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Action program of the rwandan women parliamentary forum (RWPF) in matter of promotion of the know how of the rwandan women facing vision 2020: Case of Huye District (1996-2006)

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par Frédéric TEGERA MPAMYA
National University of Rwanda - Bachelor's Degree 2007
  

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PERSONNAL ENGLISH LANGUAGE VERSION

NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RWANDA
FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES, POLITICAL
AND ADMINISTRATIVE
DEPARTMENT OF POLITICAL SCIENCE AND ADMINISTRATIVE
Option: Political Science

ACTION PROGRAM OF THE RWANDAN WOMEN PARLIAMENTARY FORUM (RWPF) IN MATTER OF PROMOTION OF THE KNOW -HOW OF THE RWANDAN WOMEN FACING VISION 2020.

Case of Huye District (1996-2006)

A dissertation submitted in partial

fulfillment of the academic requirements

for obtaining of Bachelor's degree in
Political Science
                                                                 

                                                                                   Presented by:


                                                                                   TEGERA MPAMYA Frederick


DIRECTOR: Professor Dr. Nicodemus BUGWABARI

ACADEMIC YEAR 2007

DECLARATION

I, Frederick TEGERA, declare that this is my original work researched and compiled for presentation in partial fulfilment of the academic requirements for the award of degree of Bachelor in Political Science by the National University of Rwanda and has not been presented for any award.

Frederick TEGERA

Signature ..............................

Date.....................................

DEDICACE

With my regretted father, Isdor MPAMYA,

A regret little brothers and sister;

With my mother;

With my older sisters;

With my brothers and sisters;

With the friends and knowledge;

We thank all those, which work for

the promotion of Rwandan women.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

As a preamble, during our studies, I make a point of addressing my sharp thanks to my regretted father MPAMYA Isdor, I say thank you for all my heart.

Firstly, the honor fall us of high gratitude to address our feelings to all the professors who contributed to our stock of general knowledge. We must express recognition to Professor Nicodème BUGWABARI, which agreed well to direct this memory, for his lighting councils, listening, patience and its perspicacious comments have characterizes our frank collaboration of a great utility for the clothes industry of our work.

Secondly, we cannot miss testifying the feelings to gratitude to all my parents who did not cease framing us as of our childhood by getting love and affection to us.

Thirdly, our thought moves to my older sister NYIRAKARINGO Pascasie for her efforts material and financier in the realization of this work.

Lastly, it would be ungrateful to recognize my older sisters and brothers, and with all the friends and knowledge which, of near or by far, has us assistances with the good walk of this scientific work.

I also hold with thanks with the many compatriots who opened their stations to me and agreed well to be interviewed, without them, anything would not have been possible.

Your integrity will remain indebted at the bottom of our heart.

TEGERA MPAMYA FREDERIC

INITIALS AND ABBREVIATIONS

ANT: National Parliament of Transition

AWEPA: Association of the European Members of Parliament for Africa

NDC: National Development council

CNLS: National Commission of Fight against AIDS

CNF: The National Council of Women

FAR: Rwandan Armed Force

FARG: Melts of Assistance of Genocide

P.W: Parliamentary Women

RPF: Rwandese Patriotic Front

RWPF: Rwanda Women Parliamentary Forum

GBV: Gender Based Violence

ICT: Information Communication Technology

IPJ: Legal police inspector

MINIJUST: Ministry for Justice

MIFOTRA: Ministry of Public office and Work

MIGEPROF: Ministry of kind and promotion of Family

MINECOFIN: Ministry for Finances and Economic Planning

MINEDUC: Ministry for Education

MINEPRISEC: Ministry for Primary teaching and secondary

MFBF: Movement of the Women and Bottom - People

MRND: National Revolutionary movement for Development

NEPAD: New Partnership for African Development

UN: United Nations

ONG: Organization Non - Governmental

SME: Small and Medium-sized Company

PL: Liberal Party

GDP: Internal Product Rough

RPPD: Network of the Members of Parliament for the Population and Development UNDP: Program of the United Nations for Development

