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Peuples autochtones et droit au développement au Cameroun. Cas des pygmées Baka de l'est

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par Marielle KOLOKOSSO
Université catholique d'Afrique Centrale Yaoundé - Master en droits de l'homme et action humanitaire 2010
  

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ABSTRACT

Indigenous peoples are one of the poorest groups of people in the world. Therefore, the entire international community is doing all in its power to improve on their living conditions through development. In effect, the right to development, a right for the Third Generation, is intimately linked to the fight against poverty and seems to be the answer to improving the living conditions of the indigenous people in general, and the Baka people in particular. However, the international instruments that ratify the right to development for the benefit of the Baka people requires that the development actors fully integrate the dimension of human dignity in achieving development for them to the same degree as that of access to their well being.

Cameroon recognizes the right to development for the Baka pygmies, as citizens of Cameroon. However, the Baka people due to their peculiarities require special protection for them to fully benefit from the right to development. Without this protection, the implementation of the right to development for their benefit will be difficult and incomplete. Observing the Baka of Missoumé, it was noticed that emphasis is put on access to their well being, and the dimension of human dignity is neglected. The immediate consequences are that they suffer from acculturation and they develop dependence vis-à-vis donors. The implementation of the right to development for the Baka pygmies of Eastern region is very demanding, and calls for reforms as early as possible so that people can enjoy this development, while respecting its specificity.

Key words: Development, Indigenous Peoples, Baka Pygmies, Right to development, acculturation, protection, Cameroon, cultural specificities, human dignity, fight against poverty.

SIGLES ET ABREVIATIONS

ASEDEF : Association pour la Scolarisation Des Enfants de la Forêt

C169 : Convention n°169 de l'OIT relative aux peuples indigènes et tribaux

CADDAP : Centre d'Action pour le Développement Durable des Autochtones Pygmées

CADHP : Charte Africaine des Droits de l'Homme et des Peuples

CERAC : Cercle des Amis du Cameroun

CPLE : Consentement Préalable, Libre et Eclairé

DDPA : Déclaration sur les Droits des Peuples Autochtones

DRSP : Document de Stratégie de Réduction de la Pauvreté

GIC : Groupement d'Intérêt Commun

JIPA : Journée Internationale des Peuples Autochtones

MBOSCUDA: Mbororo Social and Cultural Development Association

MINADER : Ministère de l'Agriculture et du Développement Rural

MINAS : Ministère des Affaires Sociales

MINEDUB : Ministère de l'Education de Base

ODM : Objectifs du Millénaire pour le Développement

OIT : Organisation Internationale du Travail

ONG : Organisation Non Gouvernementale

PNDP : Plan National de Développement Participatif

PPAV : Plan pour les Peuples Autochtones et Vulnérables

RFA : Redevances forestières annuelles

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