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Contribution of small and medium enterprise to the economic development of Rwanda


par Valens NYANDWI
Universite Nationale du Rwanda - Licence 2013
  

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3.6. DATA COLLECTION TECHNIQUES

A technique is widely used by professionals in almost all sectors of the industry, be it business, education, etc. The skills that are needed to perform a particular activity (Cyrille, 2010:105, NUR). Data collection refers to a method (process), in which information related to the study is gathered by suitable mediums.

There are primary and secondary data collection techniques, like interviews and questionnaires, books and guides, group discussions, internet data, among others. However during this work I rely on various important aspects in data collection and the leading here are the following:

3.6.1. Interview technique

This is a mode of data collection commonly used in collecting information from people. A form of person-to-person interaction between a researcher and the interviewed. However it is a direct

technique used to interview people individually or in groups in certain cases, thus enabling to point out observations and comments in a richer way than a survey or questionnaire.

According to Grawitz (1979:310) research interview is a procedure of scientific investigation using a verbal communication process in order to the set objective, which constitutes the collaboration of research or the rejection of a research hypothesis.

Given that, interview mainly focuses on discussion and most of respondents under the assessment have a minimum level of education, I have used through discussions with different beneficiaries and stakeholders of Small and Medium enterprises whom I judge to have both sufficient and relevant data.

3.6.2. Questionnaires.

Kendall (1992:135) says that, a questionnaire is an information gathering techniques that gathers information about the attitudes, beliefs from several respondents, organization that may be affected by the system.

Grinnel and Williams (1990:228) defined a questionnaire as a method used for collecting data, as a set of written question which calls for response on the part of the client, may be either self-administered or group-administered. Under this study the researcher-ended to use both the closed-ended questions and the open-ended questions in order to facilitate the work of the respondents and at the sometime to give the liberty of expressing their views.

3.6.2.1. closed-ended questions

Grinnel and Williams (1990:228) asserted that, closed-ended question is a type of question or interview schedule on a survey instrument which limits the respondent's response by the use of pre-selected alternatives.

3.6.2.2. Open-ended questions

According to Grinnel Jr and Williams (1990:228), an open-ended question, is the type of question or on the interview schedule or a surveying instrument which does not limits the respondents responses to any pre-selected alternatives.

3.7.2. Coding

Mannheim and C. Rich (1995:440) asserted that coding is the process of assigning numerical values to represent values on variables. After being edited the data was coded where the numbers were assigned to each of the answer so that they could be easily summarized and analyzed.

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