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Dynamique des réseaux et des systèmes de communication des migrants sénégalais en France

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par Moda GUEYE
Université Michel de Montaigne Bordeaux 3 - Doctorat de géographie 2010

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In front of the unpublished advent of modern tools of information and communication combining at once technologies bound to telecommunications, to broadcasting and to computing, the way of communicating with the everyday life of the individuals or the groups was completely upset. Also, these modern tools of communication, in particular the mobile phone and Internet, modified our way of dreading the geographical notions such as the distance, the space, the estrangement, the nearness. Since the end of 1990s, the field of the knowledge on the usage and the impact of information technologies and the communication in the world of the migrants are in full excitement in France. Our study joins in this dynamics and is interested in the manners of the modern tools of communication within the Senegalese Diaspora in France and on the role of these tools as factor of integration or as vector of identical fold. This migration, as in all the countries where settled down a strong Senegalese community (Italy, Spain, the United States, etc.), is organized in networks of various types. In these relatively well structured networks, the solidarity between the members is something fundamental in the success of the migratory project, networks are thus in the heart, in the center of all the migratory process. Networks are implied directly or indirectly in flows and organization of the general conditions of the Senegalese migration towards France and other poles of the Senegalese international migratory field. Particularly dynamic throughout the migratory process, throughout the provision of the financial resources allowing to finance the journey up to the job search by way of the accommodation, networks offer to their members of the spaces of exchanges, reciprocity, assistance and gifts. For all the actors of the Senegalese migration in France, the need to communicate occupies a dominating place in human relationships. It will thus be a question of showing the dynamics of the practices of communication of the Senegalese migrants in France, by emphasizing more particularly the modes of manners and the mechanisms of appropriation of the mobile phone and Internet. Today, the use of the telephone widely spread in the circles of the Senegalese migration in France. So, the telephone became the tool privileged to communicate, inquire, to establish relations of neighborhood even of nearness, to tie bonds of friendship and professionals, and also especially to maintain and strengthen the relations of long distance with the members of the family stayed in the country of origin. On the other hand, if it is true that the migrants indeed constitute the main part of the public which address the Web contents broadcasted generally from the country of origin, it is also interesting to note that they play an undeniable role in the emergence and the development of the Senegalese Internet, through in particular the production of multiple Web contents. Some of them show creativity, determination and professionalism to put on-line Web sites with contents and quality services in the form of texts, images and the other multimedia elements. This study aims at observing and at analyzing the transformations in the reports which the Senegalese migrants in France maintain at once with their territories of origin and residence, through in particular the various manners and the forms of appropriation of the mobile phone and Internet. Our central hypothesis rather emphasizes the manners of the mobile phone and the Internet by the Senegalese migrants in France at once to maintain an immediate and regular contact with the country of origin to strengthen the remote links, but also as support of integration in the country of residence.

Keywords: network, diaspora, migrant, TIC, mobile telephony, Internet, country of origin, country of residence, integration, identical fold, transfer of money, transfer of knowledge, e-citizen, development.


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