WOW !! MUCH LOVE ! SO WORLD PEACE !
Fond bitcoin pour l'amélioration du site: 1memzGeKS7CB3ECNkzSn2qHwxU6NZoJ8o
  Dogecoin (tips/pourboires): DCLoo9Dd4qECqpMLurdgGnaoqbftj16Nvp


Home | Publier un mémoire | Une page au hasard

 > 

The prospect of international intervention legitimacy: case study of 2011 libyan armed conflict

( Télécharger le fichier original )
par Jean de Dieu ILIMUBUHANGA
Kigali Independent University - Master degree in public international law 2014
  

précédent sommaire suivant

QUOTE

«The impossibility of gaining Security Council authorization for the intervention indicated a disturbing tension between two core values of international legal system; respect for state sovereignty and commitment to peaceful relations among nations and on the other hand protection of basic human rights»

(Buchanan, 2003: 131).

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION ii

CERTIFICATE ii

DEDICATED iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv

QUOTE vi

TABLE OF CONTENTS vi

ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS xi

CHAPTER ONE: GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1

1.1. Background of Study 1

1.2. Statement of Problem 4

1.3. Research Questions 6

1.4. Hypothesis 7

1.5. Research Objectives 7

1.6. Significance of this Study 8

1.7. Research Methodology 8

1.8. Scope of Study 9

1.10. The Structure of the Research 10

CHAPTER TWO: HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION UNDER INTERNATIONAL LAW 11

2.1. Introduction 11

2.2 War or Armed Conflict 11

2.2.1. International Armed Conflict (IAC) 11

2.2.2. Non-International Armed Conflicts (NIAC) 12

2.3. Sovereignty in International Norms 13

2.3.1. Sovereignty Characterizations under International Law 14

2.3.2 Relationship between Sovereignty and Competence 14

2.3.2.1 Typology of Sovereignties 15

2.3.2.1.1 Sovereignty of Divine Law 16

2.3.2.1.2 Royal Sovereignty 16

2.3.2.1.3 Popular Sovereignty and National Sovereignty 16

2.4 Jus Ad Bellum and Jus In Bello 17

2.4.1. Jus Ad Bellum 17

2.4.2. Jus in Bello 18

2.5. Principles Governing International Intervention 19

2.5.1. Humanitarian Intervention and Principle of Sovereignty of States 19

2.5.1.1. Humanitarian Intervention 19

2.5.1.1.1. Content of Humanitarian Intervention under International Law 20

2.5.1.2 The Principle of Sovereignty of States under International Law 24

2.5.1.2.1. Application of the Principle 24

2.5.1.2.2 Internal Sovereignty 25

2.5.1.2.3. External Sovereignty 26

2.5.1.2.4. Limits and Exceptions to the Principle of Sovereignty 26

2.5.2. Interference and Non-Interference Principle 27

2.5.2.1 Content of the Principle Non Interference 28

2.5.2.1.1. Limitations to the Principle of Non-Intervention 29

2.5.3. The Use of Force in International Relations and Humanitarian Intervention 29

2.5.3.1 The Doctrinal View in the Favor of Humanitarian 30

2.5.3.2 The Other Factors of Determining the Humanitarian Intervention 34

CHAPTER THREE: CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE INTERVENTION OF NATO IN LIBYA 36

3.1. Introduction 36

3.2. Legal Basis of Analysis of International Intervention in Libya of 2011 36

3.2.1. The International Moral and Human Solidarity Doctrine 36

3.2.2. The Ideology of Human Rights behind the Libyan Intervention of 2011 41

3.3.2.1. Conditions for the Legitimization of the Libyan Intervention 41

3.2.2.2. Lack of Indisputable Legal Basis in Regard of Libyan Intervention 43

3.2.2.2.1. Analysis of Article 2§4 in regard Libyan Intervention 43

3.2.2.2.2. The Discrepancy of UN Charter in Regard of Libyan Intervention 47

3.3. Exceptions to the Principle of Non-Intervention 54

3.3.1. Operations Based on the UNSC Resolutions 54

3.3.1.1 Risk of Armed Conflict 54

3.3.1.2 Violations of Human Rights as a Threat to the Peace and Security 55

3.3.1.2.1 The Mechanisms of Collective Security 56

3.3.1.2.2 The Right of Humanitarian Intervention 58

3.3.2. Operations Based on the Consent of the State: Intervention Sought or Accepted 60

3.3.4. A Strictly Humanitarian and non-Discriminatory Intervention 63

3.4.1. Violation of Jus Ad Bellum Principle in the Regard of Libyan Intervention 66

3.4.2. Violation of Jus in Bell Principle in regard of Libyan Intervention 67

CHAPTER FOUR: MECHANISMS TO INSURE NEUTRAL AND FAIR HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION 72

4.1. Effective Enforcement of Equality Principle to end up Geostrategic Motives in Humanitarian Interventions 73

4.1.1. The Hidden Geostrategic 73

4.1.1.1. The Franco-British Expedition: The Affirmation of an Imperial Policy in State of Emergency 74

4.1.2. Enforcing the Equal Treatment 76

4.1.2.1. Equality, a Constant in International Law 77

4.1.2.2 The Principle of Sovereign Equality 78

10. A Political Meaning 79

20. A Legal Meaning 80

4.1.2.3. The Principle of Equality of Peoples 80

4.2. Advocacy for New Rules Governing Humanitarian Action/ Intervention 82

4.2.1. The Law of the Use of Force 83

4.2.1.1. Humanitarian Intervention 83

4.2.1.1. Legality versus Legitimacy 84

4.2.1.2. Pre-Emptive Self Defence 85

4.2.2. Objectives and Consequences of Military Intervention 86

4.2.2.2. Consequences of a Military Intervention 86

4.3. Occupation and Exit Strategies 87

CHAPTER FIVE: GENERAL CONCLUSION 89

5.1. Summary and Findings of the Precedent Chapters 90

5.2. Test of Hypothesis 92

5.2.1. First Hypothesis: «International intervention in Libya by NATO of 2011 does not comply with the 1973 UN Security Council resolution» 93

5.2.2. Second Hypothesis: «International intervention in Libya by NATO of 2011 was for political purpose which led to the negative humanitarian outcomes» 93

5.3. Suggestions and Recommendation 94

5.3.1. Recommendation to the UN Security Council 94

5.3.2. Recommendation to the UN Members and to the International Community 95

5.3.3. Recommendation to the Intervener State or Organization 95

5.4. Contribution of this Dissertation in the Area of Research 96

5.5. Scope for Further Researcher 96

BIBLIOGRAPHY 97

précédent sommaire suivant