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Problématique de la mobilité urbaine et de l'insécurité routière à dakar: le cas des accidents des usagers de deux roues-motorisées

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par Stephen Elmer SANGALA
Ecole Supérieure d'Economie Appliquée (ESEA, ex-ENEA) de Dakar au Sénégal - Master 1 en Aménagement du territoire, Environnement et Gestion Urbaine 2015

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The transport sector plays a very important part in the economy of Senegal. Within the transport unit, the road sector occupies a dominating place in the inland transport. Thus, the road ensures approximately 99% of interior displacement people and probably more than 96% for the goods. In addition, Dakar concentrates the major part the equipment and the infrastructures. Moreover, the zone of place (downtown area) is the zone where all economic activities are met. From where an increase in the population.

However, with the increase in the population `'dakaroise'' and the car fleet, one witness pressures on the road traffic (congestion, etc). The time put of a distance at another does not cease increasing. It is the case for example by leaving goose leg for Diamniadio. One passed from 1h to almost 1:45. Consequently, for more speed in displacements, people resort to the two motorized wheels. As a result, this practice of2RM interested the resident of Dakar for more mobility. But force is to note that the use of the 2RM which offers mobility involves accidents. According to the statistics of National Brigade of The Firemen, the numbers of accidents of 2RM in 20013 rose with 1333 whose 1735 victims and 22 death. In 2014, the Dakar capital recorded with it only 1827 accidents with 30 deaths and 2262 casualties, on a regional total of 5653 traffic accident. That shows which these drivers are most vulnerable to the accident risk of circulation in this direction where the 2RM do not have body as the car accident. Consequently, Senegal which is a country of a surface of 196 720 km2 has a population of 12 873 601 inhabitants including 6 428 189 men and 6 445 412 women (ANSD, 2013). Its GDP is around 5 995 billion francs CFA in 2009 with a growth rate of 3,3%. According to data of accidents available, Senegal loses each year the equivalent of more than 1% of its GDP in the traffic accidents. Because they are mainly the young people who are victims of these accidents. That is worrying because these young people are for the majority symbol of hope and a future of the nation. It is thus around these problems of the road safety of the users of2RM in Dakar that our study is articulated. One wonders why the road accidents implying the two-wheeled vehicles motorized are current in Dakar.

So, the general objective of our research enables us to apprehend and better understand the recurrence of the road accidents implying the two-wheeled vehicles motorized in Dakar. Thus our methodological approach was articulated around seven (7) phases (the choice of the subject; the document retrieval; targets of investigations; tools for collects; sampling; the exploitation and data analysis collected; finally encountered difficulties).

The results of the study showed that the profile of subject responsible of the accident is a young adult of the edge from 26 to 30 years, male sex of secondary level, with like activity professional mechanic motorcycle/ salesmen of spare parts and led with a speeding and does not respect either the highway code. Moreover, one notes a lack of rigor in the put strategies open some to reduce the accidents.

The recommendations, which we made, go towards authorities, of the users of 2RM and the pedestrians. The improvement of the road network, the installation a good policy of road safety and adoption of behaviors responsible at the drivers for the mechanics (as individuals of the 2RM), will allow decreasing the causes of the road accidents. Thus, the success of various actions will pass by the good performance and the effectiveness of the gripping forces of the order, which must take care that the regulation on the matter is actually applied.

Keywords: Mobility, road safety, road accident.

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