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Le cadre juridique de la protection des savoirs traditionnels africains associés aux ressources génétiques sur l'agriculture et l'alimentation dans l'espace OAPI


par Thierry Sourou WHANNOU
Institut de Droit Communautaire & Université de Bouaké - Master 2 en Droit Communautaire Africain 2010
  

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Conclusion...................................................................................................... 201

Annexes.......................................................................................................... 209

Bibliographie.................................................................................................. 236

TABLE DES MATIÈRES......................................................................................... 247

Abstract

The genetic resources (GR) and the traditional knowledge (TK) that are associated to it constitute an essential foundation for agriculture and the world food security. The legal protection of the traditional knowledge in particular those associated to the genetic resources (TKGR), raise several primordial questions of environmental, ecological, cultural nature,.... but especially economic, notably for the developing countries. For paradoxically, the biggest part of the genetic resources (GR) that biodiversity offers and the majority of the communities or peoples that are depositories of the knowledge associated to it, are found in these countries. These last, moreover, don't withdraw any advantage from the exploitation of these resources and especially of the associated traditional knowledge. It is the case in Africa, and therefore of the countries members of the OAPI. To contribute to the protection of the aforesaid knowledges, a survey of the legal setting for their protection in the OAPI area's has been made in this long essay. It has enabled to analyze the different coercive legal or non legal instruments, decreed in the international and African authorities, but also the law in force in the countries members of OAPI, however with regards to the negotiations in process and the proposition in survey at the enclosure of international authorities. The construction of a legal system, at an international level puts enough difficulties in some institution's enclosure , because the different parties defend contradictory interests: the developed countries from where are coming the powerful enterprises exploiting the TKGR on one hand, and on the other, the developing countries. The survey of these instruments drives to conclude that it doesn't exist or, one wouldn't know how to erect an unique or universal model that permits to protect the TK on their whole, in a way that answers to the priorities and that corresponds to the legal and cultural environment, as well as to the needs of the traditional communities of all countries. Our survey permits to appreciate the different mechanisms already put elsewhere in work, but also those conceivable and that can permit to assure in the OAPI area, the effective protection of one or another element of the STARG, in consideration to their nature and to the rights to protect. Our analysis shows that the efficiency of the protection depends on the choice of a protection's system among the different existing or conceivable mechanisms. But this choice must take into account the specific objectives of the protection and the accurate items of STARG to protect. These mechanisms, whatever they are, use either items of classical intellectual property (IP) rights, either items of sui generis IP rights, or external items to IP which constitute a distinct sui generis system.

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