PRSP: Poverty Reduction Strategic Policy

PVK: Prefecture of the Town of Kigali

RDF: Rwanda Defense Forces

AIDS: Syndrome of Immune Deficiency Agrees

SNRP: National Strategy of Poverty Reduction

TPIR: International Court Penal for Rwanda

$ US: United State Dollar

UIP: Interparliamentary Union

UNESCO: United Nations Education, Scientific, and Culture Organization

HIV: Human Immunodeficiency Virus

ABSTRACT

In Rwanda like elsewhere, much of cases show that the men generally played a part in dominating the Rwandan society, for a long time. The woman saw their civil and political rights be unawared in favour of the man privileges. The facts of not having the right take part fully in political life and generate inequalities between the man and the woman. The man believes in him only, and not in his wife. Let us illustrate it by the following proverbs: "Nta nkoko kazi ibika isake ihari" (no hen makes cock-a-doodle-doo in the presence of cock). "Nuko wabaye umugabo sha" (here you became a man).

Within this framework that the Rwandan Parliament and government in its total diary set up the RWPF in 1996, by the initiative of the female organizations, having the vision to build a society characterized by the equality and equity between the two sexes. The satisfactory results are remarkable, thus the representation of the women on the level of the Parliament is 49%, 32% in the government, 35% in the legal bodies and 32, 74% in the district.

The aim of the study was to analyse the role played by the RWPF in the change of mentality and in the reinforcement of the know-how of the Rwandan woman during the period of representativeness. We take this policy like the principal tool, which guided us in the better approaching gender and the vision 2020 like instrument of development of the policy of Rwandan government.

This is why our question of research focuses on the consequences of the policy of the RWPF on the development of the gender in the District of Huye during the period of 1996 to 2006? To achieve our objective and to answer to our question we proceeded by the following hypothese: «the policy of the RWPF constitutes one of better means of integrating the woman administrator of the District of Huye in the political life».

A country as Rwanda which aspires integrated durable development, and an equitable justice as long time cannot reach it when the components of its population do not enjoy the same possibilities and equal opportunities of developing themselves.

SOMMAIRE

Au Rwanda comme ailleurs, beaucoup de cas montrent que les hommes ont généralement joué un rôle dominant dans la société rwandaise. La femme a vu longtemps ses droits civils et politiques ignorés au profit des privilèges masculins. Le fait de ne pas avoir le droit de participer pleinement à la vie politique a engendré des inégalités entre l'homme et la femme. L'homme croit en lui seul, et pas en sa femme comme le montre par exemple les adages suivants: «Nta nkoko kazi ibika isake ihari » (aucune poule ne fait cocorico en présence du coq) «Nuko wabaye umugabo sha » (voici tu es devenu un homme). 

C `est dans ce cadre que le parlement et le gouvernement rwandais dans son agenda global a mis en place en 1996 le FFRP, sous l'initiative des organisations féminines ayant la vision de bâtir une société caractérisée par l'égalité et l'équité entre les deux sexes. Les résultats satisfaisants sont remarquables, car la représentation des femmes au niveau du parlement s'est élevée à 49%, au gouvernement à 32%, à 35% dans les organes judiciaires et à 32,74% au niveau du district. L'objectif de notre recherche était d'analyser le rôle qu'a joué le F FRP dans le changement de mentalité et le renforcement du savoir-faire de la femme rwandaise durant la période de représentativité. Nous prenons cette politique comme l'outil principal qui nous a guidés à mieux rapprocher approche  genre  (gender approach) et vision 2020 comme instrument de développement de la politique du gouvernement rwandais.

C'est pourquoi nous nous sommes questionnés sur les conséquences de la politique du FFRP sur le développement du genre dans le District de Huye durant la période de 1996 à 2006 ? Pour répondre à notre question nous sommes servis de l'hypothèse suivante : « la politique du FFRP constitue l'un des meilleurs moyens d'intégrer la femme administratrice du District de Huye dans la vie politique. » Un pays comme le Rwanda qui aspire au développement durable intégré et à une justice équitable ne peut prétendre aussi longtemps les atteindre tant que les composantes de sa population ne jouissent pas de l'égalité de chances et de même possibilités de se développer.

