this thesis, in the past years, CEMAC has taken strong engagements to make free circulation of persons and goods effective. In the mean time, nevertheless the are some heaviness on the political will of the states members of the CEMAC and goes against the efforts made for the free circulation. Concretely, these obstacles are structural and manifest themselves by a deficit in of good governance in a context of generalised corruption. These odds are equally linked to conjuncture that contributed either to weaken the states of central Africa or to enhance competitions and quarrels in the community. On the other hand, socio-anthropological factors are contributing to draw back the sub regional integration dynamism.
In this light, some scenarios can be made as to if effective or not the free circulation in the CEMAC zone is. The «pessimistic» scenario of the free circulation on the «break down»; the «realistic scenario» which shows a progressive effective circulation and the «optimistic» scenario, which gives way to an effective free circulation. In addition, the «realistic» scenario, which is the most plausible, can only be realised if the states members of the CEMAC zone overcome some defies. The first of these challenges is about rehabilitating the community spirit in the sub region in order to get a better overview of the benefits of integration. Next, the obvious following point is about multiplying the practice of good governance trough the building up and the use of convincing mechanisms and the harmonization of the budgetary policies. Last but not the least, it will just be logical to replace the people at the heart of the integration process, this can be made through a better implication of the private sector and of the civil society in the community initiatives.
Key words: Sub regional integration, free circulation, community, market, goods, persons, heaviness, perspectives, world «conjuncture» good governance