Health risk assessment associated with the reuse of compost, urine and greywater in agricultural field in sahelian climate.
par Alexis Loukou BROU
Fondation 2iE - Master Environnement option Eau et Assainissement 2014
The risks related to the reuse of compost, urine and greywater in agriculture were varied according to the different treatments and scenarios which were assumed from farmers and consumers.
Therefore, the risk more proven meets at the time of the ingestion of the soil on which the urine wasspread urine (U+TW) is the Salmonella risk infection > 10-6.That could be explained by the fact why the urines used for the fertilization go back to less than one week of storage. With a significant load of the pathogens (Salmonellas) or indicator of the pathogen such as the enterococci.However, if the time of storage of urine is long, that contributes to the reduction of the risks of infection of the pathogen. Ascaris annual risk infection is high in C+TW and C+U+GW combination. However Risk could be reduced, if faeces were stored at least 6-12 months before its use for the fertilization of the cultures.
For ingestion of irrigated greywater, the risk of infection of Salmonella in both combinations (GW and C+U+GW) is higher than the WHO guideline value.Risk could be mitigated, if farmers use adequate equipment of protection before to irrigate the crops. In addition, if irrigated greywater amount of fecal indicators is below of 103CFU/100mL.
For lettuce consumption, risk infection of pathogens is high than benchmark (10-6), however it could be reduced by observing the WHO recommendations.
Through this study, compost, urine may be used to fertilize the soil and greywater may be used to irrigate the crop which can eat freshly.
These results may be contributed for managing the public health by reducing diseases from populations. But if farmers and consumers observe the recommendations of protection by wearing protection equipment for farmers and washing the lettuce leaves with clean water before eating for the consumers.
In sahelian climate, risk infection of pathogens could be reduced thank to sun because the sunbeam play a significant role in the inactivation of pathogen in the soil.
This study has given us an insight into manyother research possibilities. For example, risk assessment can study in handle faeces and urine from families' pilot. Also, health risk could be assessing from urban farmers in Ouagadougou city where they use wastewater and dam water to irrigate crops.
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