LIST OF TABLES

Table N 1. Degree of political representativenesses of the women to the central 26

Table N 2. Political degree of representativeness of the women to the local 28

Table N 3. Degree of the representativenesses of the officers of the Public Ministry 31

Table N 4. Numbers of legal police inspector (IPJ) 31

Table N 5. A number of parliamentary women 32

Table N 6: Current situation of the participation of the women in the process of 40

Table N 7: 6 pillars and 4 transverse fields of the vision 2020 46

Table N 8. Inscription at the primary school in 2010 will be 100% 47

Table N 9. Equality of kind to the inscription at the universities in 2020 Year............. 47

Table N10: Broad objectives of activities not realized by the RWPF 2006 56

Table No 11. Pattern of the settlement by sector 60

Tabe No 12 : Analyses of theproblems, causes and consequences of the promotion 61

Table No 13: Analyses of the forces, .................................................................. 62

Table N 14: the participation of the woman in the administration 63

Table No15: Opinions of the women leaders of District of Huye to the actions carried 65

Table N16: Opinion of the actions carried out by the F.P 71

TABLE OF CONTENTS

DECLARATION i

DEDICACE ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iii

INITIALS AND ABBREVIATIONS iv

ABSTRACT vi

SOMMAIRE vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ix

0. GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS 1

0.1. PROBLEMATIQUE 1

03. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE 6

04. ASSUMPTIONS OF WORK 6

05. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF RESEARCH 7

06. DELIMITATION OF THE SUBJECT 7

07. SUBDIVISION OF WORK 8

FIRST CHAPTER: CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK, THEORIQUE AND 9

Section 1. Conceptual framework 9

1.1. Effects: 9

1.2. Action program 9

1.2.1. Action 9

1.2.2. Program 10

1.3. FFRP 10

1.4.1. Promotion 10

1.4.2. Know-how 11

1.5. Vision 2020 12

1.5.1. Vision 12

1.6. Description of the zone of study of the District of Huye 13

1.6.1. Principal geographical characteristics 13

1.6.2. General aspect 13

1.6.3. Relief 13

1.6.4. Climate and pluviometry 13

1.6.5. Hydrography 14

1.6.6. Grounds 14

1.6.7. Fauna and flora 14

Section 1. Theoretical framework 15

1.1. The condition of the woman like political question 15

2. Methodological framework 19

2.1. Method of research 20

2.1.1. Comparative method 20

2.1.2. Historical method 20

2.1.3. Functionalist method 20

2.1.4. Analytical method 21

2.2. Population of investigation 21

2.3. Techniques of data-gathering 22

SECOND CHAPTER: HISTORY OF THE CONDITION OF THE RWANDAN 24

Section 1. The condition of the woman during the Monarchical time 25

1.1. Implication of the women in the political life 25

Section 2. The condition of the woman under colonization 27

Section 3. At 1994 Independence 28

3.1. The woman fighting in the army and the magistrate. 33

THIRD CHAPTER: THE CONDITION OF THE WOMAN IN RWANDA: 38

TEXTS OF FPR IN THE VISION 2020 38

Section 1. Texts of the condition of the woman through the project of society 38

1.1. Priority action plan of the FPR-INKOTANYI of 2003-2015 39

1.2. The engagement of the women in the armed forces 41

Section 2. Ballast texts of the condition of the woman through the constitution. 43

