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Analyse des impacts écologiques et socioculturels de l'exploitation des produits de Daniellia Oliveri sur la viabilité de ses peuplements au Bénin

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par Rémy HOUEHOUNHA
Université d'Abomey-Calavi (Bénin) - Doctorat Unique 2009
  

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ABSTRACT

Daniellia oliveri is a multi-purpose species, endemic in the Southern Sahara of Africa. It is widespread in the savanna areas and the fallow lands of SudanoGuinean zone. The study of D. Oliveri concerned the level of knowledge and the uses of the parts of the species to assess the contribution of anthropogenic activities on its survival through the following objectives: (i) An assessment of the ethnobotanical knowledge of the local people on D. Oliveri; (ii) The characteristics and structures of the D. Oliveri in the rural landscape and in protected forests of Benin; (iii) An assessment of the reproduction technics of D. Oliveri on different types of soil in Benin; (iv) A comparative evaluation of the impact of anthropogenic activities (weeding, wildfire) on shoot development of D. oliveri with respect to soil types; (v) the evalution of economic benefits from shoot exploitation. In order to achieve these objectives, the method consisted of: (i) quantitative and qualitative data collection on a sample of about 1,200 individuals which belonged to 7 sociolinguistic groups e. g. (Fon, Fulani, Bariba, Yoa, Nago, Goun, Berba). Sites investigated were 21 municipalities, where the presence of D. Oliveri was recognized; (ii) data collection in phytosociology and dendrometric of the species from 85 temporary plots of 907 m2 in the protected forests and in rural landscapes; (iii) Seed germination test, cutting for evaluating the ability of the species, according to types of substrates (sandy, Clay, lateritic and ferrallitic); (iv) to establish and collect periodic data (number of individuals, height and diameter) in 16 permanent plots of 50 m2 on each of the 4 types of soil with two treatments (weeding and bush burning) to monitor the development of their shoots and their ability to produce marketable firewood.

The results showed that: (i) Twenty uses of the species are recognized by people subjected to investigation; (ii) The spatial distribution of D. Oliveri extended from the southern of Benin to the northern part; (iii) The uses were best known in the southern and central than the northern part of Benin; (iv) The protected

ANALYSE DES IMPACTS ECOLOGIQUES ET SOCIOCULTURELS DE L'EXPLOITATION DES PRODUITS DE DANIELLIA OLIVERI (ROLFE) HUTCH. & DALZ.
SUR LA VIABILITE DE SES PEUPLEMENTS AU BENIN

forests and the rural landscapes were affected by anthropogenic activities so that the diversity index of companion species of D. Oliveri varied from 3.80 bits in the rural landscapes against 2.75 bits in the protected forests; (v) D. oliveri reproduced from seeds, by cuttings of roots and did not require particular treatments; (vi) Treatment of seeds by thermal shock gave the lowest germination rate, and seemed to stimulate height growth of seedlings in early vegetation stage; (vii) The development of shoots from was not linked soil types, but the treatment applied to stands in three years should an increase the density by an average of 17,650 individuals/ha in weeded plots but 8,400 trees / ha in plots that experienced annual wild-fires. Growth in height and diameter reached respectively 200-500 cm and 3.5-4 cm during the same period; (viii) After 3 to 4 years of monitoring shoots the weeding treatment permitted to gain three times, the income from the marketing young trees as firewood.

The studies have laid down the foundations of D. Oliveri stand management and its sylviculture. The various uses impacts of D. Oliveri suggest the urgency and necessity of the implementation of appropriate management plans, for areas colonized by D. Oliveri to protect the species.

Key words: Daniellia Oliveri, ethnobotanic, reproduction, firewood, Benin

ANALYSE DES IMPACTS ECOLOGIQUES ET SOCIOCULTURELS DE L'EXPLOITATION DES PRODUITS DE DANIELLIA OLIVERI (ROLFE) HUTCH. & DALZ.
SUR LA VIABILITE DE SES PEUPLEMENTS AU BENIN

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