Effet de bordure des terroirs villageois sur les aires protégées suite a la dynamique de l'utilisation des terres : cas de la forêt classée des monts Kouffé au Bénin.:
par Inoussa TOKO MOUHAMADOU
Université d'Abomey-Calavi - Diplôme d'Etudes Approfondies (DEA) 2005
The problem of the subject " Effect of border of the rustic soils on protected areas further to the dynamics of landuses: case of Monts Kouffé classified forest in Benin ", is to know if the various plans of limits (roads, tracks, stream) local residents in Monts Kouffé classified forest favors or not the natural resources degradation of this protected area.
The general objective of this research work is to estimate the environmental damages of the anthropological pressure on the rustic soils and Monts Kouffé classified forest. To reach this general objective, the following specific objectives were aimed:
- identify the various plans of Monts Kouffé classified forest;
- analyze the dynamics of the anthropological activities in the rustic soils;
- establish a relation between the various plans of limits and the anthropological activities;
- identify the impact of every type of plans of limits on the dynamics of landuses in the rustic soils and Monts Kouffé classified forest.
Indeed, Monts Kouffé classified forest is situated in the Department of Donga, between 1°40 ' and 2°15 ' of longitude East and, between 8°25 ' and 8°50 ' of latitude North. Its total surface is 180.300 ha. The study area is located in the Municipality of Bantè (Department of Hills). It covers a surface of 58.107 ha and includes the waterside villages Okouta Ossé, Pira Adjigo, Akpassi, Banon, Bantè, Bobè and Djagbalo.
The working methodology is based on the use of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System and, on the inquiry of ground. This one allowed to make a better knowledge of the problems of the study area.
The populations practise an extensive agriculture dominated by a system of fallow. Fields are installed at average going distances from 5 to 10 km of the natural limit (Adjiro) of the classified forest. So, certain forest essences of commercial and pastoral values (Khaya senegalensis, Afzelia africana, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Bombax costatum, etc.) are endangered because of their anarchy exploitation by the waterside populations. The results of the multi-temporal study based on the satellite image Landsat-TM of 1986 and the Orthophotoplan of 2003 show that between 1986 and 2003, the woody savannas (-2,09 %), raised savannas (-0,31 %), arbustives savannas (-19,49 %) and plantations (-2,71 %) knew a decrease of their surfaces. Whereas the forest galleries (2,10 %), forest degraded galleries (7,21 %), dense forests (4,02 %), clear forests (1,51 %), fields (7,71 %) and fallow (1,94 %) knew they, an increase of their surfaces.
It is necessary to indicate also that the waterside populations master badly the limits of the protected area, what favourites the degradation of these resources. It is thus necessary to set up and to support committees of follow-up and management of natural resources in the study area.
Keywords: effect of border, rustic soils, protected area, dynamics, Monts Kouffé, Benin.