Section 3. Condition of the woman tests through the sectoral policy of 45

3.1. General context 45

3.2. Total objective of the MIGEPROF 46

3.3. The implementation resulting from the International day of the 47

Section 4. Texts of the condition of the woman through the vision 2020 48

4.1. The vision 2020 49

Section 5. The program of the RWPF: The promotion of the Know-how 52

5.1. The program of the RWPF 52

5.2. The promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman 53

FOURTH CHAPTER: THE RWPF AND THE DISTRICT OF HUYE: 56

4.1. Mission of the RWPF 56

4.1.1. Great Strategic achievements of the RWPF 56

4.2. Great achievements of district of Huye 61

4.2.1. Principal geographical characteristics 61

4.2.2. SOCIO-ECONOMIQUE SITUATION 61

Table No 12. Pattern of the settlement by sector 62

4.2.3. Gender and Promotion of the Woman 63

4.2.4. Identification of the priorities identified by the District of HUYE 64

4.3. POSSIBLE SOLUTION 65

4.3.1. Opinion of the women to meet risks of blocking of them 65

4.3.2. Opinions of the women leaders of District of Huye 67

4.3.3. Opinions of the Parliamentary Women Like results of changes of 72

4.3.4. The strategic means has to take to overcome these difficulties 74

4.3.4.1. To develop the capacity of plea 74

4.3.4.2. To develop the confidence of the women in themselves 74

4.3.4.3. To reinforce the will of the women to know and enjoy their .... 75

4.3.4.4. To integrate the use of the media circuits and other .............. 75

GENERAL CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 76

BIBLIOGRAPHY 82

APPENDIX 87

0. GENERAL INTRODUCTIONS

The general introduction presents the problems, the interest of the subject, the objectives of research, the assumptions of work, the methods of research, delimitation of the subject as well as the subdivision of work.

0.1. PROBLEMATIQUE

Logically, it is impossible to advance in the development without releasing the woman and eradicate all the forms of discrimination practiced in its connection. But if one goes up a little in the history of the woman since antiquity and even with the Middle Ages, everywhere in the world, the woman marginalized and was regarded as absent so that one does not even consider it in the censuses. It was dedicated to the silence of the maternal and domestic reproduction (to put at the world the children, breast feeding, care of the children, preparation of the meals, washing, cleaning, etc.) always in the shade of the servant. It was considered in several fields of life (economic policy, social, educational, cultural, etc). It did not have any right of participation in the decision-making up to the level of its own goods.1(*)

With the end of the average age, the women in medieval occident were persecuted represent more than 80%, and when they are recognized guilty of sorcery, they are burned. "They were more malicious" are said some works of the time of "myths" differently.2(*)

Traditionally if one goes up a little in the history to the four corner of the world the women suffered much from discrimination and the inequalities compared to the men. This category of discrimination always occupied a more important place in the social hierarchy. Because even in the traditional society, one supported more people of male sex than those of female sex, the biological difference of the man and the woman was felt like an evil, the woman put in very not to be not a man, judges lower, was plastered with work subordinate and the tender. Let us point out that the female discrimination does not go back to yesterday, it is a situation which exists for a long time in the history, during millennia. According to saint AUGUSTIN affirm:

"It is of the natural order at the human ones that the women are submitted to the men and to the children with the parents. Because, it is a question of justice which the weakest reason is subjected to strongest."3(*)

Often, it is said it that the speech antifeminist rises partly from the statute of Eve in the bible. Indeed the bible, gives to the woman the responsibility for original fishing.

According to Hebrew PAUL in his holy Letters, known as that:

"The chief of all the man, it is Christ, the chief of the woman it is the man, and the chief of Christ it is God. It is not the man, well on; who was creates pure the woman but the woman for man. That the women are submitted to their husbands and that looks at silence in any tender during the instruction ". 4(*)

In Rwanda, the old habit holds to the woman subordination to the man, who has it, owed respect. Obedience and tender in all. The Rwandan common law held an important place with the woman, the Rwandan family was patriarchal, and never the child could not belong to his mother. Moreover, the woman did never enjoy the right of the family heritage. The man believes in him only, and not in his wife. Such as for example the proverbs such as: "Nta nkoko kazi ibika isake ihari"5(*) (no hen makes cock-a-doodle-doo in the presence of cock). "Uruvuze umugore ruvuga umuhoro." (In a hearth where the woman speaks there is discord). "Nuko wabaye umugabo sha" (here you became a man). "Umugore n' umutima w' urugo" (the woman is the heart of hearth). These above-mentioned proverbs show what the men think of the women. The men do not authorize the women with exhibit as a public.

