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Jouissance des terres et garantie


par Jules NDEODEME
Université de Yaoundé 2 - Master recherche en droit 2021
  

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ABSTRACT

Ownership is seen as the right to enjoy and dispose of something. These two components of ownership can survive separately. The right of disposal is the main element of ownership, whereas the right of enjoyment may be independent, although it is not one of its accessory. Property is used as collateral for credit repayment. The question is whether the enjoyment of land, in particular, can also be used as collateral for repayment of loans. When it constitutes a real right that can be alienated and seized, the enjoyment of the land can be used as security for repayment. Long leases, building leases, building rights and unnamed real rights are dismemberments of the right of ownership that can form the basis of a mortgage. Various real rights of enjoyment over state-owned land, such as leases in the national domain or the private domain of the State, provisional concessions, authorizations or concessions to occupy or exploit a declassified artificial public domain and even the rights of occupants and exploiters of the national domain prior to 5th August 1974, may also constitute bases of this guarantee. The mortgage of a real right of enjoyment of land is indistinctly identified with the mortgage of the immovable. However, the former has its own characteristics, both in terms of the nature of its basis, which is distinct from the immovable and the right of ownership over the immovable, and in terms of the claim that it secures. The indistinct identification of the mortgage of a real right of enjoyment of land with the mortgage of the immovable leads to a situation where all, if not most, of the procedures for the creation and effects of the latter are applied to it. However,the recourse to the rules governing mortgages on immovable propertiesdoes obscure special features of rights in rem in respect of the enjoyment of land and also the originality of using them as basis of a security interest. Indeed, positive law tries to lift the said veil without really focusing on it. A few scattered specific rules inspired by the characteristics of real rights of enjoyment of land are provided for. However, it would be advisable to conceptualize the rights of enjoyment of land and to organize a specific regime for mortgaging them.This should lead the vast majority of people to make use of them, as land is becoming scarce and owners are less inclined to alienate it.

Keywords: Real rights of use of land, mortgage of use of land, mortgage of the immovable.

LISTE DES ABBREVIATIONS

Al. Alinéa

Arch. Phil. Droit Archives de Philosophie du Droit

Art. Article

AUDCG Acte Uniforme OHADA portant Droit Commercial Général

AUPSRVE  Acte Uniforme OHADA portant organisation des Procédures

Simplifiées de Recouvrement et des Voies d'Exécution

AUS  Acte Uniforme OHADA portant organisation des Sûretés

Bibl. Bibliothèque

Bull. Civ Bulletin Civil

Cass. Civ. Chambre Civile de la Cour de Cassation Française

CCJA Cour Commune de Justice et d'Arbitrage

Cf. Confère

Coll. Collection

Cons Const.  Conseil Constitutionnel

CS Cour Suprême du Cameroun

D. Dalloz

Dir. Sous la Direction de

Ed. Editions

JCP N Semaine Juridique Edition Notariale

JO  Journal Officiel

LGDJ  Librairie Générale de Droit et de Jurisprudence

LPA Les Petites Affiches

Mél. Mélanges en l'honneur de

n° Numéro

Obs. Observations

OHADA  Organisation pour l'Harmonisation en Afrique du Droit des Affaires

Ohadata Banque de données de l'OHADA

p. Page

préf. Préface

PUA  Presses Universitaires d'Afrique

PUAM  Presses Universitaires d'Aix-Marseille

PUF  Presses Universitaire de France

REDI Revue Européenne et de Droit International

Rev. Loyers Revue des Loyers

RJ Com Revue de Jurisprudence Commerciale

RTD Civ.  Revue Trimestrielle de Droit Civil

S.  Sirey

s. Suivants

t. Tome

th. Thèse

v. Voir

Vol. Volume

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