The fact has shown clearly that in a society. A woman cannot be "Umukwe mu kuru".

(chief of delegation in celebration or in marriage). Indeed, the woman always occupied a less important place in the social hierarchy with regard to the man. She especially did not have right to the word in public and should accept all the treatments which were inflicted to him: difficulties of access to the credit, the absence of access to the heritage.

On their side, the men are consolidated in their role of the heads of household and often deceived their capacities. Indeed, for the moment the Rwandan women are responsible with play certain parts in the past reserve with the man. This assertion is all the more true as the new constitution of 2003 guarantees the equality of all in front of the law and guarantees to the women at least 30% places in the stations of decision-making. The Rwandan woman as a human being must be directly related to her participation in the process of the development in the capacity as mother, it must create the conditions most favorable to the harmonious realization of her personality. However, the participation of the Rwandan woman is not a problem of the women or a question of the claim of the women.

It is rather question of a social, political and economic development of our company. It is a question, which relates to at the same time the men and the women and the whole company.

At Rwanda, certain laws were installation to reduce their marginalization, in particular the law n° 22/1999 of 12/11/1999 bearing on the marriage settlements, Freedoms and the successions6(*). Thus laws discriminatory regard to the woman was revised, and this process currently continues. The results show that the women are able to improve the living conditions of their families; the women become increasingly responsible, are able to provide for the needs for their households and are actresses of development.

However, to invest in the women does not mean to only to exempt an education and care of health them. Otherwise that means to draw aside the obstacles that prevent the women from carrying out their potential and to take measurement and to recognize of it their role like invaluable and irreplaceable members of the society. Thus in Rwanda notable progress realizes by the RWPF, much remains to be made. The policy of the RWPF in favor of the gender east does not fail to raise certain questions to which this work must answer. The principal one is of knowing how the actions realize by the RWPF were really reinstated in the women of the basic authorities. This is why our study will have to answer the following question: "Which are the consequences of the policy of the RWPF on the development of the gender in the District of Huye during the period of 1996 to 2006?»

0.2. CHOICE INTEREST OF THE SUBJECT

The interest carried on this subject lies within the scope of the process of democratization with which are currently confronted the Third World in general and the Republic of Rwanda in particular. It is important to specify that the role of the Rwandan woman in the development of the country is very important vis-a-vis with the vision 2020. Thus the subject was selected with the aim of give our contribution to the promotion of the participation of the Rwandan woman through the vision 2020.

This work is a contest with the knowledge of the effect of the action plan of the RWPF as regards promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman through the vision 2020. Thus this work was undertaken within the university framework of research in political science organized to the end of the studies of the 2nd cycle while contributing to the scientific effort of search for solution to the problems of our society. The interest of the subject was justified by triple reason:

At the individual level: does the promotion of the women in the stations of decision-making break with insulation and the sociocultural barriers, it allows broadmindedness, it makes more well informed on the legislation, it increases the confidence of the woman in itself and to have access to the control of resources and the right for the benefit.

On the level of the family: The complementarity's in the achievement of the duties of the couple, the participation of the Rwandan woman in the promotion of know-how vis-à-vis in the vision 2020, the impact on the education of the children based on the complementarity's and the respect of each one, the knowledge of the true value of the woman in the company.

At the national level: the effect of the action plan of the RWPF increases the potentialities of development based on all the sharp forces of the nation. It contributes to the effectiveness of setting work of certain projects of development, the improvement of the wellbeing due to the satisfaction of needs expressed by all the layers for the population. That causes changes of attitudes and Behaviors in the direction of the complementarities between the men and the women in the process of development durable.

Thus, the absence of the know-how of the Rwandan woman to the development of the country is likely to produce negative effect as well on the individual, family level as national.

0.3. RESEARCH OBJECTIVE

TOTAL OBJECTIVE

This work aims at showing the importance of the effects of the action plan of the RWPF with regard to the competence of the Rwandan woman with respect to the durable development of our country.

OBJECTIVES SPECIFIC

Our works have three principal objectives to knowing:

v To raise the inherent factors of blocking to the Rwandan women

v To show the effect of the policy of the parliamentary women on the changes of

mentality of the women administrators implied in the basic authorities,

v To release the strategic means to overcome the difficulties.

0.4. ASSUMPTIONS OF WORK

Our research has tests the assumption below:

"The policy of the RWPF constitutes one of the best means of integrating the development of the gender in the District of Huye"

0.5. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF RESEARCH

The interview technique concerning the methods, one made recourse to:

v Comparative method

v Historical method

v Functionalist method

v Dialectical method

Concerning the techniques, our study made recourse to:

v Documentary technique

v Technique of questionnaire

0.6. DELIMITATION OF THE SUBJECT

Any scientific work must be limited in time and space.

In time

This work covers the period of the creation of the RWPF since 1996 until 2006. Our study will be focused on "the effect of the action plan of the RWPF as regards promotion of the know-how of the Rwandan woman vis-à-vis to the vision 2020

It is during this period or one noticed changes of important action of the RWPF in favor of the women administrators of the basic instances.

In space

Means of time and financial and materials to tackle this interesting subject in its entirety, we took as field of study the levels of the women exert the public administration in Rwanda. At the national level, this work is limited to 2 bodies which knowing: parliamentary women (Members of Appoint and Members of Senators) and the women administrators of the District of Huye/ Province of the South. As a private individual , our attention to choose the District of Huye as case of study, which constitutes the space, limit of our study.

0.7. SUBDIVISION OF WORK

After the general introduction, work hereafter is subdivided in four chapters:

v The first chapter explained the theoretical framework and methodological,

v The second chapter presents the history of the condition of the woman in

Rwanda,

v The third chapter given the condition of the Rwanda Woman : the texts of FPR through the Vision 2020,

v The fourth chapter definite the RWPF and the District of Huye:

Concrete achievements.

* 1 George Duby & Michelle Perrot, F Histoire des femmes, Vol 1, 2, 3, 4, Paris 1991, P.234.

* 2 France, Q, La femme avenir, paris, 1972, p.26

* 3 France, Q, Id. P.27

* 4 France, Q, id., P.27

* 5. According to A. Bigrumwami, imihango imiziririzo, Tervuren, Brussels, 1964; I Jacob, Dictionary Rwandan-French, volume 3, Vo gutsinda, 1965, p.393; quoted by FIERENS. J. & Ntampaka. C, femme et génocide: le cas Rwandais, Street guimard, Brussels, 2003, p.65, affirmed that, "Nta nkoko kazi ibika isake ihari (no hen makes cock-a-doodle-doo in the presence of cock)," In the olden days, the respect due to the woman in the traditional company was often conditioned by its morals qualities, by the numbers of his/her children, its integration in its new family and by the tender with the husband. In theory the woman personally carries out the acts essential with the life such as: raise the children, plows, harvest, prepares food and communicates its power fertilizing with the seeds which it plants (..), in theory it is to him prohibited with the woman to jump, to span a brook, to go up on a stool to collect the coffee, to climb on the roof of the hut. In the everyday life of the rules, a woman could never pronounce the name of the parents-in-law, the father, of the mother, uncles and aunts of her husband. In reality the woman was not unaware of the name of beautiful - parents. Vis-a-vis to her superiority, the woman followed in practice gestures without saying a word. Its ways of thinking entered the traditional logic of the women which obliged with the last of draft a subject in round in ensuring itself not to wound anybody.

* 6 The law n° 22/1999 of 12/11/1999 bearing on the marriage settlements, Freedoms and the successions on the women's right and of the girl to Rwanda established the equality between the sexes as regards succession. The Rwandan ones started to fight to make it respect. Thus they reclaimed today high and strong the heritage of their parents, succession of their husband or the management of the family inheritance that the law recognizes to them. While having from now on of her inheritance or her heritage, the woman is not exclusively any more subjected to the will of her husband consider like her only safety, it has already understood that where necessary it can manage her goods and live in peace.

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